American chinese civil rights in houston

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An Application for an Official Texas Historical Marker for


by Edward Chuck Ming Chen © 1


The Constitution of the United States is the basis for the governments of many nations that has been improved by amendments. The fourteenth amendment1 made former slaves citizens; the nineteenth amendment2 gave women the right to vote. Yet, women lost their U.S. citizenship in 1907 upon marrying an alien.3 The 1924 Indian Citizenship Act allowed all Native American Indians to become citizens and retain their tribal identity.4 The Chinese Exclusion Acts were the only race based immigration law passed by Congress. They were passed for ten years in 1882,5 and extended in perpetuity, without debate in 1902.6 Perpetuity lasted for sixty years but the law was replaced with a quota system that included only 105 Chinese visas a year.7

The first large group of Asian immigrants to Texas, 250 Chinese laborers8 arrived in Houston in 1870 to work on the railroads in Robertson County.9 In 1900, there was a thriving community of over fifty Chinese in Houston. The Exclusion Acts drove this down to less than 10 by 1910. Before World War I, General Pershing brought Chinese allies in Mexico to Texas in spite of the Exclusion Acts. Some of these became citizens by joining the army. Later, many Chinese, like the five of the six sons of C. Y. Lee, proprietor of the Daylight Market, fought in World War II.10

American born Chinese, Rose Don Wu (1910-1987),11 and Edward King Tung Chen (1909-1957)12 helped defeat a law in the Texas Senate that would exclude Chinese from owning property. The Houston Chinese American Citizens Alliance (CACA) founded in 1954 under E. K. T. Chen and Albert C. B. Gee (1920-1978)13 helped to secure the admission of Chinese to professional schools in Texas and was instrumental in securing equal rights for Chinese in employment, education and immigration.14 These and other ordinary people were responsible for extraordinary events that extended the true ideals of the greatest democracy seen on this earth to all persons regardless of race, gender, or national origin.


American Chinese and American Indians were often lumped together as in California where they were not allowed to testify in court. The same was not true in Texas. Henry Tucker, a free black was found guilty of the assault and battery of [unkn] Price, a barber of Chinese, Maltese, and other ancestry illustrating the equality of Chinese under the law.15.

A contract was extended to the juggler To-Gon-Won in 1862 to perform for the benefit of the Hospital in the State of Texas.16 Dr. Ed Rhodes reproduced a contract between James Hannah and Ah Gow, Ah Yong, Ah Bao, dated Dec. 29, 1873. Hannah liked the Chinese so much that he imported some fifty-nine others through the port of Galveston in 1874.17 In 1874 in Hearne, Robertson County, Texas, some 150 Chinese registered to vote in spite of the 1870 Nationality Act that specified only “free whites” and “African aliens” could be naturalized. Education is one of the three virtues of Chinese life. The Chinese in Texas were allowed to attend school with the whites as opposed to other states.18 In the January 11, 1942 issue of the Houston Chronicle, Pearl Hendricks quoted the 1870 Houston Telegraph under the headline “John Chinaman in Houston”

“One of the Celestials who lately passed here to work on the Central railroad above Bremond appeared in our streets yesterday evidently in his best clothes. Yo Wykee, was the name of our illustrious Mongolian visitor, a young man of about 28 and characteristically Chinese in feature and dress. He was determined to go Texas in a big way. He shopped around Houston’s streets and the spoils of his labor were a 10 gallon hat, a Bowie knife, a couple of holsters and guns. But some of them had no intention of remaining common laborers. They saved their earnings to go into business for themselves. Within a short time of their arrival, one of them was Houston’s first Chinese small businessman and probably Houston’s first laundry. Before that, the laundry was taken care of by family slaves; but those days were a part of the past and the time was ripe for the ‘Yankee of the Orient’ to set himself up in business.”
So came Lee Ting (aka Sam Lee), Lee Hing, and Lee Yung listed in the 1877 Houston City Directory. The 1880 census19 listed seven Chinese in Houston including “Wah Yuen, age 35, and proprietor of the Wah Yuen laundry located at 86 Fannin. Born in China of Chinese parents he could neither read or write English. His wife, Annette Yuen, was 19 years old, born about 1861 in Texas. Their son, Lincoln Yuen, just four months old was born in Texas. Wah Yuen, adopted the name Wah (Chinese) Yuen (person) to note that a Chinese person established a family in Houston, Texas.

