An Annotated Bibliography to accompany History of the American Economy By Gary Walton and Hugh Rockoff



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An Annotated Bibliography
to accompany
History of the American Economy
By Gary Walton and Hugh Rockoff
(Nuttanan Wichitaksorn and Yoichi Ostubo helped compile this bibliography)

The bibliography begins with an overview of the basic sources of quantitative data. It then has detailed bibliographies for each chapter.



Sources of Data

Balke, Nathan S. and Robert J. Gordon. "The Estimation of Prewar Gross National Product: Methodology and New Evidence." The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 97, No. 1. (Feb., 1989), pp. 38-92.


[Provides figures for GNP going back to 1869.]
Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.). Banking and Monetary Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 1943.
Berry, Thomas Senior. Production and Population since 1789. Richmond: Bostwick, 1988.
Bezanson, Ann, et al. Prices in Colonial Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1935.
[A crucial source of price statistics for the colonial period].
Economic Report of the President 2009. U.S. Council of Economic Advisors. http://www.access.gpo.gov/eop/.
[Published annually, the Economic Reports of the President are excellent sources of postwar data. The data are available in easily downloadable forms.]
Friedman, Milton, and Anna J. Schwartz. A Monetary History of the United States (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1965).
———. Monetary Statistics of the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.
———. Monetary Trends in the United States and the United Kingdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
[The second book by Friedman and Schwartz is the source for data on money. There are a few series, however, that are included only in the first and third volumes.]
Historical Statistics of the United States: Earliest Times to the Present, Millennial ed. Eds. Susan B. Carter ... [et al.]. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
[This is the basic source for historical data for the United States. There were previous editions in 1947, 1960, and the immediate predecessor, the bicentennial edition published in 1975.Typically, all the data included in earlier editions was included in the Millenial Edition. A few series, however, were not. The data in Historical Statistics is generally annual data; one observation for each year. Sometimes monthly data is included, and often, monthly or more frequent data is available in the sources cited in Historical Statistics. The data are available in easily downloadable forms that can be accessed through university libraries]
Jones, Alice Hanson. Wealth of a Nation to Be. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
[Unique data on American wealth on the eve of the Revolution based on probate records.]
Johnston, Louis D., and Samuel H. Williamson. “What Was the U.S. GDP Then?” Measuring Worth, 2008. http://www.measuringworth.org/datasets/usgdp.
[This website provides basic historical data on prices, the cost of living, GDP, and related series; and it provides a useful calculator for putting historical prices into today’s money. There are also series for Great Britain and a few other countries.]
Kendrick, John W. Productivity Trends in the United States. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1961.
Kuznets, Simon. “Changes in the National Incomes of the United States of America Since 1870.” Income and Wealth Series II. London: Bowes & Bowes, 1952.
[Kuznets was the second American to win the Nobel prize in economics, which he won for his development of national income accounting. Much of Kuznets's work has been incorporated in subsequent work and reported in Historical Statistics. But his penetrating discussions of the meaning of aggregate measues is still worth consulting.]
Lebergott, Stanley. Manpower in Economic Growth: The American Record since 1800. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.
[A source of many historical statistics on the labor force. It includes penetrating discussions of the meaning of the statisics. Many of these statistics can be found in downlaodable form in Historical Statistics.]
Maddison, Angus. Monitoring the World Economy 1820–1992. Paris Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 1995.
[Angus Maddison has developed comparable historical GDP series for many countries. His work is always the starting point for economists who wish to make historical comparisons].
National Bureau of Economic Research, http://www.nber.org.
[The National Bureau is one of the oldest and most prestigious economic think tanks. A committee of the National Bureau determines the generally accepted dates for the peaks and troughs of the business cycle. These dates, large amounts data collected by the National Bureau, and working papers written by associates of the National Bureau are available at its website.]
National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Vital Statistics, Vital Statistics Data Available Online. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/Vitalstatsonline.htm.
[Downloadable data on "vital statistics:" birth rates and death rates by age and other categories.]
Romer, Christina D. “The Prewar Business Cycle Reconsidered: New Estimates of Gross National Product, 1869–1908.” Journal of Political Economy 97 (February 1989): 1–37.
[Provides figures for GNP going back to 1869.]
Statistical Abstract of the United States. http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/
[Published annually, this is one of the best sources of statistical data. Typically, data published in earlier editions was published in Historical Statistics. The Statistical Abstracts are one of the best sources for updating the series presented in Historical Statistics. The data can be downloaded from the Department of Census website. If the URL has changed look for the statistical abstract on a search engine.]

Selected References and Suggested Readings by Chapter

Chapter 1

Growth, Welfare, and the American Economy


Alston, Lee J. “Institutions and Markets in History: Lessons for Central and Eastern Europe.” In Economic Transformation in East and Central Europe: Legacies from the Past and Policies for the Future, ed. David F. Good, 43–59. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Atack, Jeremy. “Long-Term Trends in Productivity.” In The State of Humanity, ed. Julian L. Simon. Boston: Basil Blackwell, 1995, 161–170.

Avery, Dennis. “The World’s Rising Food Productivity.” In The State of Humanity, ed. Julian L. Simon. Boston: Basil Blackwell, 1995, 379–393.

Black, Dan A., Seth Sanders, and Lowell Taylor. “The Economic Reward for Studying Economics.” Economic Inquiry 41 (3), (July 2003): 365–377.

Blank, Rebecca M. “Trends in Poverty in the United States.” In The State of Humanity, ed. Julian L. Simon. Boston: Basil Blackwell, 1995, 231–240.

Burnette, Joyce and Joel Mokyr. “The Standard of Living Through the Ages.” In The State of Humanity, ed. Julian L. Simon. Boston: Basil Blackwell, 1995, 135–148.

Cox, W. Michael and Richard Alm. “By Our Own Bootstraps: Economic Opportunity and the Dynamics of Income Distribution.” Dallas: Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, 1995.

______. “Time Well Spent: The Declining Real Cost of Living in America.” Dallas: Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, 1997.


[The authors examine the cost in terms of hours working that it takes to buy goods such as a loaf of bread – an informative way to look at economic progress.]
Churchill, Winston S. A History of the English Speaking People. Vols 1–4. New York: Dorset Press, 1956.

Fogel, Robert W. “Nutrition and the Decline in Mortality since 1700: Some Preliminary Findings.” In Long-Term Factors in American Economic Growth, eds. Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman, 439-555. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (for the National Bureau of Economic Research), 1986.

______. “Economic Growth, Population Theory, and Physiology: The Bearing of Long-Term Processes on the Making of Economic Policy.” The American Economic Review 84 (1994): 369–395.

______. “The Contribution of Improved Nutrition to the Decline of Mortality Rates in Europe and America.” In The State of Humanity, ed. Julian L. Simon. Boston: Basil Blackwell, 1995, 61–71.

______. “Catching Up with the Economy.” The American Economic Review 89 (1999): 1–21.

______. The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700–2100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.


[Robert Fogel, who one the Nobel Prize in economics in 1993, is one of the world’s preeminent experts on historical relationships among nutrition, medicine, and economic development. His work should be consulted by any student contemplating research on these issues.]
Haines, Michael R. “Disease and Health through the Ages.” In The State of Humanity, ed. Julian L. Simon. Boston: Basil Blackwell, 1995, 51–60.

