Ancient Greece Greece is made up of many isolated valleys and small islands. This geography prevented the Greeks from building a large empire like that of the Egyptians or Mesopotamians. Instead, the Greeks built small city-states



Download 16.61 Kb.
Date25.07.2021
Size16.61 Kb.

Ancient Greece
Greece is made up of many isolated valleys and small islands. This geography prevented the Greeks from building a

large empire like that of the Egyptians or Mesopotamians. Instead, the Greeks built small city-states. These city-states frequently fought one another. Between 750 B.C. and 500 B.C., the Greek city-states tried different types of

government. At first, city-states were ruled by kings. This type of government is called a monarchy. The landowning nobles won power as time passed. They created an aristocracy, or a government ruled by the landholding elite. In some city-states, a middle class of merchants, farmers, and artisans came to power. This form of government is called an oligarchy.
The two most powerful citystates were Sparta and Athens. They developed very different ways of life. Sparta was a monarchy, ruled by two kings. The Spartans created a military society. Spartan boys trained to be soldiers. Spartan girls trained to be mothers of soldiers. Athens, on the other hand, developed a limited democracy, or government by the people. However, only male citizens could vote in the assembly. Women could not participate. Unlike Sparta, Athens encouraged the arts, trade, and education
In 490 B.C., the Persians attacked the city-state of Athens. Other city-states joined Athens to fight the Persian Wars.

After years of fighting, the Greeks defeated Persia. Athens emerged from the fighting as the most powerful city-state in Greece. The years after the Persian Wars were a golden age for Athens. A wise leader named Pericles

ruled the city-state. This period is often called the Age of Pericles. Athens had a direct democracy under Pericles. This meant that male citizens helped to run the government. Athens prospered in the Age of Pericles and became the cultural center of Greece.
Sparta and its allies, or partners, resented Athenian wealth and power. They formed a league to promote oligarchy.

Athens and its allies supported democracy. The Peloponnesian War broke out between the two sides in 431 B.C. After 27 years of fighting, Sparta defeated Athens. Soon after, Sparta fell to Thebes, another Greek city-state. Athenian democracy suffered but it remained a cultural center.


Answer the following questions using the above reading and your notes.
1. Describe the 4 types of government throughout Greece. (Don’t forget Athens!)

2. Describe 3 differences between Sparta and Athens.


3. Describe 4 common characteristics among the Greek city-states.
4. Who was involved in the Persian wars? Explain the effects on Greece.

5. Explain the causes and effects of the Peloponnesian wars.



Alexander the Great

Macedonia was a mountain kingdom in the north of Greece. In 338 B.C., King Philip of Macedonia dominated all of the city-states to the south. His son, Alexander the Great, conquered the Persian empire and parts of India.


Alexander spread Greek culture to many parts of the world. The conquered peoples learned Greek ways. The Greeks also learned the ways of the peoples they conquered. A new Hellenistic culture arose. It blended parts of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian life. Women gained rights during the Hellenistic period.
Alexander’s empire fell apart soon after his death. However, Greek culture had a lasting impact on the regions he had ruled. The city of Alexandria, Egypt, was at the heart of Hellenistic civilization. Its location made it the major marketplace of the empire. People from many nations met there. Alexandria was also a center of learning, with a museum, libraries, and a zoo. Its 440-foot-tall lighthouse was one of the wonders of the world.

Hellenistic thinkers made great advances in the sciences and in mathematics.



Answer the following questions based on the above reading and the notes.

1. Who was Alexander and why was he great? (Explain his legacy).



2. Describe Hellenistic culture and how Alexander the Great helped it develop.


Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page