An international detection mechanism for near-earth objects



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1AC Practice 10-20
the gutters, 2nc Lansing Rnd5, Speech 1ac Ag runoff 8-31 12AM, Speech 1AC CAFOs personal, send cards
feedback loop where disaster management/response influences theory and theory influences disaster management/ response is included. These filters include dialectics, communication distortion, deconstruction, social construction, hyperreality, value pluralism, symbolic politics, and ideographic structures. Reality assessments need to be continuous and states of alterity should be foreign. Dialectics The discussion and reasoning by dialogue and often monologue of reality will temper management and response. This discussion and reasoning is called the dialect and is conditioned by theoretical foundations. These foundations can be based on modernity (Farmer, 1995) or critically oriented (Abel & Sementelli, 2005). These foundations influence our investigations into reality, identify false beliefs and establish the truth. With dialectics, the truth may be established by critique, “and positive change lies in the process of challenging established reality” (Abel & Sementelli, 2005, p. 105). These challenges will unfold potential actions that can be actualized in disaster management and response. With better dialectics in place during Hurricane Rita, disaster administration officials could have challenged the wisdom of evacuating citizens that were living 150 feet above sea level in the Houston, Texas, area. Communication Distortion In the absence of an ideal speech situation, it is still useful to consider the criteria for non-coercive, communicative action when determining the actual reality of a natural disaster. According to Habermas (1987) the hearer can contest the “rightness” of what is said through normative claims, contest the truthfulness of what is said, and challenge what is said. It is believed that the satisfaction of the criteria eliminates communication distortion. Using Habermas’s theory of communicative action, Forester (1983) offers a framework to analyze communication distortion within organizations by noting that the validity of what is said or heard is judged on the basis of four claims. If these claims are not valid, the filtered communication is distorted. First, truth claims assert statements of fact that can be verified—the speed of wind is one example. Second, statements may be judged on the basis of legitimacy claims—a peace officer requesting an evacuation. Third, people also judge the sincerity of what is being said—a belief that citizen self-interest is of utmost importance. Lastly, people judge the comprehensibility or clarity of a claim. For example, if a citizen can see the flood water rising. Deconstruction Reality assessment will be based on epistemological and ontological grounds. How do we know what we know and how does what we know change what we know? Various concepts and structures should often be deconstructed. For example, the question should have been asked prior to Katrina as to whether the levees were really levees. After the levees were breached, they were no longer levees as their ability to perform as defined was compromised. Deconstruction allows public administrators to assess terms and to monitor ongoing modification. “Deconstruction can be seen in part as a vigilant reaction against this tendency in structuralist thought to tame and domesticate its own best insights” (Norris, 2002, p. 2). Terms are used to represent and to impact actual realities that require constant deconstruction to modify the implementation of disaster management tactics. Social Construction Currently, there are challenges to centralized, rational knowledge frames in public administration (Hess & Adams, 2002, p. 68). Disaster management requires a dynamic social construction of actual reality. This reality can be communicated through a variety of mediums. It appears that language can be displaced by videos during natural disasters. For example, the “downtown area is flooded” may be reported but from a disaster management viewpoint, an aerial photograph showing that downtown is flooded may be more revealing than an oral report from a patrol boat. Topographical overlays of this flooding could determine the depth of the water at any particular location. Predictive reality is also constructed with modeling. Flood watches and warnings condi- tion disaster management personnel to see fast-rising creek and river levels. Social construction of actual reality becomes easier if predictive reality provides officials and citizens with advances or preparation and evasive information. Hyperreality Natural disasters like Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 were heavily influenced by hyperreality (Miller & Fox, 2007, p. 56). During natural disasters, a multitude of mediums will shape and portray events in ways that make determining what is real become problematic. For example, the media accounts of murder and rape at the Louisiana Superdome during Hurricane Katrina were grossly exaggerated. These accounts should not have been shocking (Dreier, 2006; Gotham, 2007). These media reports made it more difficult for disaster managers to take appropriate actions with limited resources. Symbols on maps are often used by the National Weather Service to indicate tornado, thunderstorm, and flooding watches and warnings. In essence, predictive reality is simulated but when it becomes hyperrealism it can present difficulties for natural disaster management and response. The public will be conditioned by hyperrealism and their response to what they hear and see will have to be accounted for by disaster management officials. During Hurricane Rita the predictive capability of disaster management officials had to be ignored as the media created a frenzy, displacing one million people needlessly. Where people moved to was often more dangerous than the places they moved from. Value Pluralism It is essential to understand the importance of value pluralism versus value monism (Galston, 2002) at the command and street-levels during natural disaster responses. At the street-level, decisions are often made for the broader monistic public interest. These same decisions will jeopardize the welfare and lives of street-level subordinates. On-the-spot risk assessments are necessary and require value pluralism to make the best decisions. There is not only the risk assessment from the natural disaster, but the risk assessment to human, structural, financial, and technological resources that must be determined. Value pluralism filters reality for disaster management by producing a range of decisions and by projecting how they will influence actual reality. Symbolic Politics Symbolic politics becomes an important filter as public problems are defined, political support and outrage are assessed, and response alternatives are forwarded. Most natural disasters are public problems, but the solutions may require private response. For example, electrical black outs typically cannot be resolved without private support. Another example would be private efforts that occur if the floodwater is rising or receding. With the necessity of private responses, political support may come from different levels of government that is often symbolic. For example, the governor has declared a particular county a disaster area and therefore it is eligible for various types of aid, or the federal government has agreed to pay the full cost of fire fighting. In both of these examples the response alternatives by other governments, nonprofit organizations, and the private sector are conditioned. Ideographic Structures An ideographic structure provides a different frame, which can displace a bureaucratic frame, for understanding projected and actual disaster realities. “An ideographic structure entails pictures, images, symbols, linguistic impressions, and meaning systems” (Miller & Fox, 2007, p. 106). The ideograph will temper reality and alter or contextualize the actions of public administrators. If administrators do not see the image, they do not get to think about it. The ideograph can give administrators the cue for response. The mosaic of reality created by an ideograph is more important as communications, politics, and technologies become more sophisticated (Miller & Fox, 2007, p. 112). The ideograph becomes so important it can help to view concepts in public administration differently (Miller, 2004, p. 487). Disaster Management/Response Strong storms, powerful earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other natural disasters will continue to occur. Their effects can be lessened with insightful mitigation/planning efforts, but management/response after their occurrence is crucial to preserving life, liberty, and property. Although circumstances like geographic location, type, and demographics vary for each natural disaster, they all share similarities, which enable strategic plans to be developed that may serve as a base for management/response. “The strategy for response must work just as well for hurricanes (and earthquakes and floods and tornadoes) as it does for terrorist attacks” (Kettl, 2007, p. 13). Response flexibility is at the core of this sequence as disasters produce ever-changing dynamics. “The planning process should emphasize response flexibility so that those involved in operations can adjust to changing disaster demands, both agent-generated and response-generated” (Perry & Lindell, 2003, p. 342). The factors in Filter III can aid the response-flexibility by allowing an examination of recursive practices, viewing how these practices may be improved, and exploring possible contingencies. In fact, local, state and federal administrators are remiss in their duty to public service if a disaster management/response plan is not developed, communicated and practiced. Effective management/response can
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