Aker The double lion god, guardian of the sunrise and sunset. Guardian of the peaks that supported the sky.
Am-heh Egyptian chthonic underworld god
Amun "The Hidden One." An Egyptian sky god who evolved into a sun god and the head of the Egyptian pantheon. Originally a local god of Khmun and then of Thebes. Amun's cult rose in prominence as Thebes rose in status. In the New Kingdom he became combined with the Heliopolitan sun god Ra as Amun-Ra, in which form he was the "king of the gods" and the tutelary deity of the Pharaohs. The Pharaohs, who had been considered "sons of Ra", thus came to be regarded as incarnations of Amun-Ra. Amun took on the role of a primeval deity and creator in the cosmology of the New Kingdom, creating earth and sky out of his thought. By Dynasty XVIII Amun was the "King of the Gods." Karnak was his most famous temple. The temple is the largest religious structure ever built by man. Amun sometimes appears as a protector of any devotee in need.
Amun was a member of the Ogdoad, paired with the goddess Amaunet. They represented hidden power. He was also a member of the Theban triad, where he was the husband of Mut and adoptive father of Khons. Amun was depicted in human form, with blue skin and either the head of a bearded man or a ram's head with curved horns. He wore a crown composed of a modius surmounted by two tall feather plumes. He was sometimes depicted in ithyphallic form with an oversized erect penis. His true appearance was considered beyond human understanding. Amun was said to be "hidden of aspect, mysterious of form", invisible yet omnipresent throughout the cosmos. His sacred animals were the ram and the goose. His primary sanctuaries were at Karnak and Luxor near Thebes. Amun and his influential Theban priests suffered a temporary eclipse during the reign of Akhenaten, who tried to impose a monotheistic worship of Aten. The cult of Amun revived soon after Akhenaten's death. It was not until the sack of Thebes by the Assyrians in 663 BC that Amun was reduced to mere local importance. As Ammon, however, he had an oracle at the Siwa Oasis in the western desert that remained prominent at least until the time of Alexander the Great, who visited the oracle.
Amun-Re ( Amon-Ra ) A combination of Amun and Ra worshipped in later Egyptian history. Under this name, the Theban god Amun became the national god of Egypt. Pharaohs considered themselves to be sons of Amun-Ra. Displaced during Akhenaten's rule, he was restored to full power afterwards.
Andjety ( Anezti, Anedjti ) Egyptian underworld god. Andjety was responsible for the rebirth of the individual in the afterlife. He wore a high conical crown surmounted by two feather plumes, and bore the crook and flail. Andjety was associated with Osiris, whose symbols were also the crook and flail, as well as the atef crown, which resembled that worn by Andjety. His worship originated in the ninth Nome of Lower Egypt. Both Osiris and him had their main cult center at Busiris.
Anezti ( Anedjti ) A god of the ninth Nome of Lower Egypt.
Anhur ( Anhert, Anhuret, Greek Onuris ) Egyptian warrior and hunter god. His consort was the lion goddess Mekhit. He was depicted as a bearded warrior wearing a long robe and a headdress with four tall plumes, often bearing a spear. Mekhit is often shown accompanying him. Anhur was the champion of Egypt who hunted and slew the enemies of Ra. Occasionally equated with the god Shu and with Ares by the Ptolemaic Greeks. Anhur was the Divine Huntsman. His cult originated in the Upper Egyptian city of Thinis (This), near Abydos, but his main cult center was at Sebennytos in the Nile Delta.
Anti An Egyptian guardian deity. Depicted as a falcon or with a falcon's head, often standing on a crescent-shaped boat.
Anubis (Greek; Egyptian: Anup) An Egyptian god of the dead. Also known as Khenty-Imentiu - "Chief of the Westerners" - a reference to the belief that the realm of the dead lay to the west and a association with the setting sun and the Egyptian custom of building cemeteries on the west bank of the Nile. He was represented as a black jackal/dog or as a man with the head of a jackal/dog. His father was normally given as Ra, while is mother was sometimes Nephthys or Isis.
After the early period of the Old Kingdom, he was replaced by Osiris as god of the dead and was demoted to a supporting role as a god of the funeral cult and the care of the dead. His black color represented the color of human corpses after they had undergone the embalming process. In the Book of the Dead, he was depicted as presiding over the weighing of the heart of the deceased, in the Hall of the Two Truths. As god of the care of the dead, he was referred to as the "conductor of souls." Because of this title the Greeks later identified him with Hermes. The two were merged to form the deity Hermanubis. Anubis' principal sanctuary was at the necropolis in Memphis as well as other cities.
Apedemak A Nubian Lion god.
Apis ( Greek form; Egyptian Hapi, Hape) Egyptian bull god of Memphis. Originally a form the god Hapi, he was later regarded as the living embodiment of the god Ptah. Apis was supposedly conceived after a flash of lightning struck Isis. When he, the Apis Bull, died it was said that he became/entered the god Osiris. Based on distinguishing marks, a black and white bull was selected to represent Apis. It must be all black save for a white triangular patch on the forehead. Omens were derived by it's behavior. After a Apis bull died, it was mummified and buried with much ceremony at Sakkarah in an underground tomb known to the Greeks as the Serapeum, afterwards, his priests searched for a calf with the appropriate markings which indicated that it was his successor. The Pharaohs were closely associated with the Apis bull. They partook of it's strength and fertility in life and aided in their ascent to the sun god after death. The Apis bull was depicted with the solar disk between its horns and also bearing the uraeus (cobra amulet) on its head.
