America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 30 The Turbulent Sixties



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America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.)

Chapter 30 The Turbulent Sixties
30.1 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Critical to John F. Kennedy's victory in the election of 1960 was his

A) success in televised debates against Richard Nixon.

B) charge that Republicans had over stimulated the economy.

C) rejection of U.S. participation in the Cold War.

D) disavowal of his religious beliefs.

E) stance as a war hawk.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 746 [Factual]


2) John F. Kennedy's domestic program was known as the

A) Great Society.

B) New Deal.

C) Fair Deal.

D) New Frontier.

E) Age of Camelot.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 746 [Factual]


3) The loser of the presidential election of 1960 was

A) Richard Nixon.

B) George McGovern.

C) John F. Kennedy.

D) Lyndon Johnson.

E) Hubert Humphrey.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 746 [Factual]


4) Which of the following regions was NOT a foreign policy crisis for John F. Kennedy?

A) Southeast Asia

B) Berlin

C) Mexico

D) Cuba

E) Soviet Union

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 747-751 [Factual]

5) In contrast to Eisenhower, Kennedy's staff was heavily populated with

A) career military men.

B) high-ranking business executives.

C) women executives.

D) academics and intellectuals.

E) immigrants and minorities.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 751 [Factual]


6) The man selected to serve as secretary of defense by John F. Kennedy was

A) Robert McNamara.

B) Arthur Radford.

C) Dean Rusk.

D) William Westmoreland.

E) Henry Kissinger.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 747 [Factual]


7) John F. Kennedy's plan to balance out nuclear capability with conventional military strength was known as

A) the New Look.

B) the New Deal.

C) flexible response.

D) massive retaliation.

E) total coverage.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 747 [Factual]


8) The Soviet leader with whom both Dwight Eisenhower and John Kennedy had to deal was

A) Nikita Khrushchev.

B) Leonid Brezhnev.

C) Gamel Nasser.

D) Mikhail Gorbachev.

E) Yuri Andropov.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 747 [Factual]

9) The building of the Berlin War in 1961

A) was a Soviet defensive measure.

B) demonstrated East Germany's control of Berlin.

C) was a joint effort by the United States and the Soviet Union.

D) caused few problems for the Kennedy administration.

E) was meant to keep East Germans from migrating to the West.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 748 [Factual]


10) Under John F. Kennedy, the United States government

A) decided to support the Ho Chi Minh government.

B) reduced American involvement in Vietnam.

C) increased the number of military advisers in Vietnam.

D) maintained levels of support in Vietnam roughly equal to those established by Eisenhower.

E) began large-scale military operations in Southeast Asia.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 748 [Factual]


11) The ________ was Kennedy's most obvious foreign policy disaster.

A) Bay of Pigs invasion

B) Cuban Missile Crisis

C) Vietnam War

D) Berlin Crisis of 1961

E) Monroe Affair

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 749 [Factual]


12) American foreign policy hawks believed that the outcome of the Cuban Missile Crisis

A) justified a policy of nuclear superiority.

B) proved that the Soviet Union was no real threat to the United States.

C) indicated the need for a secret invasion of Cuba.

D) supported their view of Kennedy's expertise in foreign policy.

E) allowed a new policy of nuclear disarmament.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 751 [Factual]




Your Tomorrow U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965

(United States Department of Agriculture)


13) The ideas presented in the government propaganda poster shown above would most closely coincide with the specific fears and concerns during which of the following time periods?

A) Great Depression

B) World War II

C) Korean War

D) Cold War Era

E) Vietnam War

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 747 [Conceptual]


14) Which of the following was NOT a consequence of the Cuban Missile Crisis?

A) a de-escalation of the U.S.-Soviet arms race

B) the Soviet-American hotline

C) new negotiations regarding a reduction in nuclear testing

D) a new maturity in John F. Kennedy's foreign policy

E) a conviction that the Soviets only understood the language of force

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 751 [Factual]

15) Which one of the following Cabinet officials in the Kennedy administration is incorrectly matched with his office.

