nativism – strong feelings that a native culture is superior to other cultures that aren’t native to the area (immigrants)
reform – change
progressive -- people who tried to make changes
muckraker—someone who “digs up the dirt” and exposes corruption and bad conditions
tenement – poor apartment-style housing, often unsafe and unsanitary
monopoly – a business that buys out all other businesses and has control
labor union – a group of workers who work together to solve problems, sometimes in the form of strikes
Explain the role of the following groups of people during Westward Expansion:
Miners – first group to move West, initially in search of Gold, and then to work for companies that were mining other resources
Immigrants (Chinese and European) – Irish Immigrants helped to build the Transcontinental railroad from the East, Chinese Immigrants helped to build the Transcontinental railroad from the West, other European immigrants settled land in the Wes
Farmers/Homesteaders – began settling and farming the land of the West; They made money off the crops they grew and sold for profit.
Mexican Americans – got lands taken away from them, vaqueros helped teach the American cowboys how to herd cattle
Ranchers/Cowboys -- ranchers settled the land of the West, raising cows and other animals. Cowboys helped to “drive” these animals to the railheads, where the animals were shipped back East to market.
African Americans -- had a variety of roles. Became Homesteaders and cowboys, as well as “Buffalo Soldiers,” who helped to “police” the West, including driving Native Americans into reservations.
During the Westward Expansion, there were conflicts between different groups of people. Some were resolved and some were not. Tell how the following groups interacted with each other in a negative way. (p. 226-227, 241, 246-249)
Cowboys vs. Homesteaders
Ranchers and cowboys tromped over the farms of the homesteaders with their cattle, so the homesteaders started putting up barbed wire to keep ranchers and their cattle out of the farms.
Homesteaders vs. Native Americans
The homesteaders set up their farms on land belonging to the Native Americans, so many conflicts arose between the two groups.
Ranchers vs. Native Americans
The ranchers tromped through the land belonging to the Native Americans, so many conflicts arose between the two groups. Ranchers also helped eliminate the buffalo population, which Native Americans used as a food source.
American Miners vs. European/Asian Immigrants
Miners from the U.S. didn’t like the immigrants “taking their jobs,” and immigrants didn’t like that the U.S. miners were being paid more.
Study Guide Questions:
How did new methods of transportation impact the growth of industry?
The train, cable car, and automobile allowed people to travel farther away and more quickly. Railroads shipped raw materials to cities where manufacturers changed raw materials into consumer products. As more people bought cars, other industries also grew such as steel, glass, rubber & oil industries.
How did new methods of communication impact the growth of industry?
The telegraph and telephone allowed people to communicate with others who were far away more quickly. It also allowed people in large buildings to communicate to people on other floors.
How did the invention of the light bulb affect manufacturing?
The light bulb allowed people to work at night, and were cleaner, safer, and brighter than oil lamps. The light bulb also allowed factories to create more work shifts, which impacted how much they could produce and how many workers they could hire. The lightbulb also brought electricity to cities, which further developed new technologies.
What is mass production and how did it affect manufacturing? (p. 323, 326-327)
Mass production means using machines to make many products at once.It allowed industries and businesses to grow and produce more products inexpensively.
What were push factors that motivated immigrants to leave their home countries and move to the United States?
War, poverty, discrimination/persecution
What were pull factors that attracted immigrants to the United States?
Promise of economic opportunity (jobs), religious freedom, political and social equality, education
What is the difference between “old immigrants” and “new immigrants?”
Old immigrants came from England, Ireland, and Germany prior to the 1890s, and were mostly Protestants. The Chinese immigrants were considered “old,” and new Chinese immigration was strictly limited by the 1890s. New immigrants had different cultures from the old immigrants and were from Italy, the Slavic States of the Balkan Peninsula, and Russia, and were mostly Catholic or Jewish. New immigrants also included Japanese, but the “Gentleman’s Agreement” eventually limited this.
Why did the US government limit immigration? How did they do this?
Native-born Americans were prejudiced against new immigrants (nativism). Immigration from China was limited through the Chinese Exclusion Act, literacy tests, and quota systems. The Gentleman’s Agreement limited Japanese immigration, but was imposed by the Japanese government. Irish were also discriminated against but no formal laws were passed. Individual businesses began discriminating on their own (“No Irish Need Apply”).
What were reasons that immigrants faced resistance from native-born Americans?
American Protestants were prejudiced against Catholics because they believed they wouldn’t serve as good American democrats because they followed the authority of the Pope.
Fear that political bosses could manipulate the immigrant vote.
Fear that immigrants would take jobs and drive down wages.
Many failed to assimilate into American society.
How did immigrants contribute to the culture and economy of the United States?
Immigrants brought with them different languages, foods, religions, and customs. They made America a diverse country with many ethnicities, like a “salad bowl” (formerly called “the melting pot”). They exercised their right to vote and helped make political changes. Immigrants made major contributions to the growth and development of the United States (Transcontinental Railroad, Andrew Carnegie, and Alexander Graham Bell) and supplied a great part of the labor (work) force.
What was the impact of urbanization?
Negative Effects: overcrowding in the cities, poor living conditions in tenements in slums
Positive Effects: the above negative impacts led reformers to work for better living and working conditions
What labor reforms were made during this time period?
Labor unions and Progressives helped workers get better pay, shorter work days, and safer working conditions. They also advocated for child labor laws and mandatory school attendance laws.
What was the impact of big business?
Progressives began working to keep monopolies and trusts from having too much control and influence over the American economy and politics. Big businesses encouraged the government to have an open immigration policy to keep the work force plentiful and cheap. Big businesses also caused the economic gap between the rich and poor to widen; the big business owners became richer, while their workers remained poor.
What business reforms were made during this time period?
The Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act made medicine and foods cleaner and safer.
The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) was to make sure railroad rates were fair.
The Sherman Antitrust Act broke up monopolies into smaller business.
*Even though the ICC and Sherman Antitrust Act laws were not passed, this was the first time the government tried to regulate big businesses.