The “Silver Spike” was driven on January 12, 1883, after Chinese finished the 420 miles of rail from El Paso to Langtry in record time. Soon afterwards, Judge Roy Bean ruled there was no law in Texas against killing a “Chinaman.” 20 This was an expression of the future of American Chinese in Houston due to the laws promulgated as a result of the anti-Chinese sentiments expressed in the California Constitution of 1879. It denied the Chinese the right to vote, outlawed their employment by private corporations and empowered towns and cities to remove Chinese from their locale or restrict Chinese to ghettos.21 The Chinese Exclusion Acts were first passed in 1882, and were passed in perpetuity without discussion in 1903. The 1882 bill prohibited Chinese laborers from coming into the United States or becoming citizens. Exceptions were made for merchants, diplomats, and scholars. Chinese in the U.S. were allowed to stay, but were ineligible for naturalization and required special papers to returns.

Make no mistake, these laws were an intentional effort by some to eradicate the Chinese from the United States, as expressed vividly 1878 in Harper’s Monthly:

“There are those who fear that the Chinese unless restrained will overrun America, take control of the labor market, and ultimately secure the monopoly of many branches of commercial enterprise. Some of these are alarmists, and see great calamities in the immediate future, and some are demagogues.... but others believe the present evil will go on increasing steadily but not rapidly; and while there is no immediate danger to be feared, it is well to consider the distant future.”

The solution was then defined. […]

“Of the Chinese children born in America, there are barely sufficient to fill an ordinary church and certainly, we must be timid indeed if we have fears of these. Dry up the source, and the stream will dry up in time. We have only to revise our treaties so as to prevent the advent of new immigrants, and leave the matter of the return of those now in America quite out of consideration. Tempus Edax Return will steadily reduce the numbers who stay, and by the beginning of the coming century, less than half the present number will be alive. Another twenty-five years will make still further havoc, and long before the celebration of our second centennial (1976), the last Chinese among us will have gone to his grave and left us a FREE AND HAPPY PEOPLE.22

The Supreme Court, in the Wong Kim Ark case,23 was called upon to decide whether an American-born person of Chinese ancestry could be denied U.S. citizenship. The Court held that under the Fourteenth Amendment, a child born in the United States of parents of foreign descent becomes a citizen at the time of birth. This gave birth to the Native Sons of the Golden State in 1895, perhaps the first organization devoted to protecting the civil rights of citizens (now the Chinese American Citizens Alliance).24

Walter U. Lum, Joseph K Lum, and Ng Gunn, an American-born Chinese who grew to maturity in California headed the CACA. “The need for these young men to exercise eternal vigilance was well demonstrated in 1913. […] a measure was introduced in the California legislature petitioning the United States Congress to pass a Constitutional amendment disenfranchising citizens of Chinese ancestry. “The CACA successfully lobbied against the bill and it was killed in committee. “In October 1915, the United States Department of Labor tried to adopt policies that denied citizens of Chinese ancestry the right to verification of their citizenship before leaving the country. This regulation would have left their rate of returning in the dubious hands of immigration officers. The CACA was successful in its efforts to rescind the rule.25

In 1887, from a reported population of 38,344 in Harris County, there were only fourteen Chinese.26 Harper’s New Monthly Magazine27 of July 1890 described the owner of the Hop Lee Wah,28 273 Preston: “On a nearby sidewalk, a Chinese peddler displays his wares.” The 1900 census shows a thriving American Chinese community; 25 immigrants, 20 naturalized citizens. C. G. Hong, born on July 4, 1862 in San Francisco and his Caucasian wife, born in Indiana. 29 In the 1902 Houston City Directory the Hong family living at the Kiam building, are listed as proprietors of the Little Gem restaurant with two children, the second and third ABC Houstonian citizens. In Houston, a 1900 photograph shows the effects of the Chinese Exclusion Acts. A laundryman is forced off the sidewalk at Main and Prairie.30 In 1900 there are 42 Chinese head-of-household or other adult males listed on the U.S. Census, several of these were listed as “colored.” The 1910 census listed fewer than ten Chinese in Houston.31

While stationed at Fort Bliss, Texas, General John Pershing entered Mexico to subdue revolutionary forces and to capture Francisco (Pancho) Villa. The 1917 raid was unsuccessful but he returned with some 527 Mexican Chinese who had assisted his troops with food and supplies during the invasion. This was a rare instance of the exclusion law being set aside, and most of these Chinese settled in San Antonio. Some thirty “Pershing Chinese”32 helped build Ellington Field33 in record time.