A) Robert McNamara/Secretary of Defense

B) Dean Rusk/Secretary of State

C) Stuart Udall/Secretary of the Interior

D) Arthur Goldberg/Secretary of Commerce

E) Abraham Ribicoff/Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 751 [Factual]


16) President Kennedy's most controversial Cabinet appointment involved his choice for

A) secretary of state.

B) attorney general.

C) secretary of defense.

D) secretary of transportation.

E) secretary of the interior.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 751) [Factual]


17) Kennedy's greatest domestic obstacle while president was

A) the U.S. Congress.

B) the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

C) his lack of experience in domestic affairs.

D) his lack of concern for domestic affairs.

E) his affiliation with the Catholic church.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 751 [Factual]


18) President Kennedy became extremely frustrated when leaders of the ________ industry decided to raise prices.

A) oil industry

B) coal industry

C) steel industry

D) iron ore industry

E) aeronautics industry

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 752 [Factual]

19) John F. Kennedy played down civil rights legislation because he

A) feared alienating Southern Democrats.

B) was secretly a racist.

C) did not want to offend conservative African-American leaders.

D) did not really see the need for it.

E) was advised to do so by leading cabinet members.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 753 [Factual]


20) Which of the following individuals was an African American appointed to a prominent post in the federal government during the Kennedy administration?

A) Robert Weaver

B) Thurgood Marshall

C) A. Philip Randolph

D) both A and B

E) both B and C

Answer: D

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 753 [Factual]


21) Which one of the following groups sponsored the "freedom rides"?

A) Southern Christian Leadership Conference

B) Congress of Racial Equality

C) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

D) Fair Employment Practices Committee

E) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 753 [Factual]


22) The ________ was the most important stimulus for social change in the early 1960s.

A) Supreme Court

B) House of Representatives

C) presidency

D) Senate

E) televised reporting of civil rights abuses

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 755 [Factual]

23) The most far-reaching decisions of the Warren Court involved

A) business regulation.

B) abortion.

C) legislative reapportionment.

D) the rights of victims.

E) racial equality.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 755 [Factual]


24) The 1962 Supreme Court decision banning school prayer was

A) Gideon v. Wainwright.

B) Yates v. United States.

C) Baker v. Carr.

D) Miranda v. Arizona.

E) Engle v. Vitale.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 755 [Factual]




1963 March on Washington

(United States Government Printing Office)


25) The 1963 event pictured above was sponsored by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. who delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech. The issues being highlighted by this event were addressed by which of the following?

A) Gideon v. Wainwright

B) Civil Rights Act of 1964

C) Job Corps

D) Paris Peace Talks (Vietnam)

E) Nixon resignation

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 754-757 [Factual and Conceptual]


26) Without the support of Republican Senator ________, civil rights legislation would probably have been filibustered to death in the Senate.

A) Everett Dirksen

B) Strom Thurmond

C) J. William Fulbright

D) Harry Byrd

E) Russell Long

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 757 [Factual]


27) The Civil Rights Act of 1964

A) outlawed racial segregation in public facilities.

B) outlawed racial discrimination in employment.

C) protected the voting rights of African Americans.

D) included gender as an unacceptable basis for discrimination in hiring.

E) all of the above.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 757 [Factual]


28) The ________ established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

A) Fair Employment Practices Act

B) Civil Rights Act of 1964

C) Equal Opportunity Act

D) Taft-Hartley Act

E) Civil Rights Act of 1957

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 757 [Factual]


29) Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty was influenced by Michael Harrington's book,

A) How the Other Half Lives.

B) Silent Spring.

C) The Best and the Brightest.

D) The Other America.

E) Down and Out in America.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 757 [Factual]


30) Lyndon Johnson's domestic program was called the

A) Fair Deal.

B) New Frontier.

C) Great Society.

D) New Deal.

E) War on Poverty.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 758 [Factual]

31) In the election of 1964, President Lyndon Johnson easily defeated

A) Robert Taft.

B) Richard Nixon.

C) George McGovern.

D) Nelson Rockefeller.

E) Barry Goldwater.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 757-758 [Factual]


32) In his program of health care, President Lyndon Johnson secured

A) free health care for all Americans.

B) establishment of the Medicare program for the elderly.

C) federal health care initiatives.

D) a restriction on health benefits for welfare recipients.

