Ancient language and culture – programme subject in programmes for specialization in general studies



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Programme for Specialization in General Studies

Languages, Social Sciences and Economics Studies


ANCIENT LANGUAGE AND CULTURE – PROGRAMME SUBJECT IN PROGRAMMES FOR SPECIALIZATION IN GENERAL STUDIES

Laid down as a regulation by the Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training on 11 April 2006, from the Ministry of Education and Research pursuant to the Act of 17 July 1998 no. 61 relating to primary and secondary education (Education Act) Section 3-4 first paragraph.


Applicable from: 1 August 2006

The objectives of the subject

Latin is Norway's oldest academic subject. No other language has had such great and lasting significance in our part of the world as Greek and Latin have had. Ancient culture has also been an inspiration to many cultures in many areas the past two thousand years. Today, classical antiquity lives on in our times as witnessed by architecture, works of art and everyday objects, as well as through beliefs and thought, such as mythology, religion and philosophy. The fundamental principles of the natural sciences and mathematics were established during classical antiquity, while the literary genres of epic literature, lyric poetry, tragedy, satire and others were developed during the same era. At the same time the ability to express oneself well was widely appreciated, not least through the art of speaking – rhetoric – which reached a high level of development. The programme subject Ancient language and culture shall serve as a gateway into this rich heritage of language and culture.


The basic principles of our modern judicial system, political institutions and the Christian church were established at this time. Words such as politics, democracy, civilization, culture and mobile have their roots in Latin or Greek. This programme subject shall help pupils understand how humans lived, thought and worked during classical antiquity, how they expressed themselves orally and in writing, and how they organized their society. The programme subject shall enable pupils to read texts that are central to Western and Christian culture. In this way, ancient language and culture can help us view modern society and language from a broader perspective, and give pupils a basis for understanding and participating in public social debate.
Words and elements of words from Latin and Greek have been used and borrowed in modern languages, for daily vocabulary and for the sciences, culture and technological terminology. The grammatical system developed in these languages is used in teaching modern languages. Competence in Latin or Greek may therefore improve a person's general language comprehension, as well as serve as a basis for learning other languages, such as English, Spanish, Italian or French. The classical languages of Greek and Latin have great transfer value for other subject areas, such as history, theology, natural science, mathematics, law and the social sciences.
Neither Latin nor ancient Greek is the native tongue of any person or culture alive today. Yet instruction in these languages can be adapted for practical use. Ancient language and culture can give personal enjoyment and assist in the development of widely applicable knowledge. The programme subject shall also give individuals an opportunity to acquire a traditional and time-honoured competence – a classical education – as a basis for lifelong learning in education, research, working life and leisure.
Structure
Ancient language and culture comprises three programme subjects: Ancient culture, Latin 1 or Greek 1, and Latin 2 or Greek 2. Ancient culture can be taken as a separate class, or combined with Latin 1 or Greek 1. Latin 2 or Greek 2 build on Latin 1 or Greek 1.
These programme subjects have been structured into main subject areas, for which competence aims have been formulated. The main subject areas complement each other and should be viewed in relation to one another.
Within the programme subjects of Latin or Greek, the main subject areas and competence aims have been organized independently of which language is being taught.
Overview of the main subject areas:

Programme subject

Main subject areas

Ancient culture

Greek and Roman culture

Basic knowledge of language

Ancient culture today


Latin 1 or Greek 1

Greek and Roman culture

Language learning

Ancient culture today


Latin 2 or Greek 2

Greek and Roman culture

Language learning

Ancient culture today



Teaching hours
Teaching hours are given in 60-minute units:
Ancient culture: 140 teaching hours per year

Latin 1 or Greek 1: 140 teaching hours per year

Latin 2 or Greek 2: 140 teaching hours per year

Main subject areas

Ancient culture



Greek and Roman culture

This main subject area deals with how people organized their society during classical antiquity, how they shaped the world around them, what they were thinking, what they believed in, what they wrote, how they lived their daily lives and how they carried out celebrations. The main subject area covers everyday life, class divisions within society and politics, and the spiritual and material legacy created by these societies.