Harberger, Arnold C. “A Vision of the Growth Process.” The American Economic Review 88 (1998): 1–32.

Hume, David. “Of the Populousness of Ancient Nations.” In Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary, ed. Eugene F. Miller (first published 1742). Indianapolis, Ind.: Liberty Fund, Inc, 1987.

Johnston, Louis D., and Samuel H. Williamson. “What Was the U.S. GDP Then?” Measuring Worth, 2008. http://www.measuringworth.org/datasets/usgdp.

Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. New York: Random House, 1987.

Lee, J., and W. Feng, “Malthusian Models and Chinese Realities: The Chinese Demographic System, 1700-2000.” Population and Development Review 25 (1999): 33–65.

Lindert, Peter H. and Jeffery G. Williamson. “The Long-Term Course of American Inequality: 1647–1969.” In The State of Humanity, ed. Julian L. Simon. Boston: Basil Blackwell, 1995, 188–195.

Maddison, Angus. Monitoring the World Economy 1820–1992. Paris Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 1995. Updated 2007.

McCloskey, Donald N. “Does the Past Have Useful Economics?” Journal of Economic Literature 14 (1976): 434–461.

National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Statistics of the United States. Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, selected years.

North, Douglass C. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Preston, S. H. “Human Mortality throughout History and Prehistory.” In The State of Humanity, ed. Julian L. Simon. Boston: Basil Blackwell, 30–36.

Rockoff, Hugh. “Indirect Price Increases and Real Wages in World War II.” Explorations in Economic History 15 (1978): 407–420.

______. Drastic Measures: A History of Wage and Price Controls in the United States. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Rector, Robert. “Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth.” Journal of Political Economy 94(5), (October 1986), 1002–1037.

______. “Endogenous Technological Change.” Journal of Political Economy 98(5), (October 1990), S71–S102.

______. “The Origins of Endogenous Growth.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 8(1), (Winter 1994), 3–22.

______. “New Goods, Old Theory, and the Welfare Costs of Trade Restrictions.” Journal of Developmental Economics 43(1), (February 1994), 5–38.

______. “How “Poor” Are America’s Poor?” In The State of Humanity,” ed., Julian L. Simon. Boston: Basil Blackwell, 1995, 241–256.

Rosenberg, Nathan, and L. E. Birdzell, Jr. How the West Grew Rich. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1986.

Schumpeter, Joseph A. The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1934.

Simon, Julian L. and Rebecca Boggs. “Trends in the Quantities of Education—USA and Elsewhere.” In The State of Humanity, ed. Julian L. Simon. Boston: Basil Blackwell, 1995, 208–223

Siniecki, Jan. “Impediments to Institutional Change in the Former Soviet System.” In Empirical Studies in Institutional Change, eds. Lee J. Alston, Thrainn Eggertsson, and Douglass C. North, 35–59. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report 1999. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

U.S. Census Bureau. “The Changing Shape of the Nation’s Income Distribution, 1747–2001.” http:// www.census.gov.

U.S. Census Bureau. “Mean Income Received by Each Fifth and Top 5 Percent of Families (All Races) 1966–2001.” http://www.census.gov/hhes/income/histinc/

f03.html.

U.S. Department of Commerce. U.S. Life Tables, 1890, 1901, and 1901–1910. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1921.

U.S. Department of Commerce. Statistical Abstract. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1978.

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis. “U.S. Real GDP Per Capita (Year 2000 Dollars).” http://www.measuringworth.org/graphs/ graph.php?year_from=1900&year_to=2007&table= US&field=GDPCP&log.

World Resources Institute and United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Wright, Gavin. “History and the Future of Economics.” In Economic History and the Modern Economists, ed. William N. Parker. New York: Blackwell, 1986.

Wrigley, E. A., and R. S. Schofield. The Population History of England, 1541–1871: A Reconstruction. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Zakaria, Farred. The Future of Freedom. New York: W. W. Norton, 2003.

Chapter 2

Founding the Colonies


Alston, Lee J., and Morton O. Shapiro. “Inheritance Laws Across the Colonies: Causes and Consequences.” Journal of Economic History 44 (1984): 277–287.

Anderson, Terry, ed. Property Rights and Indian Economics: The Political Economy Forum. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1992.

Anderson, Terry, and Robert P. Thomas. “White Population, Labor Force, and Extensive Growth of the New England Economy in the Seventeenth Century.” Journal of Economic History 33 (1973): 634–667.

______. “The Growth of Population and Labor Force in the 17th-Century Chesapeake.” Explorations in Economic History 15 (1978): 290–312.

Andrews, Charles M. The Colonial Period of American History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1934.

Bancroft, George. History of the United States of America from the Discovery of the Continent, 6 vols. Boston: Little, Brown, 1879.

Barrington, Linda, ed. The Other Side of the Frontier. Boulder: Westview, 1999.

Boorstin, Daniel. The Americans: The Colonial Experience. New York:Vintage Books, 1958.

Bradford, William. Of Plymouth Plantation. New York: Capricorn Books, 1962.

Bruce, Philip A. Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century, 2 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1896.

Bruchey, Stuart. The Roots of American Economic Growth 1607–1861: An Essay in Social Causation. London: Hutchinson University Library, 1965.

Curtin, Philip. The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969.

Denevan, William, ed. The Native Population of the Americans in 1492, 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.

Earle, Carville. The Evolution of a Tidewater Settlement System: All Hallow’s Parish, 1650–1783. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975.

Engerman, Stanley L., and Kenneth L. Sokoloff. “Factor Endowments, Institutions, and Differential Paths of Growth Among New World Economics: A View From Economic Historians of the United States.” In How Did Latin America Fall Behind? ed. Stephen Haber. Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1996.

Ekirch, A. Roger, Bound for America: The Transportation of British Convicts to the Colonies, 1718–1775. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Fogel, Robert, and Stanley Engerman. Chapter 1 in Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery. Boston: Little, Brown, 1974.

Franklin, Benjamin. “Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind.” Philadelphia, 1751. In The Papers of Ben Franklin, ed. Leonard Laberee. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1961.

Galenson, David W. “Immigration and the Colonial Labor System: An Analysis of the Length of Indenture.” Explorations in Economic History 14 (1977): 361–377.

______. “British Servants and the Colonial Indenture System in the Eighteenth Century.” Journal of Southern History 44 (1978): 41–66.

______.“The Market Evaluation of Human Capital: The Case of Indentured Servitude.” Journal of Political Economy 89 (1981): 446–467.

______. White Servitude in Colonial America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

______.“The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis.” Journal of Economic History 44 (1984): 1–26.

______.“The Settlement and Growth of the Colonies: Population, Labor, and Economic Development.” In The Cambridge Economic History of the United States,Vol. I, eds. Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 135–207.

Gemery, Henry. “Emigration from the British Isles to the New World, 1630–1700.” In Research in Economic History, Vol. 5, ed. Paul Uselding. New York: Johnson, 1980, 179–232.

Graven, Philip. “Family Structure in Seventeenth Century Andover, Massachusetts.” William and Mary Quarterly (April 1966): 234–256.

