American Studies Midterm Study Guide (History Section)



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American Studies

Midterm Study Guide (History Section)

Exam is based on the Political Spectrum, Gilded Age, Progressive Era, WWI, Roaring 20s, Great Depression

Political Spectrum

Left Wing

Right Wing

Revolutionary

  • Extreme Change thru violence

  • Total gov. control of economy (Communism)

  • Total government ownership of land and business

  • Total Control over individual’s social life

Liberal

Change thru democracy

Some gov. control of economy (regulated capitalism & socialism)

Some gov. ownership of land & business

Favor little government control over individual’s social life

Conservative


  • Little Change thru democracy

  • Little to no government control of economy (laissez-faire capitalism)

  • Little to no gov. ownership of land or business

  • Some Gov. control over individual social life

Reactionary

  • Reversal of change thru violence

  • Favor total control of economy (Gov. controlled capitalism)

  • Favor private ownership of land & business under gov. control

  • Total control over individual’s social life


Examples
-Soviet Union

-The Bolsheviks

-North Korea

-Support total government control over the economy

-no profit, no provide ownership of business

-Total control over press, speech, education

-Democratic Party

-Obama, Clinton

-Pro Choice

-Supporters of same-sex marriage, legalization of marijuana

-higher taxes on wealthy

-support laws regulating business

-Republican Party

-Bush, Reagan

-Anti-Abortion

-Against same-sex marriage

-Against legalization of marijuana

-support low taxes on wealthy (benefits would trickle down to poor)

-usually against laws regulating business (laissez faire)



-NAZIS

- Fascist governments

-KKK

-support total government control over economy

-Allow business to make profit

-allow private ownership of business

-Total control over press, speech, education

-support laws limiting immigration


1

tariff which tries to protect American companies from foreign competition

(Protective)

2

conservative candidate in 1896

(McKinley)

3

Carnegie's idea that the rich have a duty to give back to society

(Gospel of Wealth)

4

policy of the US government in which $ was backed by gold only

(Tight)

5

poor Scottish immigrant who eventually became one of the wealthiest industrialists of the 1900s

(Carnegie)

6

political view that favors change through the democratic process

(Liberalism)

7

buying unneeded things in order to show status & wealth

(Conspicuous Consumption)

8

Father of the modern Skyscraper

(Sullivan)

9

Supreme Court decision that said a state can regulate the rates of grain elevators

(Munn v Illinois)

10

organization of workers who band together to form a collective voice

(Union)

11

when workers refuse to work in order to press the co. for their interests

(Strike)

12

strike in which Eugene V. Debs tried to help Pullman workers get higher wages

(Pullman Strike)

13

political view that favors as little change as possible and a laissez-faire economic policy

(Conservativism)

14

idea that in society the strong people become rich because they're better while weak get poor

(Social Darwinism)

15

liberal candidate in 1896 who was a friend to farmers and laborers

(William Jennings Bryan)

16

led an "army" of people to the White House in 1893 to ask the government to help unemployed workers affected by the Panic

(Coxey)

17

photojournalist who exposed the evils of child labor

Hine)

18

Supreme Court case which said only Congress can regulate business, not states

(Wabash)

19

command economy in which private ownership and profit are allowed

(Fascism)

20

"let it (the economy) be"

(laissez-faire)

21

leader of the AFL who wanted "a piece of the pie" for his workers

(Gompers)

22

political view that seeks to stop change through any means necessary

(Reactionary)

23







24

when a company acquires other companies in the same market

(Horizontal Integration)

25

laissez faire economic model in which profit, private ownership are allowed

(Capitalism)

26

built the Brooklyn Bridge

(Roebling)

27

when a company owns all means of production

(Vertical Integration)

28

organized agreement not to buy from a certain company

(Boycott)

29

overcrowded and squalid apartment where many poor immigrants lived

(Tenement)

30



(Edison)

31

party made up of a coalition of farmers, laborers, reformers

(Populist)

32

political view that favors drastic change by any means necessary

(Revolutionary)

33

when one company controls the entire market

(Monopoly)

34

when an employer closes his business to break a union up

(Lockout)

35

Bryan's speech in which he invoked religion in the struggle for bimetallism

(Cross of Gold)

