Andrews University sda theological Seminary chis634 reformation theology summer 2003 course syllabus/outline

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Andrews University SDA Theological Seminary


Summer 2003

Place: N335 Instructor: Dr. Trevor O=Reggio

Date: July 8 - Aug 1 Room: N328

Time: 7:30-9:20, M-R Telephone: 471-3572(O); 473-2319(H)

Credit: 2-3 Email:

This course is designed to help you gain an understanding and an appreciation for Reformation Theology. Special attention will be given to Luther, Melanchthon, Zwingli and Calvin who were considered the giants of the Reformation.


  1. Gain insight in the theological ideas that shaped the Reformation.

  2. Understand the teaching of the leading reformers on Justification, Predestination, Law& Grace, the Church, Church State Relations, and the Sacraments.

  3. Understand how these theological ideas relate to Seventh-day Adventist Teachings.

  4. Learn how to incorporate Reformation ideas that will enrich Adventist preaching.

  5. Challenge students on the joy and rewards of being a reformer wherever they are.


  1. Brethren of the Common Life. What role the Brethren play in the Reformation. Were they forerunners? How did they facilitate the Reformation? Has their contribution been ignored or over-emphasized?

  2. Calvin on justification. What did he teach on justification? What are the relations between his doctrine and those of the late medieval theologians and church, between his, Augustine=s, and Luther=s doctrine of justification? Relations between Luther=s doctrine of justification and his teaching on predestination?

  3. Calvin on the Lord=s Supper. To what degree was Calvin dependent upon Luther on the Supper? Where did they differ? Why?

  4. Calvin on union with Christ. Sources? Parallels with Luther? Augustine? Function in his theology? Relations to the other parts of his theology?

  5. Consolidation and confessionalism. Did the later Reformation default on the essentials of the Reformation? What was the effect of consolidation on the Reformation?

  6. Doctrine of Man. What was ______________=s (pick a theologian) doctrine of man. How were we created? How did they differ from Rome? The nature and effects of sin?

  7. Doctrine of salvation. What was ___________=s (pick a theologian) doctrine of sin and salvation? Did they believe in original sin? From where did they get the doctrine? What effect did it have on their theology? How did the reformers view Pelagius and semi-Pelagians?

  8. Doctrine of Scripture. What was the Reformation (pick a theologian) view of Scripture? Did they believe the Bible to be inerrant? Why? Why not? Is this a fair question? What authority did they ascribe to the Bible?

  1. Eschatology. What did ____________(pick a theologian) believe about >final things=? What effect did eschatology have on the rest of their theology? How did it affect their ministry?

  2. Humanism and Reformation. How did humanism facilitate or hinder the Reformation? How did the reformers use humanism? Were the humanists moral or theological reformers?

  3. Italian Reformation and International Calvinism. How did Calvinism spread across Europe and Great Britain? Why did Calvinism spread across Europe and largely eclipse Lutheranism?

  4. John Knox. His importance. His relations to Calvin and other reformers. Distinctives in his theology?

  5. Law and Gospel. What is the role fo the law in Luther=s theology? Calvin=s? Melanchthon=s? Why? How did it affect their theology? Did Calvin agree with Luther? Develop Luther? Abandon Luther?

  6. Luther and Calvin on predestination. To what degree was Calvin dependent upon Luther=s On the Bondage of the Will?

  7. To what degree is predestination integral to Protestantism?

  8. Luther and the Lutherans on baptism. What were Luther=s views on baptism? How did they develop? How did Lutheranism handle Luther=s views?

  9. Luther and Zwingli on the Lord=s Supper. Over what did they disagree? Why did they disagree? What were their respective views? Did they understand each other? Do we still understand them?

  10. Luther on justification. What did Luther teach on justification? What are the relations between his doctrine and those of the late medieval theologians and church, between his and Augustine? Relations between Luther=s doctrine of justification and his teaching on predestination?

  11. How did Bucer influence Calvin?

  12. Philip Melanchton on predestination and justification. From where did he get his views? How did they change? Why? With what result for Lutheranism?

  13. Philip Melanchthon on the Supper. Was he faithful to Luther? Why or why not? How did his views develop? Why? How? What influence did he have?

  14. Radical Reformation. Who were they? Why did they dissent from the >magisterial= reformers? How did they differ from Luther, Calvin et al? What happened to them: Did they succeed or fail? Why or why not? Do they have modern heirs? Social ethics?