E) a free prescription drug program.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 758 [Factual]


33) The foreign policy of Lyndon Johnson

A) took a back seat to his domestic concerns.

B) was dramatically different from that of Kennedy.

C) was, in many respects, simply a continuation of Kennedy's policies.

D) indicated his opposition to the Cold War.

E) was isolationist by nature.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 759 [Factual]


34) In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson sent American soldiers to ________ in order to prevent a Communist takeover there.

A) Cuba


B) Argentina

C) the Dominican Republic

D) Lebanon

E) Madagascar

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 760 [Factual]

35) A major critic of Lyndon Johnson's foreign policies was

A) William Fulbright.

B) Walter Rostow.

C) Robert McNamara.

D) Daniel Ortega.

E) William Westmoreland.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 760 [Factual]


36) Lyndon Johnson's political downfall resulted primarily from

A) his Latin American policy.

B) his obsession with the Vietnam War.

C) the failure of his Great Society.

D) his refusal to be a Cold Warrior.

E) his advocacy of welfare programs.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 760 [Factual]


37) Lyndon Johnson sought the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

A) as a blank check for military escalation in Vietnam.

B) to jump-start the U.S. economy.

C) to place the blame for the war in Vietnam on the shoulders of North Vietnam.

D) to pacify the leadership of South Vietnam.

E) to demonstrate to the North Vietnamese, and his political opponents, his determination to take a tough stance in Vietnam.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 760 [Factual]


38) In the long run, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution can be evaluated as

A) a costly victory for Lyndon Johnson.

B) a relatively minor event in the long history of war in Vietnam.

C) a significant and positive victory for Lyndon Johnson.

D) significantly elevating Lyndon Johnson's standing with Congress.

E) a dismal failure for the Johnson administration.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 760 [Factual]

39) American bombing of North Vietnam

A) proved an effective strategy in limiting North Vietnam's participation in the war.

B) destroyed North Vietnam's major port facilities at Haiphong.

C) demoralized the North Vietnamese people.

D) generally failed to accomplish anything.

E) impeded communist supply lines.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 760-761 [Factual]


40) As a solution to the increasingly hopeless situation in South Vietnam in 1965, Johnson's key advisers urged

A) a massive invasion of North Vietnam.

B) American withdrawal from the war.

C) a naval blockade of North Vietnam.

D) American air strikes against North Vietnam.

E) nuclear destruction of North Vietnam.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 761 [Factual]


41) Lyndon Johnson's advisor who opposed the Vietnam War was

A) J. William Fulbright.

B) George Ball.

C) Sam Rayburn.

D) William Westmoreland.

E) Ralph Nader.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 761 [Factual]


42) Lyndon Johnson must bear great responsibility for the American problems in the Vietnam War because he

A) failed to confront the American people with the stark truth of the war.

B) was the first president to commit U.S. military personnel to Vietnam.

C) was the first U.S. leader to commit American financial resources to fighting the Communists in Vietnam.

D) was more committed to the implementation of containment policy than his predecessors had been.

E) took funding away from the war effort to prop up his Great Society programs.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 764 [Factual]

43) In general, American tactics in the Vietnam War

A) proved the advantage of high technology in wartime.

B) were ill-suited for the type of war being fought.

C) were efficient, if not always successful.

D) were not a major factor in the American loss.

E) saved thousands of American lives.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 764 [Factual]


44) In Vietnam, American military strategists counted heavily on

A) superior American military tactics.

B) the benefits of massive American firepower.

C) the United States' ability to resupply its forces in the field.

D) their soldiers' familiarity with guerrilla warfare.

E) an overwhelming number of American troops.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 764 [Factual]


45) The main premise of General William Westmoreland's strategy in Vietnam was to

A) wage a war of attrition against the Communists.

B) fight a limited war.

C) rely heavily on U.S. naval forces against the Viet Cong.

D) keep the war contained in South Vietnam.

E) fight a defensive war.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 764 [Factual]


46) The most prominent student protest organization was the

A) Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.

B) Students for a Democratic Society.

C) Yippie movement.

D) Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

E) Young Republicans.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 765 [Factual]


47) The first sign of student rebellion came in the fall of 1964 at

A) Columbia University.

B) the University of California at Berkeley.