Grubb, Farley. “The End of European Immigrant Servitude in the United States: An Economic Analysis of Market Collapse 1772–1835.” Journal of Economic History 54 (1994): 794–824.

______. “Colonial Labor Markets and the Length of Indenture: Further Evidence.” Explorations in Economic History 24 (1987): 101–106.

Grubb, Farley, and Tony Stitt. “Immigrant Servant Labor: Their Occupational and Geographic Distribution in the Late Eighteenth-Century Mid-Atlantic Economy.” Social Science History 9 (1985): 249–275.

———. “The Incidence of Servitude in Trans-Atlantic Migration, 1771–1804.” Explorations in Economic History 22 (1985): 316–339.

______.“The Market for Indentured Immigrants: Evidence on the Efficiency of Forward-Labor Contracting in Philadelphia, 1745–1773.” Journal of Economic History 45 (1985): 855–868.

______.“Redemptioner Immigration to Pennsylvania: Evidence on Contract Choice and Profitability.” Journal of Economic History 46 (1986): 407–418.

_______. “The Liverpool Emigrant Servant Trade and the Transition to Slave Labor in the Chesapeake, 1697–1707: Market Adjustments to War.” Explorations in Economic History 31 (1994): 376–405.

Hanes, Christopher. “Turnover Cost and the Distribution of Slave Labor in Anglo-America.” Journal of Economic History 56 (1966): 307–329.

Heavener, Robert. “Indentured Servitude: The Philadelphia Market, 1771–1773.” Journal of Economic History 38 (1978): 701–713.

Higgs, Robert, and Louis Stettler. “Colonial New England Demography: A Sampling Approach.” William and Mary Quarterly 27, no. 2 (1970): 282–294.

Hughes, Jonathan R. T. “William Penn and the Holy Experiment.” Chapter 2 in The Vital Few: American Economic History and Its Protagonists. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973 (reprint).

Jones, E. L. “The European Background.” In The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Vol. I, eds. Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 95–133.

Kulikoff, Allan. “A ‘Prolifick’ People: Black Population Growth in the Chesapeake Colonies, 1700–1790.” Southern Studies (1977): 391–428.

Lemon, James. The Best Poor Man’s Country: A Geographical Study of Early Southeastern Pennsylvania. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.

Mann, Charles. “1491.” The Atlantic Monthly 289, no. 3 (March 2002): 41–53.

McCusker, John J., and Russell Menard. The Economy of British America 1607–1789. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

Menard, Russell. “From Servants to Slaves: The Transformation of the Chesapeake Labor System.” Southern Studies (1977): 355–390.

Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Family: Religion and Domestic Relations in Seventeenth-Century New England. New York: Harper & Row, 1966.

———. “The First American Boom: Virginia 1618 to 1630.” William and Mary Quarterly 28 (1971).

———. American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. New York: Norton, 1975.

Morison, Samuel E. The Oxford History of the American People. New York: Oxford University Press, 1964.

Morris, Richard. Government and Labor in Early America. New York: Columbia University Press, 1946.

Nash, Gary. Red,White, and Black: The Peoples of Early America. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1974.

North, Douglass C., and R. P. Thomas. The Rise of the Western World. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1973.

Perkins, Edwin J. Chapter 1 in The Economy of Colonial America, 2d ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

Potter, Jim. “The Growth of Population in America, 1700–1860.” In Population in History: Essays in Historical Demography, eds. D. V. Glass and B. E. C. Eaversley. Chicago: Aldine, 1960.

Powell, Sumner C. Puritan Village: The Formation of a New England Town. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1963.

Rink, Oliver. Holland on the Hudson: An Economic and Social History of New York. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986.

Roback, Jennifer. “Exchange Sovereignty, and Indian-Anglo Relations.” In Property Rights and Indian Economies: The Political Economy Forum, ed. Terry Anderson. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 1992.

Rosenberg, Nathan, and L. E. Birdzell, Jr. Chapter 3 in How the West Grew Rich. New York: Basic Books, 1986.

Rosenblot, Angel. La Poblacion Indigena yel Mestizaje en America. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Nova, 1954.

Salisbury, Neal. “The History of Native Americans from Before the Arrival of the Europeans and Africans Until the American Civil War.” In The Cambridge Economic History of the United States,Vol. I, eds. Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 1–52.

Smith, Abbot E. Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labor in America, 1607– 1776. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1947.

Smith, Billy G. “Death and Life in a Colonial Immigrant City: A Demographic Analysis of Philadelphia.” Journal of Economic History 38 (1977): 863–889.

Smith, Daniel S. “The Demographic History of Colonial New England.” Journal of Economic History 32 (1972): 165–183.

______. “The Estimates of Early American Historical Demographers: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back,What Steps in the Future.” Historical Methods (1979): 24–38.

Thomas, Robert P., and Richard Bean. “The Adoption of Slave Labor in British America.” In The Uncommon Market: Essays in the Economic History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, eds. H. Genery and J. Hogendorn. New York: Academic Press, 1978.

Thornton, John K. “The African Background to American Colonization.” In The Cambridge Economic History of the United States,Vol. I, eds. Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 53–94.

Ver Steeg, Clarence. The Formative Years, 1607–1763. New York: Hill & Wang, 1964.

Walton, Gary M. “New Evidence on Colonial Commerce,” Journal of Economic History 28 (September 1968):


Walton, Gary M., and James F. Shepherd. The Economic Rise of Early America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Weeden, William B. Economic and Social History of New England, 1620–1789, 2 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1890.

Wells, Robert V. The Population of the British Colonies in America before 1776: A Survey of Census Data. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975.

Wood, Peter. “The Changing Population of the Colonial South: An Overview by Race and Region, 1685–1760.” In Powhatan’s Mantle: Indians in the Colonial Southeast, eds. Peter Wood, Gregory A.Waselkov, and Tomas M. Hartley. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.


Chapter 3

Colonial Economic Activities


Adams, Donald. “Prices and Wages in Maryland 1750–1850.” Journal of Economic History 46 (1986): 625–645.

Alston, Lee, and Morton Owen Shapiro. “Inheritance Laws Across Colonies: Causes and Consequences.” Journal of Economic History 44 (1984): 277–287.

Bailyn, Bernard. The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1955.

Bridenbaugh, Carl. The Colonial Craftsman. New York: New York University Press, 1950.

______. Cities in the Wilderness: The First Century of Urban Life in America, 1625–1742. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Bruchey, Stuart. The Colonial Merchant: Sources and Readings. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966.

Carlos, Ann M., and Frank D. Lewis. “Indians, the Beaver, and the Bay: The Economics of Depletion in the Lands of the Hudson Bay Company 1700–1763.” Journal of Economic History 53 (1993): 465–494.

______. “Property Rights and Competition in the Depletion of the Beaver: Native Americans and the Hudson Bay Company.” In The Other Side of the Frontier, ed. Linda Barrington. Boulder: Westview, 1999, 131–149.

Carr, Louis G., and Lorena Walsh. “The Planting Wife: The Experience of White Women in Seventeenth Century Maryland.” William and Mary Quarterly 34 (1977): 542–571.