  15. Reformation colloquies. Marburg, Speyer, Regensburg, Montbeliard. What role did they play? What impact did they have?

  16. Reformation in France. How did it begin and develop? What happened to it? What was the effect of the St. Bartholomew=s Day Massacre on French Protestantism?

  17. Richard Hooker. His theological relations to Luther and Calvin? To the English and Scots Presbyterians? His distinctive views? Some locus of his theology. His view fo worship.

  18. Scholasticism and the Reformation. Was the Reformation a repudiation of medieval scholasticism or are its relations more nuanced than that? Continuities? Discontinuities?

  19. The Spanish Reformation and Counter Reformation. Why did the Reformation succeed some places and not others? What were the local circumstances in Spain which led to the extermination of the Reformation? You might contrast Spain with the Netherlands.

  20. Universities. What role did the Universities of Europe and England play in the Reformation? Were they hindrances or helps or both? How did they view the Reformation?

  1. What were the relations of Cranmer and Anglicanism to Luther Calvin? Did they change? How? Why?

  2. Zwingli=s Christology. Was he a Nestorian? Why or why not?

  3. Zwingli=s theology of worship. Was it Platonist or not?

  4. Zwingli=s humanism. Did it overwhelm his Protestantism (e.g., his doctrine of justification)? Why or why not?


1. Read the four major texts.

2. 15 page paper on the suggested topics.

3. Daily quiz on readings.?

4. Final examination.

  1. John Calvin. Institutes of the Christian Religion. John T. McNeill, ed. Philadelphia, Westminister Press, 1960.

  2. Carter Lindberg, ed. The Reformation Theologians: An Introduction to Theology in the Early Modern Period. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2002.

  3. Timothy F. Lull, ed. Martin Luther=s Basic Theological Writings. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg Press, 1989.

  4. Alister E. McGrath. Reformation Thought: An Introduction. 3rd ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, Inc.


Quizzes 100 points

Paper 100 points

Exam 100 points

Total 300 points


A = 95-100 B = 80-84 C = 65-69

  1. = 90-94 B- = 75-79 C- = 64-60

B+ = 85-89 C+ = 70-74 D = 45-59

Paper Due July 29th.

Final exam August 1, 2003

  1. Be on time.

  2. Come to class prepared; read the assigned chapter.

  3. Pay attention in the classroom and take good notes.

  4. Be alert during lectures, asking questions for understanding and clarification.

  5. Turn in all assigned work on due dates, NO excuses.

  1. Come to class with a positive attitude and a teachable spirit.

  2. Avoid absences like the plague.

  3. If you are having difficulties in class, please contact me.


ABSOLUTELY no food or drink is allowed in the classroom.

There are NO make up quizzes.

ALL assignments are expected to be turned in ON TIME. Only in true emergency cases will exceptions be made.

Please note in the calendar the withdraw and add/drop dates for classes.


There will be zero tolerance for academic cheating. Anyone caught cheating will forfeit the grade for that quiz, paper, or exam. The use of another persons idea(s) or words should be credited to that person. Failure to do this is academic cheating or termed plagiarism.


AIf you qualify for accommodations under the American Disabilities Act, please see the instructor as soon as possible for referral and assistance in arranging such accommodations.@


AHowever dogs may bark at me and pigs grunt, I shall always imitate the writings of the ancients: these shall be my study, nor, while my strength lasts, shall the sun find me idle. We are like dwarfs on the shoulder of giants, by whose grace we see farther than they. Our study of the works of the ancients enables us to give fresh life to their finer ideas and rescue them from times= oblivion and man=s neglect.@


  1. Major Theological Currents of Late Medieval Period

A. Scholasticism: Realism vs Nominalism

      1. Via Antiqua

        1. Main center at Cologne

        2. Main proponents

        3. Approach to knowledge of God and Salvation

  1. Via Moderna

1. Two major roots

        1. Voluntarism of Duns Scotus

        2. Terminism of William of Occam

2. Approach to knowledge of God and Salvation

3. Approach to salvation
C. Schola Augustiana Moderna

1. Main center at Merton College, Oxford University

2. Main proponents: Thomas Bradwine & Gregory of Rimini

3. Rejection of Universals

4. Soteriology

a. Pessimistic view of humanity

b. Complete dependence on divine grace.