Apophis ( Apepi, Apep ) Egyptian snake god and personified darkness, evil and the forces of chaos. Apophis was the eternal enemy of Ra and cosmic order. Each night he did battle with Ra on his journey through the underworld on the barque of the sun, and each night Ra triumphed to be reborn at dawn in the east. Often the god Set or the serpent Mehen was the one who defended Ra and the solar barque from Apophis. During an eclipse it was said that Apophis had gained a temporary victory however, Ra always triumphed in the end. In one account, it was said that Ra gained a permanent victory over Apophis when he cut up and burned Apophis' body.
Aten Name of the god who gained its prominence during the reign of Akhenaten. Akhenaten abolished the traditional cults of Egypt in favor of the Aten. A sun with multiple arms holding/offering Ankh, was the Aten's representation. This was the first monotheistic cult in the world.
Atum The primeval sun god and creator of the world. He represents the setting sun. Later he was combined with Re as the god Atum-Re. According to the myths, he was the first substance (a hill) who emerged from the primeval waters. Atum created the deities Shu and Tefnut from his spittle or from his semen in the act of masturbation.
His main cult center was at Heliopolis, where he was the head of the Ennead cult. The black bull Mnewer, who bore the sun disk and uraeus between its horns, was his representation. As the father of the pharaoh, he played an important part in the coronation rites. Atum was shown as old man symbolizing the setting sun, a scarab, a snake, and a mangust (pharaoh hat). His sacred animals were the bull, the snake, lizard, lion and ichneumon.
In the Memphite creation myth Atum was conceived in the heart of Ptah and was created by his word. "He who completes, or perfects."
B Ba Early ram god of Mendes in Lower Egypt. He was a fertility deity whom women worshipped in the hope that he would aid them in conceiving children.
Babi Egyptian demonic god. Depicted as a baboon with an erect penis. Babi was both a dangerous god, but was also associated with sexual prowess in the afterlife. As a demonic god he was said to live on human entrails. He is mentioned in the Books of the Dead where he attends the ceremony of the Weighing of the Heart in the Hall of the Two Truths. He waits with Ammut to devour the souls of those found unworthy. His penis was depicted being employed as the mast of the underworld ferry.
Banebdjedet ( Ba Neb Tetet, Banebdedet, Baneb Djedet, Banaded ) Ram god of Lower Egypt. His consort was the fish goddess Hatmehyt. He was the father of Harpokrates. In one tradition, he interceded in the contest between Horus and Set for the Egyptian throne. Banebdejedet advised the gods to consult the goddess Neith. Neith advised the gods to award the throne to Horus. In this account, he was said to reside on the island of Seheil near the first cataract of the Nile at Aswan, but generally his cult was centered on Mendes in the Nile Delta. He was depicted with the head of a ram.
Ba-Pef "That Soul." Minor Egyptian god of malevolent aspect.
Behedti Egyptian god in the form of a crouching falcon. Worshipped at Behdet (Edfu), he later was identified as a local form of the god Horus.
Benu A bird-like sun god. Linked with Atum, the better known sun god of Heliopolis. He was said to have been self-created from the primeval ocean.
Bes (Bisu) Dwarf god who guarded against evil spirits and misfortune. Unlike the other Egyptian deities, who were usually depicted in profile, Bes was depicted full face. He was ugly and grotesque in appearance, with a large head, a protruding tongue, bowlegs and a bushy tail. He bore a plumed crown and wore the skin of a lion or panther. Despite his appearance, he was a beneficent deity and his appearance was meant to scare off evil spirits. He bore swords and knives to ward off evil spirits, as well as musical instruments, to create a din to frighten them off. Bes aided the goddess Taweret in childbirth. He was originally the protective deity of the royal house of Egypt, but became a popular household deity throughout Egypt.
Bennu An aspect of Ra-Atum in the form of a phoenix. Bennu was the patron of the reckoning of time and carrier of eternal light from the abode of the gods to the world of men.
Buchis Egyptian holy bull of Hermonthis and the living image of the god Montu. He had a white body and a black head.
C Chenti-cheti ( Greek Chentechtai ) Originally an Egyptian crocodile god, he later took on the form of a falcon.
Chenti-irti ( Machenti-irti ) Falcon-god of law and order identified with Horus.
Cherti Ram god and ferryman of the dead. His cult was centered on Letopolis.
Chnum ( Chnumu ) Ram god and protector of the source of the Nile. He was said to fashion children out of clay and then place them in the mother's womb. Depicted as a human with a ram's head.
Chons Egyptian moon god; the son of Amun and Mut. Normally depicted as a young man in the posture of a mummy.
