ANCIENT LANGUAGE AND CULTURE – PROGRAMME SUBJECT IN PROGRAMMES FOR SPECIALIZATION IN GENERAL STUDIES
Laid down as a regulation by the Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training on 11 April 2006, from the Ministry of Education and Research pursuant to the Act of 17 July 1998 no. 61 relating to primary and secondary education (Education Act) Section 3-4 first paragraph.
Applicable from: 1 August 2006
The objectives of the subject
Latin is Norway's oldest academic subject. No other language has had such great and lasting significance in our part of the world as Greek and Latin have had. Ancient culture has also been an inspiration to many cultures in many areas the past two thousand years. Today, classical antiquity lives on in our times as witnessed by architecture, works of art and everyday objects, as well as through beliefs and thought, such as mythology, religion and philosophy. The fundamental principles of the natural sciences and mathematics were established during classical antiquity, while the literary genres of epic literature, lyric poetry, tragedy, satire and others were developed during the same era. At the same time the ability to express oneself well was widely appreciated, not least through the art of speaking – rhetoric – which reached a high level of development. The programme subject Ancient language and culture shall serve as a gateway into this rich heritage of language and culture.
The basic principles of our modern judicial system, political institutions and the Christian church were established at this time. Words such as politics, democracy, civilization,culture and mobile have their roots in Latin or Greek. This programme subject shall help pupils understand how humans lived, thought and worked during classical antiquity, how they expressed themselves orally and in writing, and how they organized their society. The programme subject shall enable pupils to read texts that are central to Western and Christian culture. In this way, ancient language and culture can help us view modern society and language from a broader perspective, and give pupils a basis for understanding and participating in public social debate.
Words and elements of words from Latin and Greek have been used and borrowed in modern languages, for daily vocabulary and for the sciences, culture and technological terminology. The grammatical system developed in these languages is used in teaching modern languages. Competence in Latin or Greek may therefore improve a person's general language comprehension, as well as serve as a basis for learning other languages, such as English, Spanish, Italian or French. The classical languages of Greek and Latin have great transfer value for other subject areas, such as history, theology, natural science, mathematics, law and the social sciences.
Neither Latin nor ancient Greek is the native tongue of any person or culture alive today. Yet instruction in these languages can be adapted for practical use.Ancient language and culture can give personal enjoyment and assist in the development of widely applicable knowledge. The programme subject shall also give individuals an opportunity to acquire a traditional and time-honoured competence – a classical education – as a basis for lifelong learning in education, research, working life and leisure.
Structure Ancient language and culture comprises three programme subjects: Ancient culture, Latin 1 or Greek 1, and Latin 2 or Greek 2. Ancient culture can be taken as a separate class, or combined with Latin 1 or Greek 1. Latin 2 or Greek 2 build on Latin 1 or Greek 1.
These programme subjects have been structured into main subject areas, for which competence aims have been formulated. The main subject areas complement each other and should be viewed in relation to one another.
Within the programme subjects of Latin or Greek, the main subject areas and competence aims have been organized independently of which language is being taught.
Overview of the main subject areas:
Teaching hours Teaching hours are given in 60-minute units:
Ancient culture: 140 teaching hours per year
Latin 1 or Greek 1: 140 teaching hours per year
Latin 2 or Greek 2: 140 teaching hours per year
Main subject areas
Greek and Roman culture
This main subject area deals with how people organized their society during classical antiquity, how they shaped the world around them, what they were thinking, what they believed in, what they wrote, how they lived their daily lives and how they carried out celebrations. The main subject area covers everyday life, class divisions within society and politics, and the spiritual and material legacy created by these societies.
Basic knowledge of language
This main subject area covers the basic and fundamental characteristics of Greek or Latin, with their alphabets, sounds and symbols as a point of departure. The main subject area is concerned with etymology – the study of the origins and meanings of words and with how words are formed from word elements. The main subject area also focuses on how words and word elements from Greek and Latin are used in other languages, and in professional or scientific terminology in a number of fields.
Ancient culture today
This main subject area deals with how aspects of ancient culture have been interpreted and applied in different ways. The main subject area covers cultural influence in the broad sense, with special emphasis on the life of the community, how life was lived and where we can still see these cultures in architecture still standing today. The main subject area also looks at quotations and expressions that are rooted in the ancient languages but are still in use.
Latin or Greek 1 Greek and Roman culture
This main subject area is concerned with how people in classical antiquity organized their society, how they shaped the world around them, what they were thinking, what they believed in and what they wrote, how they lived their daily lives and how they carried out celebrations. The main subject area emphasizes history, numbering systems, art and culture.
The main subject area covers the establishment of an active and passive vocabulary, basic grammar and use of the language, including speaking, reading, listening skills and the ability to produce texts. The main subject area also emphasizes learning and understanding texts written in the original language, and their translation into Norwegian.
Ancient culture today
This main subject area covers the influence of classical antiquity throughout history on such fields as politics, economics and community life, architecture and art. The main subject area also comprises the science of words, i.e. the study of how words and word elements from the target language are used in other languages, as well as in professional or scientific terminology in a number of fields. The contemporary use of Latin expressions and quotations are also covered in the main subject area.
Latin or Greek 2 Greek and Roman culture
This main subject area is concerned with Greek or Roman art and culture, with an emphasis on literature. Roman chronology and calculation of time are also covered.
This main subject area develops and expands on the learning of the target language through the building up and acquisition of an active and passive vocabulary and of the basic grammatical of the language. The main subject area includes the spoken use of the language in simple contexts, the understanding of texts, translation, poetry and poetic meter.
Ancient culture today
This main subject area covers the influence of classical antiquity on the areas of politics, economics and community life, as well as architecture, film and art. The main subject area expands on and widens one’s understanding of themes within etymology and the formation of words.
Basic skills are integrated into the competence aims for this course in areas where they contribute to the development of and are a part of basic subject competence. In the programme subject Ancient language and culture, basic skills are understood as follows:
Being able to express oneself orally in Ancient language and culture involves speaking in the classical language, e.g. reading aloud, using quotations and formulating simple statements, within the limitations of the classical language not being one's mother tongue. Rhetoric – the art of speaking – is an important aspect of this course.
Being able to express oneself in writing in Ancient language and cultureinvolves presentingasubject area in writing, translating a text from the classical language and commenting on the text.
Being able to read in Ancient language and cultureinvolves decoding and understanding texts in the classical language and, where Greek is concerned, the ability to use a different alphabet. Also included is the study of the origins of the various genres in classical antiquity, as well as the use of quotations and themes from classical antiquity in modern literature. Numeracy in Ancient language and cultureinvolves working with foreign numbers and number systems, quantities, sizes and amounts in various ways, as well as placing numerical systems in historical perspective.
Being able use digital tools in Ancient language and cultureinvolves gathering and critically evaluating material from the Internet and other digital media in language learning, presentations, reading texts, and other work with cultural elements in the subject.
Ancient culture Greek and Roman culture
The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to
discuss political systems from the time of classical antiquity
impart knowledge about different forms of private and public communication, with an emphasis on rhetoric, written texts, architecture and coins