Carroll, Charles. The Timber Economy of Puritan New England. Providence, R.I.: Brown University Press, 1973.

Clark, Victor S. History of Manufacturers in the United States 1607–1860.Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1916.

Coelho, Philip R., and Robert A. McGuire. “African and European Bound Labor in the British New World: The Biological Consequences of Economic Choices.” Journal of Economic History 37 (1997): 83–115.

Coon, David. “Eliza Lucas Pinckney and the Reintroduction of Indigo Culture in South Carolina.” Journal of Southern History (1976): 61–76.

Doerflinger,Thomas. “Commercial Specialization in Philadelphia’s Merchant Community 1750–1791.” Business History Review 57 (1983): 20–49.

Goldenberg, Joseph. Shipbuilding in Colonial America. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976.

Gray, Lewis C. History of Agriculture in the Southern United States to 1860. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1933.

Gray, Ralph, and Betty Wood. “The Transition From Indentured Servant to Involuntary Servitude in Colonial Georgia.” Explorations in Economic History 13 (October 1976): 353–370.

Greenberg, Michael. “William Byrd II and the World of the Market.” Southern Studies (1977): 429–456.

Hedges, James. The Browns of Providence Plantation: The Colonial Years. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952.

Henretta, James. “Economic Development and Social Structure in Colonial Boston.” William and Mary Quarterly 22 (1965).

Jensen, Joan. Loosening the Bonds: Mid-Atlantic Farm Women 1750–1850. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.

Jones, Alice Hanson. “The Wealth of Women, 1774.” Strategic Factors in Nineteenth Century American Economic History, eds. Clauda Goldin and Hugh Rockoff. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Klingaman, David. “The Significance of Grain in the Development of the Tobacco Colonies.” Journal of Economic History (1969): 267–278.

Menard, Russell R. “Economic and Social Development of the South.” In The Cambridge Economic History of the United States,Vol. I, eds. Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 249–295.

McCusker, J. J., and R. R. Menard. Part II and Chapters 14 and 15 in The Economy of British America, 1607–1789. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

McManis, Douglas. Colonial New England: A Historical Geography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Norton,Thomas. The Fur Trade in Colonial New York, 1686–1766. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1974.

Paskoff, Paul. Industrial Evolution: Organization, Structure, and Growth of the Pennsylvania Iron Industry, 1750–1860. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983.

Perkins, E. J. Section 1 in The Economy of Colonial America, 2d ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

Price, Jacob M. 1989. What did merchants do? reflections on british overseas trade, 1660-1790. The Journal of Economic History 49, (2, The Tasks of Economic History) (Jun.): 267-84.

———. 1980. Capital and credit in british overseas trade : The view from the chesapeake, 1700-1776. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

———. 1976. A note on the value of colonial exports of shipping. The Journal of Economic History 36, (3) (Sep.): 704-24.

———. 1973. France and the chesapeake; a history of the french tobacco monopoly, 1674-1791, and of its relationship to the british and american tobacco trades. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

———. 1964. The economic growth of the chesapeake and the european market, 1697-1775. The Journal of Economic History 24, (4) (Dec.): 496-511.

[Jacob M. Price, a former president of the Economic History Association, was a leading authority on the Colonial period and the author of many other important works in addition to those listed here.]
Schweitzer, Mary. Custom and Contract: Household Government, and the Economy in Colonial Pennsylvania. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.

Shammas, Carol. “The Female Social Structure of Philadelphia in 1775.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography (1983): 69–138.

Stackpole, Edward. The Sea-Hunters: The New England Whalemen During Two Centuries, 1635–1835. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1953.

Vickers, Daniel. “The First Whalemen of Nantucket.” William and Mary Quarterly 40 (1983): 560–583.

______. “The Northern Colonies: Economy and Society, 1600–1775.” In The Cambridge Economic History of the United States,Vol. I, eds. Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 209–248

Wallace, Anthony C. The Death and Rebirth of the Seneca. New York: Knopf, 1970.

Chapter 4

The Economic Relations


of the Colonies
Andrews, Charles M. The Colonial Period of American History. Vol. 4 of England’s Commercial and Colonial Policy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1938).

Barrow, Thomas. Trade and Empire: The British Customs Service in Colonial America, 1660–1775 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967).

Becker, Robert A. Revolution, Reform, and the Politics of Taxation in America: 1763–1783 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1980).

Beer, George L. British Colonial Policy, 1754–1765 (Gloucester: Smith, 1958).

Bernstein, M. L. “Colonial and Contemporary Monetary Theory.” Explorations in Entrepreneurial History 3, no. 3, 2d series (Spring 1966).

Bezanson, Ann, et al. Prices in Colonial Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1935.

Breen,Timothy H. Tobacco Culture:The Mentality of the Great Tidewater Planters on the Eve of the Revolution (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985).

Brock, Leslie. The Currency System of the American Colonies, 1700–1764 (New York: Arno, 1975).

Bruchey, Stuart. The Roots of American Economic Growth 1607–1861: An Essay in Social Causation (London: Hutchinson University Library, 1965).

———. The Colonial Merchant: Sources and Readings (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966).

Coleman, D. C., ed. Revisions in Mercantilism (London: Methuen, 1969).

Dickerson, Oliver M. American Colonial Government 1696–1765 (Cleveland: Clark, 1912).

———. The Navigation Acts and the American Revolution (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1951).

Dillard, Dudley. Economic Development of the North Atlantic Community. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1967.

Ernst, Joseph. Money and Politics in America, 1755–1775 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1973).

Evans, Emory. “Planter Indebtedness and the Coming of the Revolution in Virginia, 1776 to 1796.” William and Mary Quarterly 19, 2d series (1962): 511–533.

Faulkner, Harold U. American Economic History, 8th ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1960.

Greene, Jack P., and Richard M. Jellison. “The Currency Act of 1764 in Imperial-Colonial Relations, 1764–1776.” William and Mary Quarterly 18 (4), 2d series (October 1961).

Grubb, Farley. “Money Supply in the British North American Colonies.” In Palgrave Dictionary of Economics [online version], 2009.

Gwyn, Julian. “British Government Spending and the North American Colonies, 1740–1775.”Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 8 (1984): 74–84.

Hacker, Louis M. “The First American Revolution.” Columbia University Quarterly, part 1 (September 1935). Reprinted in Gerald D. Nash. Issues in American Economic History (New York: D. C. Heath, 1972).

Hanson, John R. “Money in the Colonial American Economy: An Extension.” Economic Inquiry (1979): 281–286.

———.“Small Notes in the American Economy.” Explorations in Economic History 21 (1984): 411–420.

Harper, Lawrence A. The English Navigation Laws (New York: Columbia University Press, 1939).

———. “Mercantilism and the American Revolution.” Canadian Historical Review (March 1942). Reprinted in Gerald D. Nash. Issues in American Economic History (New York: Heath, 1972).

Historical Statistics. Series Z585. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1976.

Hoffman, Ronald, et al., eds. The Economy of Early America: The Revolutionary Period, 1763–1790. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1988.

Hughes, J. R.T. Social Control in the Colonial Economy (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1976).