Basic knowledge of language

This main subject area covers the basic and fundamental characteristics of Greek or Latin, with their alphabets, sounds and symbols as a point of departure. The main subject area is concerned with etymology – the study of the origins and meanings of words and with how words are formed from word elements. The main subject area also focuses on how words and word elements from Greek and Latin are used in other languages, and in professional or scientific terminology in a number of fields.


Ancient culture today

This main subject area deals with how aspects of ancient culture have been interpreted and applied in different ways. The main subject area covers cultural influence in the broad sense, with special emphasis on the life of the community, how life was lived and where we can still see these cultures in architecture still standing today. The main subject area also looks at quotations and expressions that are rooted in the ancient languages but are still in use.


Latin or Greek 1
Greek and Roman culture

This main subject area is concerned with how people in classical antiquity organized their society, how they shaped the world around them, what they were thinking, what they believed in and what they wrote, how they lived their daily lives and how they carried out celebrations. The main subject area emphasizes history, numbering systems, art and culture.


Language learning

The main subject area covers the establishment of an active and passive vocabulary, basic grammar and use of the language, including speaking, reading, listening skills and the ability to produce texts. The main subject area also emphasizes learning and understanding texts written in the original language, and their translation into Norwegian.


Ancient culture today

This main subject area covers the influence of classical antiquity throughout history on such fields as politics, economics and community life, architecture and art. The main subject area also comprises the science of words, i.e. the study of how words and word elements from the target language are used in other languages, as well as in professional or scientific terminology in a number of fields. The contemporary use of Latin expressions and quotations are also covered in the main subject area.



Latin or Greek 2
Greek and Roman culture

This main subject area is concerned with Greek or Roman art and culture, with an emphasis on literature. Roman chronology and calculation of time are also covered.


Language learning

This main subject area develops and expands on the learning of the target language through the building up and acquisition of an active and passive vocabulary and of the basic grammatical of the language. The main subject area includes the spoken use of the language in simple contexts, the understanding of texts, translation, poetry and poetic meter.


Ancient culture today

This main subject area covers the influence of classical antiquity on the areas of politics, economics and community life, as well as architecture, film and art. The main subject area expands on and widens one’s understanding of themes within etymology and the formation of words.


Basic skills

Basic skills are integrated into the competence aims for this course in areas where they contribute to the development of and are a part of basic subject competence. In the programme subject Ancient language and culture, basic skills are understood as follows:


Being able to express oneself orally in Ancient language and culture involves speaking in the classical language, e.g. reading aloud, using quotations and formulating simple statements, within the limitations of the classical language not being one's mother tongue. Rhetoric – the art of speaking – is an important aspect of this course.
Being able to express oneself in writing in Ancient language and culture involves presenting a subject area in writing, translating a text from the classical language and commenting on the text.
Being able to read in Ancient language and culture involves decoding and understanding texts in the classical language and, where Greek is concerned, the ability to use a different alphabet. Also included is the study of the origins of the various genres in classical antiquity, as well as the use of quotations and themes from classical antiquity in modern literature.
Numeracy in Ancient language and culture involves working with foreign numbers and number systems, quantities, sizes and amounts in various ways, as well as placing numerical systems in historical perspective.
Being able use digital tools in Ancient language and culture involves gathering and critically evaluating material from the Internet and other digital media in language learning, presentations, reading texts, and other work with cultural elements in the subject.