Separate but equal schools for in California originated in 1884 when the Oriental public school system for Chinese and other “Mongolians” existed in San Francisco. In 1927, the Supreme Court of the United States, in Gong Lum v. Rice,34 upheld the 1890 Supreme Court of Mississippi decision that Chinese were colored and could not insist on attending a “white” school.35

In 1932, Vice Consul, T. L. Ouang and Secretary Edward King Tung Chen established a diplomatic office of the Republic of China to handle the growing trade between the United States and China. The Galveston papers recorded the establishment of the office at the 912 Medical Arts Building. The next year the office was moved to the Second National Bank Building in Houston, Texas and then to an office/home at 714 Richmond Road where it was elevated to a consulate in 1945. The office was elevated to a Consul Generalate at 4818 Austin and the World Trade Center. The Chinese in Houston have continuously celebrated the founding of the Republic of China on “Double Ten” since 1933.36 This continues today under the Coordination Council of North American Affairs and the Association of Chinese Organizations.

In 1935, the 1883 precedent established by Judge Roy Bean that there is no law against killing a “Chinaman” was overturned. A jury of twelve Oklahoma farmers found Lois Thompson guilty of the attempted murder of a Chinese student, Daniel Shaw. Briefly, on March 27, 1935, Lois Thompson shot Daniel Shaw multiple times striking him once in the chest, a near fatal wound, and once in the right arm. There was no question she had committed the crime. The defense argued that Shaw had been threatening Ms. Thompson and that the action was in self-defense. Oklahoma Governor Ernest W. Marland requested the presence of E. K. T. Chen as an observer to show that Shaw was not alone. At the end of the trial, Shaw noted, “The supreme efforts of the state of Oklahoma and Governor Marland has proven that the intimate friendship between my country and the United States shall be maintained. I am gratified that my name has been cleared.” Thus the 1840 conviction for assault and battery of a Chinese in Houston was extended to Oklahoma in spite of Roy Bean.37

In 1937, a bill was introduced in the Texas legislature to escheat urban property owned by aliens who could not become citizens, including Chinese. It would also prevent such aliens from purchasing or transferring such properties to American citizens. Owners of grocery stores who felt the competition of the Chinese, especially in San Antonio, sponsored a similar law with regard to rural properties. E. K. T. Chen and Rose Wu of San Antonio, who was born in Arizona, testified against the bill and it was killed in committee. Mrs Wu noted, “My grandfather was one of twelve hundred Chinese who helped to build the rails through Texas. I am an American citizen but I do not forget my blood. Everyone can tell I am Chinese by my color but not everyone knows I am a citizen.”38

On July 7, 1937 Japan extended its aggression in China by attacking at the Marco Polo Bridge, a crucial access point to Peking. The United States and the rest of the world were shocked by the brutal treatment of the Chinese especially in the Rape of Nanking where upwards of 500,000 Chinese were killed. 39 The resulting blockade of Japan led to the attack at Pearl Harbor. Secretary E. K. T. Chen and his brother, Charles introduced an emblem to distinguish the Chinese from the Japanese on December 12, 1941. It originally placed the American flag on the right, the Chinese place of honor. After being corrected for the American position of honor, the emblem was prominently displayed by all Chinese in the United States.40 In the 1940s the Wah Kew Association with a headquarters at 1911 Louisiana, helped to meet the war bond goals of the Chinese. The target of $40,000 amounted to more than $200 for each of the Chinese in Houston at the time.

Mr. C. Y. Chu, Mr. W. C. Lim and E. K. T. Chen served on a committee to welcome Madam Chiang Kai Shek to the United States. This led to the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion acts in 1943.41 The first Chinese to obtain citizenship in Houston after the repeal of the Exclusion laws was a 43-year-old grocer, Choi Yu Chu, whose store was located at 2706 Dowling. He named his two sons, Calvin and Coolidge, after the American President. Upon taking his oath, Chu stated, “I like the United States because it is a nation of free men and I like Houston because it is a great business city.” Mr. Chu opened the first American style grocery store owned by a Chinese in Houston. Officials state that perhaps a dozen Chinese aliens had become citizens in Texas since the new law was passed in 1941. 42

When the Communist Chinese invaded Korea, in December 1950, President Truman instituted plans to intern the Chinese. The FBI contacted E. K. T. Chen at University of Texas. He convinced them that the majority of the Chinese in the United States were loyal Americans. He translated Chinese intelligence at night in Houston while teaching and in New York while studying at Colombia University.43 He prepared a white paper sent to the Pentagon by J. Edgar Hoover on May 16, 1954. The letter read “There is enclosed a monograph entitled ‘Potentialities of Chinese Communist Intelligence Activities in the United States’.” 44 Beginning in 1955, Chen taught FBI agents to read, write and speak the Cantonese Chinese dialect so they could identify enemies of the United States. This was to be the last service of Edward K. T. Chen to the nation as he passed away in Washington D. C. in 1957 at the age of 48.

