America at the Turn of the Century Study Guide ss5H3 The student will describe how life changed in America at the turn of the century

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America at the Turn of the Century Study Guide
SS5H3 The student will describe how life changed in America at the turn of the century.

a. Describe the role of the cattle trails in the late 19th century; include the Black Cowboys of Texas, the Great Western Cattle Trail, and the Chisholm Trail.

b. Describe the impact on American life of the Wright brothers (flight), George Washington Carver (science), Alexander Graham Bell (communication), and Thomas Edison (electricity).

c. Explain how William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt expanded America’s role in the world; include the Spanish-American War and the building of the Panama Canal.

d. Describe the reasons people emigrated to the United States, from where they emigrated, and where they settled.

e. Describe the impact of westward expansion on Native Americans; include the Battle of the Little Bighorn and the relocation of Native Americans to reservations.

Key Vocabulary:

  1. Homestead Actthe Act Congress passed in 1862 that gave citizens and immigrants 160 acres of land if they paid a small amount and stayed on the land to farm for a minimum of 5 years

  2. industrya business activity, usually characterized by trade, manufacturing, and technologies

  3. conflicta problem. It can be internal, meaning in someone’s mind, or external, between man vs. nature, man vs. man, or man vs. animal.

  4. ethnic groupa group of people who share the same culture

  5. immigranta person who moves into a country from another country

  6. displacement -- being forced to move from your home

  7. assimilate -- to become “like” those around you

  8. culturethe behaviors and beliefs of a particular ethnic group; a way of life

  1. Industrial Revolution- time period of a great change in the economic face of the U.S., shifting from agriculture to manufacturing

  2. manufacturing- economic activity based largely in factories and production

  3. mass production- producing more than one thing at a time, usually using machines, the assembly line, and specialized workers

  4. raw materials- resources before they are produced in factory

  5. consumer goods products sold to consumers

  6. segregationseparation based on race

  7. integrationjoining together

  8. emigrationexiting a country to move to another

  9. persecution – being treated unfairly because of your culture or beliefs

  10. nativismstrong feelings that a native culture is superior to other cultures that aren’t native to the area (immigrants)

  11. reformchange

  12. progressive -- people who tried to make changes

  13. muckrakersomeone who “digs up the dirt” and exposes corruption and bad conditions

  14. tenementpoor apartment-style housing, often unsafe and unsanitary

  15. monopolya business that buys out all other businesses and has control

  16. labor uniona group of workers who work together to solve problems, sometimes in the form of strikes

Explain the role of the following groups of people during Westward Expansion:

    1. Miners – first group to move West, initially in search of Gold, and then to work for companies that were mining other resources

    2. Immigrants (Chinese and European) – Irish Immigrants helped to build the Transcontinental railroad from the East, Chinese Immigrants helped to build the Transcontinental railroad from the West, other European immigrants settled land in the Wes

    3. Farmers/Homesteaders – began settling and farming the land of the West; They made money off the crops they grew and sold for profit.

    4. Mexican Americans – got lands taken away from them, vaqueros helped teach the American cowboys how to herd cattle

    5. Ranchers/Cowboys -- ranchers settled the land of the West, raising cows and other animals. Cowboys helped to “drive” these animals to the railheads, where the animals were shipped back East to market.

    6. African Americans -- had a variety of roles. Became Homesteaders and cowboys, as well as “Buffalo Soldiers,” who helped to “police” the West, including driving Native Americans into reservations.

During the Westward Expansion, there were conflicts between different groups of people. Some were resolved and some were not. Tell how the following groups interacted with each other in a negative way. (p. 226-227, 241, 246-249)

    1. Cowboys vs. Homesteaders

Ranchers and cowboys tromped over the farms of the homesteaders with their cattle, so the homesteaders started putting up barbed wire to keep ranchers and their cattle out of the farms.

    1. Homesteaders vs. Native Americans

The homesteaders set up their farms on land belonging to the Native Americans, so many conflicts arose between the two groups.

    1. Ranchers vs. Native Americans

The ranchers tromped through the land belonging to the Native Americans, so many conflicts arose between the two groups. Ranchers also helped eliminate the buffalo population, which Native Americans used as a food source.

