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ALWAYS HIGHLIGHT KEY WORDS as you read—take NOTES to the SIDE for your MATRIX.

Chapter 26: An Age of Democracy and Progress, 1815–1914

CHAPTER OVERVIEW In Britain, reforms gave all men the right to vote. A republic was proclaimed in France, but political conflict continued. Some British colonies won the right to govern themselves, but the struggle for that right was not easy in Ireland. The United States fought a civil war that finally put an end to slavery. New inventions and scientific advances made life more healthful and enjoyable.
S 3. War and Expansion in the United States

KEY IDEA The United States expanded across North America and fought a bloody civil war.

The United States had troubles of its own. In the

early 1800s, the nation grew in size. It bought

a huge piece of land from France in the Louisiana

Purchase. Many said it was “manifest destiny”—the

right of the United States to rule the land from the

Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific. As white settlers

moved farther and farther west, Native Americans

suffered. In the 1830s, many thousands were

forced to move from their homes in the eastern

states to the present state of Oklahoma. The

United States won a war with Mexico in the 1840s

and thus gained even more land.
This growth raised serious questions. The

southern states used slave labor to grow crops such

as cotton. People in the South hoped to extend

slavery to the new western lands. Many in the

North, however, believed that slavery was wrong

and should be ended.

Conflict over slavery eventually led to the Civil

War. The southern states seceded, or pulled out of,

the Union. When southern forces fired on a Union

fort in 1861, war broke out. The fighting lasted four

long and bloody years. The North won the war.

During the fighting, President Abraham Lincoln

declared that slavery was ended in the United

States. Later, the Constitution was changed to make

this the law of the land and to say that African

Americans were citizens.

In the first few years after the war, newly freed

African Americans enjoyed equal rights. Later,

whites regained control of the governments of the

southern states. They passed laws that took away

the rights of blacks and treated them unfairly. It

would be many years before African Americans

could enjoy equality.
The economy of the South was destroyed by the

Civil War. Elsewhere, though, the nation saw a

surge of industrial growth. Helping achieve this

great growth was a sharp rise in immigration from

Europe and Asia. By 1914, more than 20 million

people had come to the United States.

S 4. Nineteenth-Century Progress

KEY IDEA Breakthroughs in science and technology transformed daily life and entertainment.

In the late 1800s, new inventions made major

changes in how people lived. Thomas Edison got

patents on more than 1,000 inventions. Among

them were the electric light bulb and the phonograph.

Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone,

and Guglielmo Marconi created the first

There were big changes in transportation too.

Though someone else invented the car, Henry

Ford made it affordable to ordinary people. He had

a factory with an assembly line that allowed him to

quickly build cheap cars that cost as little as $300.

In 1903, the Wright brothers flew the first motorpowered

airplane flight. Soon there was an aircraft

Medicine made advances. Until the mid-1800s,

no one knew about germs. French scientist Louis

Pasteur discovered that microscopic animals that

he called bacteria could live in food. Soon he and

others realized that bacteria could cause disease.

British surgeon Joseph Lister took steps to kill bacteria,

which helped more patients survive. Soon his

practices became widespread. Public officials began

to clean up plumbing and sewage systems. All these

steps helped people lead longer and healthier lives.

English scientist Charles Darwin developed a

new theory that was hotly debated. He said that all

life on earth, even humans, had developed from

simpler forms over millions of years. Many did not

accept this idea, which they said went against the

In the mid-1800s, an Austrian monk named

Gregor Mendel did some experiments that showed

that parents passed on their traits to offspring. His

work formed the basis of the science of genetics.

Other scientists made new discoveries in chemistry

and physics. They found that all matter is made of

tiny particles called atoms. They also were able to

identify the differences between different elements.

In the late 1800s, some thinkers began the new

social science of psychology, which is the study of

the mind. A series of experiments led Russian Ivan

Pavlov to argue that people responded to certain

situations because of how they were trained. By

changing the training, he said, one could change

the response. Austrian Sigmund Freud argued that

powerful forces in the subconscious mind of a person

shaped behavior. These views shocked many.

They seemed to overturn the idea that people

could use their reason to build better lives.

In earlier times, art, music, and the theater had

been of interest only to the wealthy. With the rise

of the middle class, culture became available to

more people. One reason was that more people

could read, which led to more newspapers, magazines,

and books.

Another reason was that working people had

more time to enjoy art, music, and recreation.

People went to music halls to enjoy singing and

dancing. In the early 1900s, they began to watch the

first silent movies. People also began to enjoy sporting

events, both as participants and as spectators.


Comparing and Contrasting

1. Contrast the spread of democracy in Britain with that in France.

2. Compare the development of self-rule in the different colonies of Britain.

3. Determining Main Ideas How did the United States change during the 1800s?

4. Drawing Conclusions What important inventions were made in the late 1800s and early

1900s? Which one do you think was most important?

5. Analyzing Causes and Recognizing Effects

How did new medical and scientific discoveries and ideas from the late 1800s change life?

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