On February 13, 1952, George Fuermann of the Houston Post discussed leaders in Houston’s Chinatown. “E. K. T. Chen is a professor of political science at the University of Houston. Once a deputy Chinese Consul here, he is frank and outspoken. Far from wealthy, he is in his 40s and is spokesman for a small but influential group of Chinese. Albert Gee, a partner in the Ding How restaurant in his 30s, “ is Chinatown’s unofficial mayor. Brilliant and energetic, his goal is to organize a Houston chapter of the Chinese American Citizens Alliance.”45

Before 1950, no Chinese had been accepted in law, dental or medical school in Texas. The Houston Lodge of the Chinese American Citizens Alliance (CACA)46 founded in 1954 helped to change this. Early Presidents were E. K. T. Chen, Albert Gee, Charles Chan, Hobert Joe, Henry Lee, Wallace Gee, and Judge Sam Eng. Calvin Lee described other activities.

“Once a Chinese girl applied for a job at an oil company at the same time one of her class mates. The latter, a white girl was accepted but she was not. She insisted on an explanation and finally was told she was turned down because she was Chinese. The members of the CACA quietly stopped buying gas from that company. Six month later, the sales manager inquired why no Chinese had used their credit card and the oil company liberalized the employment policy. A statewide grocerman’s association prohibited anyone who was not white from becoming an officer. After the Chinese resigned, the constitution was changed and in (1965) a Chinese, Hobert Joe, is on the Board of Directors.” 47

The success of the Houston Lodge propelled President Albert Gee into the National spotlight as Grand President. An abbreviated biography is enclosed in the addendum.48 Albert represented the CACA at meetings with the administrations of Presidents John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon on immigration policies that ended the legal racial discrimination against Chinese in the United States. Thus the equal treatment of the American Chinese in Harris County under the law as early as 1840 was extended to the nation as a whole.


The road to the recognition that Chinese were eminently qualified for American citizenship passed through Houston, Texas, which has the largest Chinese population in Texas. Since 1840 American Chinese in Houston Texas were treated as equal citizens. The assault and battery of a Chinese was a crime. Chinese entertainers, railroad workers and farmers were brought to Texas under contracts. Lincoln Yuen, the first American Born Chinese Houstonian was listed in the 1880 census at the laundry of Wah and Anna Yuen. The Hop Lee Wah was described in Harper’s Weekly. The 1900 census listed 22 naturalized American Chinese, an equal number of alien Chinese and the restaurant of Charlie and Savannah Hong parents of two native Houstonian Chinese. The Chinese Exclusion Acts of 1882 and 1992 were passed in perpetuity in 1903. This denied the right of naturalization to Chinese immigrants and reduced the number of Chinese in Houston from about fifty to less than ten. About thirty “Pershing Chinese” helped to build Ellington Field in record time and under budget. These were among those who came to the United States after Pershing went to capture Pancho Villa in Mexico.

In 1932, the Republic of China established a Vice Consulate in Texas under Tsin Lon Ouang and Secretary E. K. T. Chen. In 1935, the latter an American born Chinese attended the trial of a woman convicted of attempted murder of a Chinese student in Oklahoma. Two years later, Sec. Chen and Rose Wu of San Antonio testified in the Texas Senate against a bill that would prevent Chinese from owning urban land in Texas. When Pearl Harbor was attacked, Rice graduate Charles Chan designed an emblem to identify Chinese. In 1943, Mr. C. Y. Chu became the first Chinese to be naturalized in Houston. During the Korean War, plans to intern Chinese were dropped through efforts of E.K.T. Chen.

