509 BC – Rome set up a Republic, a government in which citizens have the right to vote to choose their leaders.
451 BC – A group of ten officials wrote down Rome’s laws. These laws were carved on 12 great tablets or tables and hung in the Forum.
390 BC – Rome’s walls were successfully stormed by marauding Gauls. The Gauls sacked Rome, leaving it in ruins. But, Rome quickly recovered. The city would not be sacked again for 800 years.
211 BCE: Roman general Marcellus conquers Greek city of Syracuse (in Sicily) and brings back artwork as part of plunder. Exposes Romans to Greek art and starts “craze” for Greek art that would last for the rest of the Roman Empire.
275 BC – Rome defeats a Greek army led by Pyrrhus. Pyrrhus won every battle but lost the war. Ever since, a victory gained at too high a price has been known as a “Pyrrhic victory.” After 275 BC, the Romans were masters of all Italy.
264 – 146 BC – Rome defeats Carthage in a series of Punic Wars. As a result of these wars, Rome becomes the master of the western Mediterranean Sea.
“Caput Mundi”: Head of the World, Capital of the World.
A FORUM is a public square or marketplace. It was the civic center of an ancient Roman city, containing temples, a marketplace, and government buildings.
As Rome was the center of the Empire, so the Forum Romana was the center of Rome
The row of columns contains statues honoring the gods. The city of Rome had over 10,000 statues.
The Golden Milestone – Have you ever heard the saying “All roads lead to Rome?” It was literally true. Caesar Augustus made the building of highways a major project and they all led to the Golden Milestone.