Andrew sears a final project submitted to the faculty in candidacy for the degree

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November 2014

Copyright © 2014 by Andrew Sears

To use any portion of this dissertation contact
All Scripture references are from

New International Version unless noted otherwise

…from Issachar, men who understood the times and knew what Israel should do…
- 1 Chronicles 12:32

God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change; courage to change the things I can; and wisdom to know the difference.

Table of Contents

Illustrations 6

Acknowledgements 7

Abstract 8

Chapter 1: Introduction 10

Chapter 2: Project Design and Research Methodology 14

Chapter 3: Context for Technology Leadership in Disruptive Innovation in Christian Higher Education 17

1.Relation to Eight Perspectives of Transformational Leadership 23

2.Comparing Core Values and Competencies of City Vision and BGU 25

1.From the Rural Agricultural to Urban Industrial to the Virtual Information Age 25

4.Loss of Manufacturing Jobs Leads to Urban Decay 29

5.Long-Term Technological Unemployment from Automation 31

6.Decreased Rate of Growth of Education 34

7.Increasing Costs of Higher Education 37

8.Regulation, Rising Debt, Justice, and the New Rise of Indentured Servitude 40

9.Global Growth, Changing Demographics and Massification 44

10.Cultural Imperialism in Christian Higher Education 45

11.Disruptive Innovation in Higher Education

12.Systems Model Understanding of Increasing Costs in Higher Education


13.Consolidation and the Economics of Online Education 52

14.Technology is a Gift from God that is both Corrupted by the Fall and a Part of God’s Plan of Redemption 54

15.How Project Will Transform a Particular Aspect of this Context


Chapter 4: Technology Leadership Principles for Christian Higher Education 58

Chapter 5: The Unique Role for Christian Higher Education 87

Chapter 6: Technology Leadership Principles at TechMission and City Vision 126

Chapter 7: Methodology for Master’s Degree in Technology and Ministry 144

Chapter 8. Conclusion: From the Garden to the City 145


Appendix A. Comparable Degree Programs 148

Appendix B. Program Grading Rubric 169

Appendix C. Syllabi and Course Materials for MTM Program 174

1.Master of Science in Technology and Ministry Degree Proposal 174

2.MTM 510 History and Case Studies of Technology in the Church (Developed by Andrew Sears) 181

3. MTM 503 Theology of Work (Developed by Andrew Sears) 187

4.MTM 505: Technology, Innovation, Cross-Cultural Organizations and the Poor (Developed by Andrew Sears) 196

4.MTM 501: Theology of Technology (developed by John Edmiston) 267

5.MTM 502: Organizational Systems (developed by Jay Gary) 276

6.MTM 504: Emerging Media Ministry (developed by John Edmiston) 287

7.MTM 506: Technology and Addiction (Developed by Andrew Sears) 295

8.MTM 507: Capstone Design (Developed by Andrew Sears) 299

9.MTM 508: Capstone Project 303

10.MTM 511: Social Entrepreneurship (Developed by Andrew Sears) 313

11.MTM 512: Grant and Proposal Writing (Developed by Andrew Sears) 316

Appendix D. Survey of Experts on Master’s in Technology and Ministry 319

Appendix E. Assessment Plan for City Vision College 333

Institutional Profile 333

Institutional Organization 335

Purpose of Assessment 335

Institution, Mission, Goals and Objectives 336

Description of Mission, Values, Goals and Objectives 336

Assessment Process 345

Implementation of Mission, Goals and Objectives 347

Program and Unit Assessment Plans 360

Attainability of Mission, Goals and Objectives 365





I would like to thank the many people who have helped me in this process including Michael Liimatta, City Vision’s Chief Academic Officer, for his partnership and many discussions over these past several years in running City Vision. Evan Donovan has been very helpful in his discussions and feedback on the ideas in this document. I would like to thank Jay Gary for his mentoring of me in higher education assessment and in instructional design and in developing the Masters in Technology and Ministry and providing feedback on this document. Brad Smith helped tremendously for serving as my advisor in the Doctorate of Transformational Leadership program, providing mentoring on how to run a Christian college and in providing feedback on this document. I would like to thank all the past and current staff and board of TechMission and City Vision for all their support and feedback throughout this process. I would like to thank Ann Marie Cameron-Thompson, Jonathan Spain-Collins, Nancy Young, Rachael Jarboe, and Tasha Sousa for reading through early drafts and providing feedback. I would also like to thank my wife, Heather, and sons, Zeke and Ezra, for their support throughout this process.


This study examines the prospect of disruptive innovation in higher education and its implications both for Christian higher education and the poor. Two major trends are likely to shape whether Christian higher education will play a larger or smaller role in the global higher education system. One will be the trend toward consolidation as global technology courseware platforms begin to dominate higher education. This courseware trend could result in an increasing role for Christian higher education as a larger portion of global higher education becomes private, but it could also increase secularization if Christians do not effectively use these platforms. The other trend is the growth of higher education outside the Western world, which could increase or decrease the role of Christian higher education depending on how Christians respond.

There are also two major forces affecting whether the poor will be helped or hurt by the coming changes. The trend toward automation could create significant long-term technological unemployment among the poor who lack access to higher education. The trend toward massification of higher education accelerated by disruptive innovation could potentially help the poor by providing accessible, less expensive access to education. Whether the net effect of these two trends is to help or hurt the poor will ultimately depend on whether society is are able to more quickly educate the poor for new jobs than we eliminate jobs through automation.

One key conclusion to this project is that technology leadership will be critical to increasing the future influence of Christian higher education and benefitting the poor in the midst of these changes. Because of the importance of technology leadership, the second part of the project presents research toward a Master’s program in Technology and Ministry to train practitioners in these leadership principles.

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