Johnson, E. R., et al. History of Domestic and Foreign Commerce of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1915.

Kirkland, Edward. A History of American Economic Life. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1960.

Kulikoff, Allan. “The Economic Growth of the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake Colonies.” Journal of Economic History 39 (1979): 275–288.

Land, Aubrey C. “Economic Behavior in a Planting Society: The Eighteenth Century Chesapeake.” Journal of Southern History 32 (1967): 482–483.

Lester, Richard A. “Currency Issues to Overcome Depressions in Pennsylvania, 1723 and 1729.” Journal of Political Economy 71 (1963): 324–375.

McCusker, John J. Monetary Experiments: Early American and Recent Scandinavian (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1939).

———. “British Mercantilist Policies and the American Colonies.” In The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Vol. I, eds. Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 337–362.

Neal, Larry. “Interpreting Power and Profit in Economic History: A Case Study of the Seven Years’ War.” Journal of Economic History 37 (1977): 20–35.

Nettels, Curtis P. “British Policy and Colonial Money Supply.” Economic History Review 3 (1931).

———. The Money Supply of the American Colonies Before 1720 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1934).

Pares, Richard. Yankees and Creoles. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1956.

Perkins, Edwin J. Chapters 2 and 7 in The Economy of Colonial America, 2d ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988).

Price, Jacob. “The Economic Growth of the Chesapeake and the European Market, 1697–1775.” Journal of Economic History 24 (1964): 496–511.

———. “Economic Function and the Growth of American Port Towns in the Eighteenth Century.” In Perspectives in American History, Vol. 8, eds. D. Fleming and B. Bailyn (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974).

———. “A Note on the Value of Colonial Exports of Shipping.” Journal of Economic History 36 (1976): 704–724.

———. Capital and Credit in British Overseas Trade: The View from the Chesapeake, 1700–1776 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980).

Robertson, Ross M. History of the American Economy, 2nd ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1964.

Rosenberg, Nathan, and L. E. Birdzell, Jr. Chapter 4 in How the West Grew Rich (New York: Basic Books, 1986).

Schweitzer, Mary McKinney. “Economic Regulation and the Colonial Economy: The Maryland Tobacco Inspection Act of 1747.” Journal of Economic History 40 (1980): 551–570.

Shepherd, James F., and Gary M. Walton. Shipping, Maritime Trade and the Economic Development of Colonial North America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972).

Shepherd, James F., and Samuel Williamson. “The Coastal Trade of the British North American Colonies 1768–1772.” Journal of Economic History 32 (1972): 783–810.

Smith, Bruce. “Some Colonial Evidence on Two Theories of Money: Maryland and the Carolinas.” Journal of Political Economy 93 (1985): 1178–1211.

Studenski, Paul, and Herman Krooss. Financial History of the United States (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1952).

Thomas, Peter D. G. “The Cost of the British Army in North America, 1763–1775.” William and Mary Quarterly 45 (1988): 510–516.

Ver Steeg, Clarence. The Formative Years, 1607–1763 (New York: Hill & Wang, 1964).

Walton, Gary M. “New Evidence on Colonial Commerce.” Journal of Economic History 28 (September 1968): 363–389.

Walton, Gary M., and James F. Shepherd. The Economic Rise of Early America (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1979).

Weiss, Roger. “The Issue of Paper Money in the American Colonies, 1720–1774.” Journal of Economic History 30 (1970): 770–785.

———. “The Colonial Monetary Standards Of Massachusetts.” Economic History Review 27 (4), 2d Series (November 1974).

Wicker, Elmus. “Colonial Monetary Standards Contrasted: Evidence From The Seven Years’ War.” Journal Of Economic History 45 (1985): 860–884.

Williamson, Harold F. ed. The Growth of the American Economy, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1951.

Wright, Chester W. Economic History of the United States. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1941.

Chapter 5

Economic Progress and Wealth

Anderson, Terry. The Economic Growth Of Seventeenth-Century New England: A Measurement Of Regional Income (New York: Arno, 1975).

———. “Economic Growth In Colonial New England: ‘Statistical Renaissance.’” Journal Of Economic History 39 (1979): 243–257.

Anderson, Terry, And Steven Lacombe. “Institutional Change In The Indian Horse Culture.” In The Other Side Of The Frontier, Ed. Linda Barrington (Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1999).

Anderson, Terry, And Robert Paul Thomas. “White Population, Labor Force, And Extensive Growth Of The New England Economy In The Seventeenth Century.” Journal Of Economic History 33 (1973): 634–661.

———. “Economic Growth In The Seventeenth Century Colonies.” Explorations In Economic History 15 (1978): 368–387.

Ball, Duane, And Gary M. Walton. “Agricultural Productivity Change In Eighteenth-Century Pennsylvania.” Journal Of Economic History 36 (1976): 102–117.

Barbour, Violet. “Privateers and Pirates in the West Indies.” American Historical Review 16 (1911): 529.

Bezanson, Ann, et al. Prices in Colonial Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1935.

Bidwell, P. W., and J. I. Falconer. History of Agriculture in the Northern United States, 1620–1860. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1925.

Bruchey, Stuart, ed. The Colonial Merchant: Sources and Readings. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1966.

Carr, Lois G., And Lorena S. Walsh. “Changing Life Styles In Colonial St. Mary’s County.” In Economic Change In Chesapeake Colonies, Eds. G. Porter And W. Mulligan (Greenville: Regional Economic History Research Center, 1978).

Daniels, Bruce. “Long Range Trends Of Wealth Distribution In Eighteenth-Century New England.” Explorations In Economic History 11 (1973–1974): 123–135.

———. “Economic Development In Colonial And Revolutionary Connecticut: An Overview.” William And Mary Quarterly 37 (1980): 427–450.

Deane, Phyllis, and W. A. Cole. British Economic Growth, 1688–1959:Trends and Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1964.

Doerflinger, Thomas. A Vigorous Spirit Of Enterprise: Merchants And Economic Development In Revolutionary Philadelphia (Chapel Hill: University Of North Carolina Press, 1986).

Egnal, Marc. “The Economic Development Of The Thirteen Continental Colonies, 1720 To 1775.” William And Mary Quarterly 32 (1975): 191–222.

Galenson, David, And Russell Menard. “Economics And Early American History.” Newberry Papers, No. 77-4e. (Chicago, 1978).

Gallman, Robert E. “Changes in Total U.S. Agricultural Factor Productivity in the Nineteenth Century.” Agricultural History 46 (1972): 191–210.

______. “The Agricultural Sector and the Pace of Economic Growth: U.S. Experience in the Nineteenth Century.” In Essays in Nineteenth Century Economic History, eds. David C. Klingaman and Richard K. Vedder, 35–76. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1975.

Hanson, John R. “The Economic Development Of The Thirteen Colonies, 1720 To 1775: A Critique.” William And Mary Quarterly 37 (1980): 165–172.

Henretta, James. “Economic Development and Social Structure in Colonial Boston.” William and Mary Quarterly 22 (1965): 93–105.

Hughson, S. C. “The Carolina Pirates and Colonial Commerce.” Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science 12 (1894): 123.

Jones, Alice H. American Colonial Wealth: Documents And Methods, 3 Vols. (New York: Arno, 1978.)