Competence aims



Ancient culture
Greek and Roman culture

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • discuss political systems from the time of classical antiquity

  • impart knowledge about different forms of private and public communication, with an emphasis on rhetoric, written texts, architecture and coins

  • give an account of the function of celebration in classical antiquity, and present a selected celebration

  • give an account of a theme from Greek or Roman daily life

  • give an account of some themes found in Greek and Roman mythology

  • present a text from classical antiquity

  • present a chosen form of antique art


Knowledge of languages

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • use the alphabet, sounds and symbols of the classical language

  • use Latin and Greek glossaries

  • show how words in Greek and Latin are built up

  • identify words and word elements from Greek and Latin in modern languages

  • give an account of the use of Greek and Latin in technical terminologies in a chosen field

  • give an account of the spread of Greek and Latin during antiquity, as well as the use of Latin in later eras


Ancient culture today

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • give an account of classical construction and building elements found in recent architecture

  • compare aspects of daily life and sexuality in classical antiquity with an epoch from later times

  • reflect on social class divisions and the individual's place during antiquity, compared with today

  • give examples of the use of Latin quotations today

  • present some examples of the use of Greek and Roman mythology today


Latin 1 or Greek 1
Greek and Roman culture

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • present a chosen period or incident from Greek or Roman history

  • give an account of the numbering systems of the classical languages, and do conversons from Roman to Arabic numbering

  • give an account of a theme within art and culture from classical antiquity


Language learning

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • understand and apply a basic vocabulary

  • give an account of conjugation, parts of speech and sentence structure

  • read aloud, listen and understand texts

  • ask and answer questions orally, based on the wording of familiar material

  • translate simple texts to Norwegian or Sámi with the aid of a dictionary

  • give an account of word formation in the target language


Ancient culture today

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • present a chosen topic that shows the influence of classical antiquity on later times

  • compare characteristics of daily life in classical antiquity with a historical period of their own choice

  • understand and repeat some expressions and quotations, with an emphasis on Latin

  • recognize and explain word elements from the target language in Norwegian and one other modern language



Latin 2 or Greek 2
Greek and Roman culture

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • give an account of the Roman calendar and its significance during classical antiquity

  • give an account of and present a theme within classical antiquity's art and culture

  • give an account of a speech within its historical and cultural context

  • give an account of important characteristics of a classical work of drama

  • describe and compare some aspects of Greek and Roman architecture and art


Language learning

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • understand and employ a varied vocabulary

  • master the most important aspects of sentence structure

  • ask and answer question(s) orally, based on wordings that have been drilled

  • give an account of some aspects of poetry and verse from classical antiquity

  • translate simple authentic texts, and organize such texts with the aid of a dictionary


Ancient culture today

The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

  • describe the influence of classical antiquity on literature or art history, and present the results

  • give an account of influences from classical antiquity on Italian Fascism

  • compare characteristics of sport from classical antiquity with those of modern sport

  • give an account of the use of themes from classical antiquity in literature and film

Assessment


Ancient language and culture
Provisions for final assessment:
Overall achievement grades

Programme subject

Provision

Ancient culture

The pupils shall have an overall achievement mark.

Latin 1 or Greek 1

The pupils shall have an overall achievement mark.

Latin 2 or Greek 2

The pupils shall have an overall achievement mark.



Examination for pupils

Programme subject

Provision

Ancient culture


The pupils may be selected for an oral exam.

The oral exam is prepared and marked locally.



Latin 1 or Greek 1

The pupils may be selected for an oral exam.

The oral exam is prepared and marked locally.



Latin 2 or Greek 2

The pupils may be selected for written or oral exams. The written exam is prepared and marked centrally.

The oral exam is prepared locally.





Examination for external candidates

Programme subject

Provision

Ancient culture

The external candidates shall sit for an oral exam.

The exam is prepared and marked locally.



Latin 1 or Greek 1

The external candidates shall sit for an oral exam. The oral exam is prepared and marked locally.

Latin 2 or Greek 2

The external candidates shall sit for written and oral exams.

The written exam is prepared and marked centrally.

The oral exam is prepared locally.

The regulations for assessment are stipulated in the provisions of the Norwegian Education Act.










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