The Chinese American Citizens Alliance (CACA) founded in 1895 was one of the earliest Civil Rights organizations. It played a large role in eliminating the Exclusion Acts. In 1954, the Houston CACA was established. Under President Albert Gee it successfully boycotted a major oil firm that refused to hire Chinese and secured the admission of Chinese into professional schools in Houston. Albert later became the only National CACA President from outside California, and helped to equalize quotas, which were the last racial barriers to naturalization for the Chinese. The Chinese in Houston, Harris County were treated equally in 1840. They survived the legal discrimination of race-based immigration policies of the post Civil War Era and the threat of internment of the Korean War. Like the Phoenix through the efforts of Edward King Tung Chen, Rose Wu and Albert Gee they rose again to be instrumental to extend equal rights for all citizens to the nation to the benefit of all. Today, the Chinese, who first came to America to prospect for gold and later to help build the railroads, farms, and cities, have overcome racial barriers to become American citizens in the fullest sense, able to contribute to the best of their ability to Houston and the world in all fields of endeavor.


Note: Many of the newspaper clippings are from the “scrapbooks” of Edward King Tung Chen. They do not contain the authors and the pages but the clippings are copied and are available electronically.
Appendices: Biographical Data for E. K. T. Chen, Rose Don Wu, Albert C.B. Gee, and C. Y. Chu. Letter from Grand President Albert Gee

1 Acknowledgment is given to Trevia Wooster Beverly, James L. Glass and Paul Scott for their special assistance.

1 Adopted July 9, 1868, providing a broad definition: “All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof,..”

2 Ratified on August 18, 1920 prohibited states as well as the federal government from denying any citizen the right to vote because of that citizen’s sex.

3 Such a woman took on the nationality of her husband, and was required to go through the regular naturalization process to regain citizenship. This was repealed in 1922, but citizenship was not restored until 1936.

4 Also known as the Synder (Representative Homer P.) Act, it granted full U.S. citizenship to American’s indigenous peoples, rectifying the omission of some when the 14th Amendment was adopted.

5 This ended a period of free immigration for all, while restricting the Chinese from becoming citizens under any circumstances.

6 “ The Chinese Exclusion Act was due to expire in 1892, it was revived for still another ten years under what was known as the Geary Act, which barred Chinese from testifying in court, and also required all Chinese to carry resident passports, with the harsh penalty of deportation enacted if they were found without them.”

7 “A Democracy at War: The American Campaign to Repeal Chinese Exclusion in 1943,” The Japanese Journal of American Studies, No. 9 (1988).

8 No persons born in China appear on either the 1850 or 1860 Federal Census for Texas. The 1990 census reported 25,019 Chinese in Harris County, with another 4,071 in neighboring Fort Bend County.

9 The Chinese Texans from the series The Texians and the Texans (op). University of Texas, Institute of Texan Cultures at San Antonio.

10 “Americans All,” The Houston Chronicle, February 28, 1945.

11 She was the first Chinese girl to be born (1910) in the Arizona Territory. Active in local Bexar County politics, she was the first Asian Texas Republican woman.

12 Dedication of a Texas Historical Marker in his honor dedicated on Saturday, October 24, 2009 at the Tracey Gee Community Center, Houston.

13 Born in 1920 in Detroit, Michigan, his mother was left a widow in 1927 with three young sons. The family moved back to China, with Mrs. Gee planning to later return the boys to America for schooling. Albert returned to an uncle in San Francisco at the age of 7, and in 1936 joined family in Houston. He became “mayor” of the Houston Chinese.

14 Attachments give biographies of the individuals

15 Schoen, Harold. “The Free Negro in the Republic of Texas, Chapter VI. The Extent of Discrimination and its Effects, Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Vol XLI, July 1937 to April 1938, (The Texas State Historical Association, Austin Texas 1938, p 91, note 38. Mr. Schoen cites the Houston Weekly Times of 9 April 1840 as his source. “ A free black named Henry Tucker, a barber was arrested for assault and battery upon another barber named Price, who –Tucker claimed—“had shave him out of some picture.”[Shaving “ was a nineteenth –century slang term for practicing a deception upon someone] The newspaper described Price as “a mongrel, a cross of the Chinese and Maltese.” The City Recorder found Tucker guilty and fined him $10 and costs. Thanks to Jim Glass for this source.

16 From the diary of Gustav Forsgard as reported in the Houston Review, “Monday March 17, 1862, attended To-Gon Won’s Exhibition at Perkins with Miss Belle. Tuesday, March 18 To Gon Won, the Chinese Juggler is still performing at Perkin’s Hall for the benefit of the Hospital.”