36

tax on imports

(Tariff)

37

strike at Carnegie's steel mill in which Emma Goldman (was involved in) tried to assassinate Frick to better the conditions of the workers

(Homestead)

38

to cover in gold

(Gild)

39

"New Rich"

(Nouveaux Riches)

40

workers hired by employer to break a union

(Scab)

41

photojournalist who exposed the conditions of American slums in his book, How the Other Half Lives

(Jacob Riis)

42

economic system in which the gov answers all economic questions

(Command)

43

most radical labor leader of the IWW (Wobblies)

(Big Bill Haywood)

44

America before the Industrial Revolution

(Rural)

45

act which prohibited monopolies

Sherman Antitrust)

46




(Grangers)

47

radical union who was involved in the Haymarket Riot

(Knights of Labor)

48

command economy in which no profit is allowed

(Communism)

49

period from 1890-1920 in which reformers improved life for workers, women, children, and the little guys

ProgressiveEra)

50

"I am not a humanitarian. I am a hell raiser."

MotherJones)

51




(WEBDuBois)

52

furthest right in the 1912 election

(Taft)

53

TR's soldiers during the Spanish-American War

(RoughRiders)

54

when a population moves from the country to the city

(Urbanization)

55

mob murder usually directed against African Americans in the early 1900s

(Lynching)

56

city in Texas that became a model for progressivism after it was destroyed by a hurricane in 1900

(Galveston)

57

racist film which portrays slavery and the KKK in a positive manner

(BirthofaNation)

58

became president as a result of the Compromise of 1877

(Hayes)

59

Institute in Alabama started by Booker T. Washington that taught African Americans trade skills

(Tuskegee)

60

style in art which portrays the lower classes in their everyday activities

(Realism)

61

illiterate player who helped 'fix' the 1919 World Series

(ShoelessJoeJackson)

62

animal that represents the republican party

(Elephant)

63

"All trusts are bad and must be eliminated."

(Wilson)

64

said "Our Constitution is color blind"

(JusticeHarlan)

65

Amendment that called for the direct election of senators

(Seventeenth)

66

decision that said long hours can be harmful to women and therefore children

(FlorenceKelley)

67

"I aimed for the public's heart but by mistake I hit them in the stomach."

(UptonSinclair)

68

tenements known for their horrific conditions (raw sewage, rats, etc.)

(Dumbell)

69

"Give us your tired, your poor, your huddled masses."

(EmmaLazarus)

70







71

march led by Mother Jones to expose child labor to TR

(ChildrensCrusade)

72

trust company owned by J.P. Morgan and broken up by TR

NorthernSecurities)

73

Investigative journalist who expose the 'dirt' of society

(Muckraker)

74

magazine known for its muckraking articles

(McClure)

75

supreme court case that legalized 'separate but equal'

(PlessyvFerguson)

76

song by Billy Holiday about lynching

(StrangeFruit)

77

directed "The Birth of a Nation"

(DWGriffith)

78

Leader of the National Consumer League

(FlorenceKelley)

79

'community center' in Chicago to help immigrants assimilate into America)

(HullHouse

80

"Lynching must be exposed to the public for the crime that it is."

(IdaB.Wells)

81

started the Hull House

(JaneAddams)

82




SocialGospel)

83

fire that outraged the public because over 140 women died due to the lack of safety standards

(TriangleFactory)

84

racist state laws which segregated blacks and kept them for voting

(JimCrow)

85

"I feel as strong as a bull moose."

(TR [1912 Election])

86

another name for a monopoly

(Trust)

87

animal that represents the democratic party

(Donkey)

88

assassinated in 1901 which led to TR becoming the president

McKinley)

89

political ism that rejects private ownership of business (Debbs)

(Socialism)

90

Wilson's program to break up monopolies, reduce the tariff and regulate banking

(NewFreedom)

91

president of the Anthracite Coal company who held a 'divine right of bosses' attitude towards the UMW

(Baer)

92

allows voters to fire elected officials

(Recall)

93

TR's promise of fairness to both business and labor

(SquareDeal)

94

should have been president in 1877

(Tilden)

95

convinced the Supreme Court that women could be harmed by long working hours

(Brandeis)