c. Divine initiative in salvation vs. via moderna=s human initiative

D. Major theological works

      1. Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica

      2. Peter Lombard. Book of Sentences

2.German Humanism

1.Rediscovery of Greek classics

2.Impact of Gabriel Bill

3.Luther debt to Nominalism


2.Influence of Brethren of Common Life
4.Luther 1483-1546


1.Family background

2.University education 1501-1505

3.Monastic life 1505-1507

4.Student of theology 1507-1512. ThD

5.Theology professor of Wittenberg 1513-1518

6.Spiritual crisis

2.Luther=s theological development

1.Commentary on Psalms, Romans, Galatians

2.95 Thesis. Attack against indulgences

3.Three Reformation pamphlets

3.Luther=s works

1.Table talk

2.Small catechism

3.Large catechism

5.Melanchthon. 1497 - 1560

1.Early life

2.Greek professor


4.Augsburg Confession
6.Zwingli 1484 - 1531

1.1506-1518 - roman Catholic priest and chaplain of Cloves and Einsiedeln, Switzerland

2.Great minister of Zurich. 1518

3.Expretory preaching of New Testament. 1522

4.Attacks Catholic Church doctrines; fasting, celibacy and clerical celibacy
7.John Calvin 1509-1567

1.Early life and education


3.Geneva experience. Strasburg exile

4.Institutes of Christian Religion - see outline
8.Radical Theologians

1.Andreas Rudolf Bodenstein van Karlstadt 1483-1546

1.Pre-reformation career

2.Karlstadt=s theology

2.The first Anabaptists

1.Conrad Grebel 1498-1526

2.Felix Mantz 1498-1527

3.George Blaurock

4.Jakob Hutter

3.Menno Simons 1521-1561

1.Early life


9.The Doctrine of Justification by Faith.

A. Redemption thru Christ N.T. Theme

B. Martin Luther=s theological breakthrough

1. His early views.

2. Discovery of the Righteousness of God.
C. Nature of Justifying Faith.

D. Concept of Forensic Justification.

E. Causes and consequences of Luther=s doctrine of Justification.

F. Zwingli and Justification.

G. Calvin and Bucer on Justication.

F. The Radical view.

I. The Catholic Response.
10. The Doctrine Predestination.

11.The Doctrine Sola Scriptura.

12.The Doctrine of the Sacraments.

13.The Doctrine of the Church.

14.The Doctrine of Church and State Relations.

15.The English Reformation.

16.The Impact of Reformation Theology on the Western World.

1.Economic Impact

2.Social Impact

3.Religious Impact

4.Intellectual Impact


Aland, Kurt. Martin Luther=s Ninety-five Theses. St. Louis: Concordia, 1967.
Anderson, Charles S. Augsburg Historical Atlas of Christianity in the Middle Ages and Reformation. Minneapolis: Augsburg, 1967.
Bainton, Roland. The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. Boston: Beacon, 1952.
_______. Here I Stand. Nashville: Abingdon, 1950.
Bergstren, Torsten. Barthasar Hubmaier: Anabaptist Theologian and Martyr. Trans. from the German by Irwin J. Barnes and William R. Estep. Valley Forge: Judson, 1978.
Donaldson, Gordon. The Scottish Reformation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1960.
Drummond, Andrew L. German Protestantism Since Luther. London: Epworth, 1951.
Estep, William. The Anabaptist Story. Nashville: Broadman, 1963.
Farner, Oskar. Zwingli the Reformer. Trans. by D. G. Sear. London: Lutterworth, 1952.
Jones, Norman. The English Reformation: Religion and Cultural Adaptation. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
Linberg, Carter, ed. the Reformation Theologians. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
Luebe, David, ed. The Counter Reformation: The Essential Readings. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
Manschreck, Clyde L. Melanchthon, the Quiet Reformer. New York: Abingdon, 1958.
McGrath, Alister. Reformation Thought: An Introduction.
________. A Life of John Calvin. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
McNeill, John. The History and Character of Calvinism. Rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.
Reid, W. Stanford, ed. John Calvin. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1914.
Renwick, A. M. The Story of the Scottish Reformation. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1960.
Ridley, John. John Knox. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.
Rilliet, Jean H. Zwingli: Third Man of the Reformation. Trans. by Harold Knight. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1964.
Ruff, Ernest G. and Benjamin Drenz, eds. Martin Luther. London: Arnold, 1970.
Williams, George H. The Radical Reformation. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1962.

Martin Luther

John Hus

John Wycliffe - The Morning Star of the Reformation

The Radicals - The Anabaptist

Zwingli and Calvin - the Swiss Reformers

William Tyndale - God=s Outlaw

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