17 Rhoads, Edward J. M. "The Chinese in Texas." Southwestern Historical Quarterly. Texas State Historical Association, LXXXI, No.1 (July 1977), 1-36.

18 Chinese Americans; Immigrants; Letters (Correspondence); News Media; Primary Sources; School Desegregation; School Segregation; Secondary Education; Social Studies; United States History Source: OAH Magazine of History, v15 n2 p17-19 Winter 2001 (Organization of American Historians, Bloomington IN).

19 1880 United States Census: Houston, Harris County, Texas. Page No. 83, Supervisor’s Dist. No. 4, Enumeration Dist. 75, Taken June 24, 1880.

20 Sonnichsen, C. L. Roy Bean, Law West of the Pecos, Devin Adair Co, New York, 1958. Story appeared in the El Paso Daily Times for June 2, 1884. See “Roy Bean and the Chinaman” at (Accessed October 20, 2009).

21 Ringer, Benjamine B. We the People and Others, Tavistock Publication, New York, 1983, Discussions of the California Constitution of 1879, pp567-609

22 McCunn, Ruthanne Lum. An Illustrated History of the Chinese in America, Design Enterprises of San Francisco, San Francisco, 1979, pp83-89.

23 United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649, No. 18, (1898).

24 A Brief History of the Chinese American Citizens Alliance. Original by Y. C. Hong; updated 1999 by Nancy Ann Gee. (Accessed October 18, 2009).

25 Hoexter, Corinne K. From Canton to California, Four Winds Press New York, p250, 1976

26 Foster, L.L, Commissioner with Introduction by Barbara J. Rozek. Forgotten Texas Census, First Annual Report of the Agricultural Bureau of the Department of Agriculture, Insurance, Statistics, and History, 1887-88 , Texas State Historical Association, Austin, 2001.

27 Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, July 1890, p. 230. “Texan Types and Contrasts,” p 229-246. Volume 0081 Issue 482 (July, 1890). (accessed October 20, 2009).

28 The Hop Lee Wah was a fixed export-import shop, and listed in the Houston city directories of the time.

29 Harper’s Monthly, July 1878. Copies; no citations included.

30 The picture is taken from a collection of historic photos of Houston entitled “Last of the Past” It is discussed in the booklet “Into the Future Together ” published by Texas Commerce Bank and authored by E. C. M. Chen.

31 Silvey, Larry P. and Drown, Douglas S., eds. Houston a history of a giant, Continental Heritage, Tulsa Ok, 1976, p260. 1910 Census at the Clayton Library- notes Karen Sue Mae Chen King. (Attachment 7)

32 Briscoe, Edward Eugene. "Pershing’s Chinese Refugees in Texas." Southwestern Historical Quarterly LXII (April, 1959), 467-488. (This study covers the period of 1870 to 1970).

33 Constructed in 1917 on 1,280 acres of Texas prairie eighteen miles east of Houston.

34 Gong Lum at al. v. Rice et al., 275 U.S. 78, No. 29 (1927) United States Supreme Court Case. and (accessed October 18, 2009) Lum v. Rice, Wikipedia at (accessed October 18, 2009).

35 Gong Lum v. Rice.

36 See appendix for a letter of thanks from Grand President Albert Gee

37 Tahlequah Oklahoma News by Harrison Humphries, Phoenix staff writer, May 23, 1937 to June 19, 1937.

38 Houston Post, March 10, 1937 clipping available but exact pages and author not given.

39 Chang, Iris. The Rape of Nanking, Penguin Books, 1998.

40 The Houston Post, December 12,1941. See Note.

41 Life Magazine, March 1,1943; Corinne K. Hoexter From Canton to California, Four Winds Press New York, 1976, p278

42 “Grocer Is First Chinese Made U.S. Citizen here,” with photograph: The Houston Chronicle, 1944.

43 Taped Interview of James E. Sheriff, July 22, 1982 by Edward C. M. Chen

44 "Potentialities of Chinese Communist Intelligence Activities in the United States," Federal Bureau of Investigation, May 1954. (Accessed October 18, 2009).

45 Houston Post, George Fuermann, “Post Card,” Feb 13, 1952.


47 Lee, Calvin. Chinatown USA, Doubleday, New York, 1965, p117

48 Houston Chronicle, December 10, 1956.

American Chinese in Houston Harris County Historical Commission

Edward C. M. Chen March 27,2010

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