An international detection mechanism for near-earth objects



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1AC Practice 10-20
the gutters, 2nc Lansing Rnd5, Speech 1ac Ag runoff 8-31 12AM, Speech 1AC CAFOs personal, send cards
Herzog, 07, (Professor of Public Administration and Political Science at Stephen F. Austin, “A MODEL OF NATURAL DISASTER ADMINISTRATION: NAMING AND FRAMING THEORY AND REALITY”, Administrative Theory & Praxis, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2007, pg. 586-604)
Public administration theory should formulate ideals and goals for natural disaster administration. These ideals would include the protection of life, property, and liberty. Goals may include the restoration of services, law, and order. Without ideals and goals, it is difficult to monitor expected outcomes. During a natural disaster, there is a need to reduce uncertainty by anticipating problems and solutions: probabilities of human behaviors need to be projected (Hy & Waugh, 1990, p. 23); collective human behaviors need to be anticipated; communication successes and failures need to be expected; events need to be described, explained and predicted; and organizational behaviors need to be anticipated. Theory can help us understand, explain, and project disaster administration. What theories influence disaster planning/mitigation, or more appropriately, what theories should influence disaster planning/mitigation? A nonexhaustive list associated with this symposium includes chaos, communitarian, critical, cultural, deconstruction, Marxist, populist, pragmatist, rational, and social constructivist. Frederickson and Smith (2003) classify theories of political control of bureaucracy, theories of bureaucratic politics, public institutional theory, theories of public management, postmodern theory, decision theory, rational choice theory, and theories of governance. Answering the question of what theories should influence disaster planning and mitigation will allow us to better assess the theory-practice gap. Often public administration theories place too much emphasis on naming to the neglect of framing practice. With natural disaster administration there is a need for theories to frame planning, mitigation, management, response, and recovery efforts. Framing develops the plans, coordinates the exercises, paints the contingencies, and allows for improved natural disaster administration. Often the natural disaster plans of public organizations have a modern and rationalistic flavor to them. For example, the command structure is centralized and experts are employed. But a variety of theories have a direct impact on disaster planning/mitigation, such as chaos theory (Kirschenbaum, 2004). Communitarian theory offers a way to explain the shift in the responsibility for disaster planning/mitigation and disaster management/response from communities to the government and perhaps back to communities when government fails. Etzioni (1996) also includes responsiveness as a defining characteristic of community, using the term authentic community to describe a responsive community that addresses the needs of its citizens. Theoretical concepts like “milling” help administrators to realize that, “After a disaster, a widespread search for meaning occurs among the affected population” (Schneider, 1992, p. 137). Critical theory, specifically applied to Hurricane Katrina, can offer “categories and explanatory frameworks that analyze the ways that inequality and exploitation are built into the structure and operation of spectacles” (Gotham, 2007, p. 95). Disaster planning/mitigation could benefit from a
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