96

...and carry a big stick

Speak Softly

97

name for group of most influential delegates at Versailles

Big Four

98

clause in Treaty of Versailles which blamed Germany for the war

War Guilt

99

nation TR thought was trying to rip him off in building a canal

Columbia

100

international body of countries formed in order to stop another WWI (Wilson's idea)

League of Nations

101

act which allowed the government to draft during WWI

Selective Service

102

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

Central Powers

103

promised Mexico land if they allied with Germany

Zimmerman Note

104

formally ended WWI in 1919

Treaty of Versailles

105

nickname for American soldiers

Doughboys

106

Americans who heeded Washington's warning to stay out of entangling alliances

Isolationists

107

pulled out of WWI after Lenin led a communist revolution in 1918

Russia (Soviet Union)

108

leader of the AFL who promised Wilson that his union would not strike

Gompers

109

American officials who generally supported the Treaty but were concerned about Article X

Reservationists

110

G.B, France, Russia

Triple Entente

111

About 9 million of these died in WWI

Civilians

112

American senator who hated Wilson personally and led the movement to stop the Treaty from ratification

Henry Cabot Lodge

113

phrase used by Oliver W. Holmes as a way of justifying the Supreme Courts ruling in Schenck v US

Clear and Present Danger

114

$33 billion fine Germany had to pay for WWI

Reparations

115







116

Attitude that America should export its way of life overseas

Progressivism Abroad

117

American officials who opposed the Treaty of Versailles under all circumstances

Irreconcilables

118

TR's navy that was sent to flex American muscle overseas

Great White Fleet

119

said US would make sure Latin American nations paid their debt to Europeans

Roosevelt Corollary

120

sold as a way of raising $$ for the war

Bonds

121

French leader who called on punishing Germany for the war

Clemenceau

122

law which forbade criticizing the war effort

Sedition Act

123

getting a nation ready for war

Mobilization

124

nation that started the Panama canal

France

125

US is often accused of this by dominating and exploiting other nations

Imperialism

126

head of the Committee of Public Information

Creel

127

HE 'kept us out of war' in 1916

Wilson

128

small area where fruits and vegetables were grown as a way of conserving food during WWI

Victory Garden

129

passenger ship sank in 1915 by a German U-boat and included 128 Americans

Lusitania

130

imprisoned socialist presidential candidate who criticized America's entry into WWI

Eugene V. Debs

131

molding public opinion

Propaganda

132

document written in 1820 which said European nations should stop colonizing Latin America

Monroe Doctrine

133

list of ideas Wilson had for remaking post-war Europe

Fourteen Points

134

12.5 million of these died in WWI

Soldiers

135

America's policy at the start of WWI

Neutrality

138

trial which featured the debate of Creationism v Darwinism in 1925

(Scopes)







(Humphrey)

139

writer who said, "all work is worship, all useful service prayer."

(Barton)

140

laissez-faire president who wanted "normalcy"

(Harding)

142

patriotic sounding plan (stick) to destroy unions

(American)

143

Italian anarchist who recieved an unfair trial

(Sacco Vanzetti)

144

renaissance in NY noted for the "New Negro"

(Harlem)

145

Act of 1924 which set up a quota system and greatly limited immigration

(National Origins)

146

term used to describe workers on Ford assembly line monotonious work

(Robot)

147

company controlled unions)

(Industrial Democracy

148

when a few business control the market

(Oligopoly)

149

pact ridiculed a "parchment peace"

(Kellogg-Briand)

150

Sec. of Treasury who believed in trickledown economics/laissez-faire

(Mellon)

151

communist group sent all over world to encourage a proletariat revolution

(Comintern)

152

contract signed by workers promising not to join a union

(Yellow Dog)

153

"wet" place where alcohol is served

(Speakeasy)

154







155







156

reactionary racist group that revived in the 19020s under the banner of preserving American values and the white race

(KKK)

157

case which said unions could be sued for going on strike

(Coronado)

158

invented the scientific management of business

(Taylor)

159

term for the expatriate writers who criticized American materialism

(Lost Generation)

160

company policies that encouraged workers not to join unions (the carrot)

(Welfare Democracy)

161

plan to loan Germany money so that they could pay the Allies so that they could pay the US

(Dawes)

162

fear in the early 20s that Bolsheviks and anarchist were trying to take over US

(Red Scare)

163

method of Ford's workers to communicate

(Ford Whisper)

164

massive movement of African Americans to the North during the late 1910s

(Great Migration)

165

revolution of the 20s in which small businesses were overtaken by large ones

(Corporate)

166

music of the 1920s characterized by having no written notes

(Jazz)

167

led a back to Africa movement

(Marcus Garvey)

168

"The man who builds a factory, builds a temple."