———.Wealth Of A Nation To Be: The American Colonies On The Eve Of The Revolution (New York: Columbia University Press, 1980).

Jones, Douglas L. “The Strolling Poor: Transiency In Eighteenth-Century Massachusetts.” Journal Of Social History (1975): 28–54.

Kulikoff, Allan. “The Economic Growth Of The Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake Colonies.” Journal Of Economic History 39 (1979): 275–288.

———. Tobacco And Slaves: The Development Of Southern Cultures In The Chesapeake, 1680–1800 (Chapel Hill: University Of North Carolina Press, 1986).

Lemon, James T. Best Poor Man’s Country: A Geographical Study of Early Southwestern Pennsylvania. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972.

Maddison, Angus. “A Comparison Of Levels Of Gdp Per Capita In Developed And Developing Countries, 1700–1980.” Journal Of Economic History 43 (1983): 27–41.

Main, Gloria. Tobacco Colony: Life In Early Maryland. (Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1982).

———. “The Standard Of Living In Colonial Massachusetts.” Journal Of Economic History 43 (1983): 101–108.

Main, Gloria, And Jackson T. Main. “Economic Growth And The Standard Of Living In Southern New England, 1640–1774.” Journal Of Economic History 48 (1988): 27–46.

Main, Jackson T. The Social Structure of Revolutionary America. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1965.

———. “Standard Of Living And Life Cycle In Colonial Connecticut.” Journal Of Economic History 43 (1983): 159–165.

Mccusker, John J., And Russell R. Menard. Chapters 3 And 12 In The Economy Of British America, 1607–1789 (Chapel Hill: University Of North Carolina Press, 1985).

Menard, Russell R. “Farm Prices of Maryland Tobacco, 1659–1710.” Maryland Historical Magazine 58 (Spring 1973): 85.

______. “A Note on Chesapeake Tobacco Prices, 1618–1660.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography (1976): 401–410.

Paskoff, Paul. “Labor Productivity And Managerial Efficiency Against A Static Technology: The Pennsylvania Iron Industry, 1750–1800.” Journal Of Economic History 40 (1980): 129–135.

Pencak, William. “The Social Structure Of Revolutionary Boston: Evidence From The Great Fire Of 1760.” Journal Of Interdisciplinary History (1979): 267–278.

Perkins, Edwin. “The Material Lives Of Laboring Philadelphians, 1750 To 1800.” William And Mary Quarterly 38 (1981): 163–202.

———. Chapter 1 In The Economy Of Colonial America, 2d Ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988).

Schweitzer, Mary. Custom And Contract: Household Government And The Economy In Colonial Pennsylvania (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987).

Shepherd, James F., and Gary M. Walton. Shipping, Maritime Trade, and the Economic Development of Colonial North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972.

Smith, Billy G. “Inequality In Late Colonial Philadelphia: A Note On Its Nature And Growth.” William And Mary Quarterly 41 (1984): 629–645.

Taylor, George R. “American Economic Growth before 1840: An Exploratory Essay.” Journal of Economic History 24 (1964): 437.

Walsh, Lorena S. “Urban Amenities And Rural Sufficiency: Living Standards And Consumer Behavior In The Colonial Chesapeake, 1643–1777.” Journal Of Economic History 43 (1983): 109–117.

Walton, Gary M. “Sources of Productivity Change in American Colonial Shipping.” Economic History Review 20 (April 1967): 67–78.

Williamson, Jeffrey G., and Peter H. Lindert. American Inequality: A Macroeconomic History. New York: Academic Press, 1980.

Chapter 6

Three Crises and Revolt


Andrews, Charles. “The American Revolution: An Interpretation.” American Historical Review 31 (1926): 232.

Barrow, Thomas. Trade And Empire: The British Customs Service In Colonial America, 1660–1775 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967).

Becker, Robert A. Revolution, Reform, And The Politics Of Taxation In America: 1763–1783 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1980).

Beer, George L. The Old Colonial System 1660–1754 (New York: Macmillan, 1912).

Bruchey, Stuart. The Colonial Merchant. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1966.

Davis, Lance E., And Robert A. Huttenback. “The Cost Of Empire.” In Explorations In The New Economic History, Eds. Roger L. Ransom, Richard Sutch, And Gary M. Walton (New York: Academic Press, 1982).

Ernst, Joseph, And Marc Egnal. “An Economic Interpretation Of The American Revolution.” William And Mary Quarterly 29 (1972): 3–32.

Hacker, Louis M. “The First American Revolution.” Columbia University Quarterly, Part 1 (September 1935). Reprinted In Gerald D. Nash. Issues In American Economic History (New York: Heath, 1972).

Harper, Lawrence. “The Effects Of The Navigation Acts On The Thirteen Colonies.” In The Era Of The American Revolution, Ed. Richard Morris (New York: Columbia University Press, 1939).

______. “Mercantilism and the American Revolution.” Canadian Historical Review 25 (1942): 14.

Hughes, Jonathan. American Economic History, 3rd ed. Glenview: Scott, Foresman, 1990, 59.

Matson, Cathy. “The Revolution, The Constitution, And The New Nation.” In The Cambridge Economic History Of The United States, Vol. I, Eds. Stanley L. Engerman And Robert E. Gallman (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 363–401.

______. Merchants & Empire: Trading in Colonial New York. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Matson, Cathy and Peter S. Onuf.. A Union of Interests: Political and Economic Thought in Revolutionary America. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 1990.

Mcclelland, Peter D. “The Cost To America Of British Imperial Policy.” American Economic Review: Papers And Proceedings 59 (7), (May 1969): 370–381.

Miller, John C. Origins Of The American Revolution (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1959).

Morgan, Edmund S. The American Revolution: A Review Of Changing Interpretations (Washington, D.C.: Service Center For Teachers Of History, 1958).

Morgan, Edmund, And Helen Morgan. The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue To Revolution (Chapel Hill: University Of North Carolina Press, 1963).

Nash, Gary. The Urban Crucible (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979).

Nettels, Curtis P. “British Mercantilism And The Economic Development Of The Thirteen Colonies.” Journal Of Economic History 12 (1952): 105–114.

Ostrander, Gilman M. “The Colonial Molasses Trade.” Agricultural History 30 (1956): 77–84.

Perkins, Edwin J. Chapters 7 And 8 In The Economy Of Colonial America, 2d Ed (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988).

Ransom, Roger. “British Policy And Colonial Growth: Some Implications Of The Burdens Of The Navigation Acts.” Journal Of Economic History 27 (1968): 427–435.

Reid, Joseph D. “On Navigating The Navigation Acts With Peter D. Mcclelland.” American Economic Review 60 (1970): 949–955.

———. “Economic Burdens: Spark To The American Revolution?” Journal Of Economic History 38 (1978): 81–120.

Sawyers, Larry. “The Navigation Acts Revisited.” Economic History Review 45 (2), (May 1992): 262–284.

Tansill, Charles C. Documents Illustrative of the Union of the Formation of the American States. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1927.

Thomas, Robert P. “A Quantitative Approach To The Study Of The Effects Of British Imperial Policy On Colonial Welfare: Some Preliminary Findings.” Journal Of Economic History 25 (1965): 615–638.