C) Harvard University.

D) Texas A & M University.

E) Kent State University.

Answer: B

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 765 [Factual]

48) A former Harvard psychology professor who encouraged young people to experiment with drugs was

A) Jackson Pollock.

B) Abby Hoffman.

C) Stokely Carmichael.

D) Timothy Leary.

E) Bob Dylan.

Answer: D

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 767 [Factual]


49) Civil rights leader ________ advocated "black power."

A) Martin Luther King, Jr.

B) Malcolm X

C) Stokely Carmichael

D) Huey Newton

E) H. Rap Brown

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 767 [Factual]


50) The American experience in the Tet Offensive led Lyndon Johnson to

A) use napalm bombing.

B) dramatically increase American involvement in Vietnam.

C) consider using tactical nuclear weapons in the war.

D) step up American bombing of North Vietnam.

E) begin an effort to open peace negotiations with the Communists.

Answer: E

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 770 [Factual]


51) For the United States, the turning point of the Vietnam War was the

A) Tet Offensive.

B) battle of Khe Sanh.

C) battle of Dien Bien Phu.

D) siege of Hue.

E) battle of Da Nang.

Answer: A

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 770 [Factual]

52) Each of the following sought the presidency in 1968 EXCEPT

A) Hubert Humphrey.

B) Robert Kennedy.

C) Martin Luther King, Jr.

D) Eugene McCarthy.

E) George Wallace.

Answer: C

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 770-771 [Factual]


30.2 True/False Questions
1) The televised Nixon-Kennedy debates had relatively little impact on the outcome of the presidential election of 1960.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 744-746 [Factual]
2) Upon assuming the presidency, John F. Kennedy broke with the foreign policy of his predecessor,

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 747 [Factual]
3) During the 1960s, the Supreme Court strengthened the rights of accused criminals.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 755 [Factual]
4) The main reason for construction of the Berlin Wall was to stop the flow of brains and talent to the West.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 748 [Factual]
5) The Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba in 1961 turned out to be a political triumph for President John F. Kennedy.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 749 [Factual]
6) In the early 1960s, the civil rights movement willingly accepted John F. Kennedy's indirect approach to civil rights problems.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 753 [Factual]
7) Unlike Eisenhower, Kennedy provided presidential leadership for the Civil Rights Movement.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 754 [Factual]

8) President John F. Kennedy was far superior to President Lyndon Johnson in working with Congress.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 756 [Factual]


9) In the election of 1964, Lyndon Johnson barely received enough votes for reelection.

Answer: FALSE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 758 [Factual]
10) Richard Nixon defeated Hubert Humphrey in the 1968 presidential election.

Answer: TRUE

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 772 [Factual]
30.3 Essay Questions
1) How did John F. Kennedy implement his belief that the Cold War was a test of America's toughness and strength? Was he successful in achieving his goals?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 747-751 [Factual and Conceptual]


2) Describe U.S. foreign policy toward Latin America in the early 1960s.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 749-751 [Factual]


3) Describe the philosophy and major decisions of the Warren Court.

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 755 [Factual]


4) Did Lyndon Johnson have any other alternative to the actions he took regarding Vietnam? If so, what were they?

Diff: 1 Page Ref: 759-761, 764 [Conceptual]


5) How would you account for the failure of America's effort in the Vietnam War?

Diff: 2 Page Ref: 761, 764, 769-770 [Conceptual]



Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.



Directory: ~mth fbb
~mth fbb -> America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 5 The American Revolution: From Elite Protest to Popular Revolt, 1763-1783
~mth fbb -> America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 10 The Triumph of White Men's Democracy
~mth fbb -> America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 21 Toward Empire
~mth fbb -> America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 19 Toward an Urban Society, 1877-1900
~mth fbb -> America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 15 Secession and the Civil War
~mth fbb -> America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 11 Slaves and Masters
~mth fbb -> MAmerica: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 16 The Agony of Reconstruction
~mth fbb -> America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 24 The Nation at War
~mth fbb -> America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 7 Democracy in Distress: The Violence of Party Politics, 1788-1800
~mth fbb -> America: Past and Present, 9e (Divine et al.) Chapter 22 The Progressive Era

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