(Coolidge)

169

wonder boy president and least laissez faire

(Hoover)

170

Act aka Volstead

(Prohibition)

171

person who smuggles alcohol into US

(Bootlegger)

172

girls of the 1920s known for their short bob cut hair and Charleston dance

(Flappers)

173

Agency of the New Deal which attempted to revitalize the economy by building dams in the lower Appalachian region

Tennessee Valley Authority

174

name given to homeless migrating farmers to traveled to California

(Okies)

175

helped to 'connect' FDR to common people by showing him how underprivileged lived

(Eleanor)

176

“People don’t eat in the long run-they have to in every day.”

(Hopkins)

177

1st 3 months of FDR's presidency noted for rapid legislation

(100 Days)

178

because this was high it limited the amount of goods foreign nations would buy from the US

(Tariffs (Hawley Smoot)

179

repossession of farms by banks

(Foreclosure)

180

characteristic of entertainment people sought during the Depression

(Escapism)

181

gambling the stock market in the hope of quick profits

(Speculation)

182

the day the Stock Market crashed

(Black Tuesday (Oct. ’29)

183

“I didn’t know people lived like that!”

(FDR)

184

Long's program which called for all income over $5 million to be redistributed to poor

(Share the Wealth)

185

anti-Semitic priest who wanted FDR to nationalize banks

(Coughlin)

186

leader of the bonus army who said "Let's show them we can take it on the chin."

(Walter Waters)

187

act which 'paid' farmers to be less productive

(Agriculture Adjustment Act)

188

insured deposits up to $100 thousand

(Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation)

189

Agency of the New Deal which employed thousands of Americans in an environmental conservation program run in military fashion

(Civilian Conservation Corp)

190

one of the causes of the Depression in which businesses and agriculture made too much stuff

(Overproduction)

191

Hoover's policy of asking business and labor leaders to freeze hours, wages, and strikes

(Volunteerism)

192

term to describe the ecological and human disaster in which drought and poor techniques led to the destruction of vast amounts of farmland

(Dust Bowl)

193

practice of getting a loan for stock with little money

(Buying on Margin)

194

a person who gains power by exploiting people's fears and prejudices

(Demagogue)

195

disease FDR contracted in 1921 which helped him appreciate the downtrodden

(Polio)

196

number of supreme court justices prescribed by the Constitution

(9)

197

low point of FDR's presidency in which he proposed to add 6 more justices to the Supreme Court

(Court Packing)

198

Huey Long's nickname

(Kingfish)

199

plan developed by a doctor which called for the mandatory retirement of citizens over 60 and a pension of $200 per month

(Townsend Plan)

200

act which said that companies who deceived investors about its financial status could be sued

(Truth in Securities Act)

201

scheme of Midwestern farmers to prevent foreclosure

(Penny Auction)

202

league of wealthy businessmen who wanted to destroy the New Deal

(American Liberty League)

203

weekly radio broadcast FDR used to connect to American public

(Fireside Chat)

204

Prohibited banks from investing savings deposits in the unpredictable stock market & created FDIC

Glass-Steagall Act




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The moment that government provided work for one, it would have to provide work for all, and there would be no end whatever possible. Society does not owe any man a living. In all the cases that I have ever known of young men who claimed that society owed them a living, it has turned out that society paid them---in State prison…The fact that a man is here is no demand upon other people that they shall keep him alive and sustain him. He has got to fight the battle with nature as every other man has;

Burn down your cites and leave our farms, and your cities will spring up again as if by magic. But destroy our farms and the grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country…you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.”




trmiddle78


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77vcmckinley campaigns on gold coin (gold standard) with support from soldiers, businessmen, farmers and professions, claiming to restore prosperity at home and victory abroaddescription: 481px-lange-migrantmother




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