———. “British Imperial Policy And The Economic Interpretation Of The American Revolution.” Journal Of Economic History 28 (1968): 436–440.

Tucker, Robert W., And David Hendrickson. The Fall Of The British Empire: Origins And The Fall Of The British Empire (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982).

Ver Steeg, Clarence. “The American Revolutionary Movement Considered As An Economic Movement.” Huntington Library Journal 20 (1957).

Walton, Gary M. “The New Economic History And The Burdens Of The Navigation Acts.” Economic History Review 24 (4), 2d Series, (1971): 533–542.

Walton, Gary M., And James F. Shepherd. Chapter 8 In The Economic Rise Of Early America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979).

Chapter 7

Hard Realities for
a New Nation
Adams, Donald R., Jr. “American Neutrality and Prosperity, 1793–1808: A Reconsideration.” Journal of Economic History, 40 (1980): 713–738.

Beard, Charles A. An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution (New York: Macmillian, 1913).

Bjork, Gordon C. “The Weaning of the American Economy: Independence, Market Changes and Economic Development.” Journal of Economic History 24 (1964): 541–560.

Calomiris, Charles W. “Institutional Failure, Monetary Scarcity, and the Depreciation of the Continental.” Journal of Economic History 48 (1988): 47–68.

Churchill, Winston S. A History of the English-Speaking Peoples, Vol. I. The Birth of Britain. New York: Dorset, 1990.

Gilbert, Geoffery. “The Role of Breadstuffs in American Trade, 1770–1790.” Explorations in Economic History 14 (1977):378–387.

Goldin, Claudia D., and Frank D. Lewis. “The Role of Exports in American Economic Growth during the Napoleonic Wars, 1793–1807.” Explorations in Economic History 17 (1980): 6–25.

Jensen, Merrill. The New Nation: A History of the United States during Confederation (New York: Knopf, 1958).

Jones, Alice H. Wealth of a Nation to Be (New York:Columbia University Press, 1980).

Matson, Cathy. “The Revolution, the Constitution, and the New Nation.” InThe Cambridge Economic History of the United States. Vol. 1, eds. Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman (Cambridge University Press, 1996), 363–401.

McGuire, Robert A., and Robert L. Ohsfeldt. “Economic Interests and the American Constitution: A Quantitative Rehabilitation of Charles A. Beard.” Journal of Economic History 44 (June 1984): 509–519.

———. “An Economic Model of Voting Behavior over Specific Issues at the Constitutional Convention of 1787.” Journal of Economic History 46 (1986): 79–112.

Nettels, Curtis P. Chapters 3 and 4 in The Emergence of a National Economy, 1775–1815 (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1962).

North, Douglass C. The Economic Growth of the United States, 1790–1860. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1961.


[A classic by a future Nobel Prize winner, this book is the source, among other ideas, of the "North thesis" which puts Southern cotton production at the center of the antebellum growth process.]
———. “Early National Income Estimates of the United States.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 9 (3), (April 1961).

Ohsfeldt, Robert L. “An Economic Model of Voting Behavior over Specific Issues at the Constitutional Convention of 1787.” Journal of Economic History 46 (1986): 79–82.

Shepherd, James F., and Gary M. Walton. “Economic Change after the American Revolution:Pre-War and Post-War Comparisons of Maritime Shipping and Trade.” Explorations in Economic History 13 (1976): 397–422.

Chapter 8

Land and the Early
Westward Movements
Arrington, Leonard J. and DavisBitton. The Mormon Experience (New York: Knopf, 1979).

Atack, Jeremy, Fred Bateman, and William N. Parker. “Northern Agriculture and the Westward Movement.” In The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, vol. II, The Long Nineteenth Century, eds. Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 285–328.

Barrington, Linda, ed. The Other Side of the Frontier (Boulder: Westview, 1999).

Berry, Thomas. Western Prices before 1861 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1943).

Bidwell, Percy, and John Falconer. History of Agriculture in the Northern United States 1620–1860 (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1925).

Billington, Ray A. “The Origin of the Land Speculator as a Frontier Type.” Agricultural History 9 (October 1945).

———. Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier (New York: Macmillan, 1949).

Bogue, Allan C. “Farming in the Prairie Peninsula 1830–1890.” Journal of Economic History 23 (March 1963).

———. From Prairie to Cornbelt: Farming on the Illinois and Iowa Prairies in the Nineteenth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963).

Bogue, Allan C., and Margaret Bogue. “Profits and the Frontier Land Speculation.” Journal of Economic History 37 (March 1957).

Carstensen, Vernon, ed. The Public Lands: Studies in the History of the Public Domain (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1963).

Carson, Scott A. “Industrial Migration in America’s Great Basin,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 33 (3), (2002): 387–403.

Cole, Arthur H. “Cyclical and Sectional Variations in the Sale of the Public Lands, 1816–1860.” Review of Economics and Statistics 9 (1927). Reprinted in Vernon Carstensen, ed. The Public Lands (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1963).

Danhof, Clarence.“Farm Making Costs and the Safety Valve, 1855–60.” In The Public Lands, ed. Vernon Carstensen (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1963).

———. Change in Agriculture: The Northern United States, 1820–1870 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969).

Freund, Rudolf. “Military Bounty Lands and the Origin of the Public Domain.” Agricultural History 20 (1946). Reprinted in Vernon Carstensen, ed. The Public Lands (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1963).

Gates, Paul W. “The Role of the Land Speculator in Western Development.” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 66 (1942). Reprinted in Vernon Carstensen, ed. The Public Lands (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1963).

———. The Farmer’s Age: Agriculture, 1815–1860. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1960.

———. “Charts of Public Land Sales and Entries.” Journal of Economic History 24 (March, 1964).

———. History of Public Land Law Development. (Washington, D.C.: Public Land Law Review Commission, 1968).

Haites, Eric F., James Mak, and Gary M. Walton. Western River Transportation: The Era of Early InternalImprovements. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975.

Historical Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1960.

Holiday, J. S., Rush for Riches: Gold Fever and the Making of California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).

Hughes, Jonathon R.T. “The Great Land Ordinances: Colonial America’s Thumb Print on History.” In Essays on the Economic Significance of the Old Northwest, eds. David C. Klingaman and Richard K.Vedder (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1987), 1–18.

Lebergott, Stanley. “‘O Pioneers’: Land Speculation and the Growth of the Midwest.” In Essays on the Economy of the Old Northwest, ed. David C. Klingaman and Richard K. Vedder (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1987), 37–58.

Martin, Albro. Review of David H. Fischer, Historians’ Fallacies: Toward a Logic of Historical Thought. New York: Harper & Row, 1971. In Journal of Economic History 32 (December 1972): 968–970.

Merk, Frederick. History of the Westward Movement (New York: Knopf, 1978).

North, Douglass C. Economic Growth of the United States 1790–1860 (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1961).

North, Douglass C., and Andrew R. Rutten. “The Northwest Ordinance in Historical Perspective.” In Essays on the Economy of the Old Northwest, ed. David C. Klingaman and Richard K.Vedder (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1987), 19–36.