    1. American Miners vs. European/Asian Immigrants

Miners from the U.S. didn’t like the immigrants “taking their jobs,” and immigrants didn’t like that the U.S. miners were being paid more.

Study Guide Questions:

  1. How did new methods of transportation impact the growth of industry?

The train, cable car, and automobile allowed people to travel farther away and more quickly. Railroads shipped raw materials to cities where manufacturers changed raw materials into consumer products. As more people bought cars, other industries also grew such as steel, glass, rubber & oil industries.

  1. How did new methods of communication impact the growth of industry?

The telegraph and telephone allowed people to communicate with others who were far away more quickly. It also allowed people in large buildings to communicate to people on other floors.

  1. How did the invention of the light bulb affect manufacturing?

The light bulb allowed people to work at night, and were cleaner, safer, and brighter than oil lamps. The light bulb also allowed factories to create more work shifts, which impacted how much they could produce and how many workers they could hire. The lightbulb also brought electricity to cities, which further developed new technologies.

  1. What is mass production and how did it affect manufacturing? (p. 323, 326-327)

Mass production means using machines to make many products at once. It allowed industries and businesses to grow and produce more products inexpensively.

  1. What were push factors that motivated immigrants to leave their home countries and move to the United States?

War, poverty, discrimination/persecution

  1. What were pull factors that attracted immigrants to the United States?

Promise of economic opportunity (jobs), religious freedom, political and social equality, education

  1. What is the difference between “old immigrants” and “new immigrants?”

Old immigrants came from England, Ireland, and Germany prior to the 1890s, and were mostly Protestants. The Chinese immigrants were considered “old,” and new Chinese immigration was strictly limited by the 1890s. New immigrants had different cultures from the old immigrants and were from Italy, the Slavic States of the Balkan Peninsula, and Russia, and were mostly Catholic or Jewish. New immigrants also included Japanese, but the “Gentleman’s Agreement” eventually limited this.

  1. Why did the US government limit immigration? How did they do this?

Native-born Americans were prejudiced against new immigrants (nativism). Immigration from China was limited through the Chinese Exclusion Act, literacy tests, and quota systems. The Gentleman’s Agreement limited Japanese immigration, but was imposed by the Japanese government. Irish were also discriminated against but no formal laws were passed. Individual businesses began discriminating on their own (“No Irish Need Apply”).

  1. What were reasons that immigrants faced resistance from native-born Americans?

  • American Protestants were prejudiced against Catholics because they believed they wouldn’t serve as good American democrats because they followed the authority of the Pope.

  • Fear that political bosses could manipulate the immigrant vote.

  • Fear that immigrants would take jobs and drive down wages.

  • Many failed to assimilate into American society.

  1. How did immigrants contribute to the culture and economy of the United States?

Immigrants brought with them different languages, foods, religions, and customs. They made America a diverse country with many ethnicities, like a “salad bowl” (formerly called “the melting pot”). They exercised their right to vote and helped make political changes. Immigrants made major contributions to the growth and development of the United States (Transcontinental Railroad, Andrew Carnegie, and Alexander Graham Bell) and supplied a great part of the labor (work) force.

  1. What was the impact of urbanization?

Negative Effects: overcrowding in the cities, poor living conditions in tenements in slums

Positive Effects: the above negative impacts led reformers to work for better living and working conditions

  1. What labor reforms were made during this time period?

Labor unions and Progressives helped workers get better pay, shorter work days, and safer working conditions. They also advocated for child labor laws and mandatory school attendance laws.

  1. What was the impact of big business?

Progressives began working to keep monopolies and trusts from having too much control and influence over the American economy and politics. Big businesses encouraged the government to have an open immigration policy to keep the work force plentiful and cheap. Big businesses also caused the economic gap between the rich and poor to widen; the big business owners became richer, while their workers remained poor.

  1. What business reforms were made during this time period?

  • The Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act made medicine and foods cleaner and safer.

  • The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) was to make sure railroad rates were fair.

  • The Sherman Antitrust Act broke up monopolies into smaller business.

*Even though the ICC and Sherman Antitrust Act laws were not passed, this was the first time the government tried to regulate big businesses.

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