Parker, William. “Agriculture.” Chapter 11 in American Economic Growth: An Economist’s History of the United States, ed. Lance E. Davis et al. (New York: Harper & Row, 1972).

Parker, William, and Judith Klein. “Productivity Growth in Grain Production in the United States.” In Output, Employment and Productivity in the United States after 1800, vol. 30, ed. Dorothy Brady. National Bureau of Economic Research, Studies in Income and Wealth (New York: Columbia University Press, 1966).

Primack, Martin. “Land Clearing under 19th Century Techniques.” Journal of Economic History 22 (December 1962).

Riegel, Robert E., and Robert G. Athearn. America Moves West (New York: Holt, 1964).

Rohrbough, Malcolm. The Land Office Business: The Settlement and Administration of American Public Lands, 1789–1837 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1968).

Rothenberg, Winifred B. “The Market and Massachusetts Farmers, 1750–1855.” Journal of Economic History 41 (1981): 283–314.

Stagner, Wallace. The Gathering of Zion (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964).

Steckel, Richard. “The Economic Foundations of East-West Migration during the 19th Century.” Explorations in Economic History 20 (1983): 14–36.

Treat, Payson J. “Origin of the National Land System under the Confederation.” American Historical Association Report (1905). Reprinted in Vernon Carstensen, ed. The Public Lands (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1963).

Temin, Peter. The Jacksonian Economy. New York: Norton, 1969.

Turner, Frederick Jackson. The Frontier in American History (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1921).

Umbeck, John. “The California Gold Rush: A Study of Emerging Property Rights.” Explorations in Economic History 14 (1977): 192–226.

U.S. Census Bureau, a Compendium of the Ninth Census, June 1, 1870, by Francis A. Walker, Superintendent of the Census (Washington, D.C.: 1872).

Walker, Francis A. A Compendium of the Ninth Census, June 1, 1870. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau, 1872.

Walton, Gary M. Chills along the Sweetwater (Salt Lake City, Utah: Origin Book Sales, 1999).

Weeks, Philip. Farewell My Nation: The American Indian and the United States, 1820–1890. Wheeling, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1990.

Weiman, David F. “Peopling the Land by Lottery? The Market in Public Lands and the Regional Differentiation of Territory on the Georgia Frontier.” Journal of Economic History 51 (1991): 835–860.

Wishart, David M. “Could the Cherokee Have Survived in the Southeast?” In The Other Side of the Frontier, ed. Linda Barrington (Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1999), 165–189.

Wyman, Walker D., and Clifton B. Kroeber, eds. The Frontier in Perspective (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1957).

Chapter 9

Transportation and
Market Growth
Albion, Robert G. Square-Riggers on Schedule. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1938.

———. The Rise of the New York Port, 1815–1860. Hamden, Conn.: Archon, 1961.

Berry, Thomas S. Western Prices before 1861. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1943.

Callender, Guy S. “The Early Transportation and Banking Enterprises of the States in Relation to the Growth of the Corporation.” Quarterly Journal of Economics XVII (1930): 111–162.

Chandler, Alfred D., Jr. The Railroads. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1965.

Cootner, Paul. “The Role of the Railroads in the United States Economic Growth.” Journal of Economic History 23 (1963).

David, Paul. “Transport Innovation and Economic Growth; Professor Fogel On and Off the Rails.” Economic History Review 22 (3), 2d series, (1969).

Fishlow, Albert. “Antebellum Interregional Trade Reconsidered.” American Economic Review 54 (May 1964): 352–364.

———. American Railroads and the Transformation of the Antebellum Economy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965.

———. “Internal Transportation,” in American Economic Growth, ed. Lance E. Davis et al. (New York: Harper & Row, 1972).

———. “Internal Transportation in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries.” In The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, Vol. II, The Long Nineteenth Century, eds. Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000, 543–642.

Fogel, Robert W. “Discussion.” American Economic Review 54 (May 1964): 377–389.

Gallman, Robert E. “Self-Sufficiency in the Cotton Economy of the Antebellum South.” Agricultural History 44 (1970): 5–23.

Goodrich, Carter H. Government Promotion of American Canals and Railroads, 1800–1890. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.

———. The Government and the Economy, 1783–1861. Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, 1967.

———. “Internal Improvements Reconsidered.” Journal of Economic History 30 (June 1970): 289–311.

Goodrich, Carter H., et al. Canals and American Economic Development. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961.

Haites, Erik F., James Mak, and Gary M. Walton. Western River Transportation: The Era of Early Internal Development, 1810–1860. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975.



Historical Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1960.

Hunter, Louis. Steamboats on the Western Rivers. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1949.

Jenks, Leland H. “Railroads as a Force in American Development.” In Enterprise and Secular Change, ed. Frederic C. Lane and Jelle Riemersma. Homewood, Ill.: Irwin, 1953.

Lanman, James H. “American Steam Navigation.” Hunt’s Merchants’ Magazine and Commercial Review 4 (1841): 124.

Lindert, Peter H. “Long-Run Trends in American Farmland Values.” Agricultural History (Summer 1988): 60.

Lindstrom, Diane L. “Demand, Markets and Eastern Economic Development, Philadelphia, 1815–1840.” Journal of Economic History 25 (1975): 271–273.

Lindstrom, Diane L., and John Sharpless. “Urban Growth and Economic Structure in Antebellum America.” In Research in Economic History, Vol. 3. Greenwich, Conn.: JAI, 1978.

Majewski, John. “Who Financed the Transportation Revolution? Regional Divergence and Internal Improvements in Antebellum Pennsylvania and Virginia.” Journal of Economic History 56 (1996): 763–788.

Majewski, John, Christopher Baer, and Daniel B. Klein. “Responding to Relative Decline: The Plank Road Boom of Antebellum New York.” Journal of Economic History 53 (1993): 106–122.

Mak, James, and Gary Walton. “Steamboat and the Great Productivity Surge in River Transportation.” Journal of Economic History 33 (1972): 619–640.

McIlwraith, Thomas F. “Freight Capacity and Utilization of the Erie and Great Lakes Canals before 1850.” Journal of Economic History 36 (December 1976).

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Niemi, Albert W., Jr. “A Further Look at Regional Canals and Economic Specialization: 1820–1840.” Explorations in Economic History 7 (1970): 499–522.

———. “A Closer Look at Canals and Western Manufacturing in the Canal Era: A Reply.” Explorations in Economic History 9 (1972): 423–426.

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———. “The Role of Transportation in the Economic Development of North America.” A paper presented to the International Congress of the Historical Sciences, Vienna, August 1965, and published in Les Grandes Voies Maritimes dans le Monde XVe–XIXe Siecles. Paris: Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 1965.

______. Growth and Welfare in the American Past. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1973.

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———. “Social Rates of Return from Public Transport Investment: A Case Study of the Ohio Canal.” Journal of Political Economy 78 (1970): 1041–1060.

———. “A Closer Look at Canals and Western Manufacturing in the Canal Era.” Explorations in Economic History 8 (1971): 501–510.

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Chapter 10

Market Expansion and


Industry in First Transition
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“A Collection of Historical Documents Relating to the Steam Engine.”




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