Chontamenti ( Chonti-amentiu ) A god of the dead and the land of the west. He was represented as a crouching dog/jackal.
D Djebauti (Zebauti) A local god
Dua The Egyptian god of toiletry.
Duamutef (Tuamutef) God of the deceased's stomach
G Geb (Keb, Seb) Earth god. It is quite rare to find a ancient religion with the earth personified in the form of a man. Geb was the son of Shu and Tefnut and Brother-consort of the sky goddess Nut. Father of Osiris and Isis, Set and Nephthys. Geb was generally depicted lying on his back, usually wearing the crown of Lower Egypt, with the naked body of Nut arched above him. As such, he was often shown with an erect penis pointing upward toward Nut. Occasionally the air god Shu was shown standing on the body of Geb and supporting Nut, supposedly separating her from Geb. In any other case he is shown with the head of a goose. He as "the Great Cackler," he was represented as a goose. Also as "The Great Cackler" he was said to have laid the egg from which the sun was hatched.
Equated as the third divine king of earth. His skin was often green, indicative his role as a god of vegetation and fertility. Geb was also said to imprison the souls of the dead, preventing them from passing on to the afterlife. The laughter of Geb was said to cause earthquakes. The goose was his sacred animal and his symbol in Egyptian hieroglyphics. In his honor, the royal throne of Egypt was occasionally known as the 'throne of Geb.'
H Ha God of the west and the western desert. Because the entrance to the underworld was in the western desert, he plays a part in the death cult. He is shown as a human with a hieroglyph that represents the west on his head.
Hapi (Hapy, Hap, Hep) God of the Nile. Mostly associated with the annual floods, the inundation (which was responsible for the fertility of the land adjacent to the river). Although he had no specific cult centers, Hapi was believed to live in caves near the Nile cataracts. His court included a retinue of crocodile-gods and a harem of frog-goddesses. Depicted in human form with a large belly, female breasts (which indicated his powers of nourishment), a beard, colored blue or green, and a clump of aquatic plants. He often bore a tray of produce symbolizing the abundance and prosperity brought by the Nile floods.
Harakhti (Harachte) God of the morning sun. His name means 'Horus of the Horizon.' He is a manifestation of Horus. The Pharaoh was supposedly born on the eastern horizon as Harakhti and to rule over the eastern and western horizon in that form. In Heliopolis he combined with Re and was worshipped as Re-Harakhti. He was depicted in the form of a falcon.
Harendotes (Egyptian Har-nedj-itef) A guardian god and a manifestation of Horus. In this form, he guards Osiris in the underworld and is called 'Horus the savior of his father.' Har-nedj-itef also protects the dead and is portrayed as a falcon on sarcophagi.
Harmachis (Egyptian Har-em-akhet) "Horus upon the Horizon" also known as Her-Akhety, "Horus of the Two Horizons." A manifestation of Horus where he figures as a sun god (identified with Re-Her-Akhety). Later the sphinx of Giza represented "Horus of the Morning Sun" because it/he looked toward the eastern horizon.
Harmerti Horus' name, as the falcon-god 'with the two eyes,' which represented the sun and the moon. Harmerti was also worshipped as the hero that restrains monsters.
Haroeris (Egyptian Har-wer) "The Elder Horus." Horus, when he reaches maturity, and avenges his father, Osiris, against his enemy, Seth. In this form, Horus defeats Seth and seizes the throne of Egypt.
In Noebt, (Kom Ombo) in Upper Egypt, Har-wer was regarded as the son of the god Re and was identical with the sky god Shu. He is depicted in the form of a falcon.
Harpokrates (Harpocrates, Egyptian Har-pa-khered) "Horus the Child." This was Horus as a young boy, not Horus as an adult. He is portrayed as a naked child with a finger in his mouth, sitting on a lotus flower or on the knee of his mother Isis. He was invoked to ward off dangerous creatures. He was also a vegetation god and was portrayed with a jar or a horn of plenty.
He became very popular during the Roman Empire and his cult was expanded substantially. Statuettes of Har-pa-khered from the Greco-Roman period show him riding on a goose or a ram.
Harsiesis (Harsiese, Egyptian Har-sa-iset) This was Horus as the son of Isis and a guardian deity. In the Osiris-myth he was born when Isis impregnated herself by her deceased husband, Osiris. Isis protects Horus as a child. The Pyramid texts state that Har-sa-iset performed the rite of the 'opening of the mouth' on the dead pharaoh, ensuring that the pharaoh would have the use of his faculties in the afterlife.
Harsomtus (Egyptian Har-mau) "Horus the Uniter." Horus when he achieves the uniting of the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt.
Heh God of infinity and a member of the Ogdoad. His consort was Hauhet.
Hemen An Egyptian falcon god.
Herishef (Arsaphes) A ram-headed god who originated in Heracleopolis.
Horus (Egyptian Har or Hor) Egyptian sky god; son of Isis and the dead Osiris. Usually depicted as a falcon or in human form with the head of a falcon. The sun and the moon are said to be his eyes. He was born at Khemmis in the Nile Delta, and Isis hid him in the papyrus marshes to protect him against Set, his father's murderer.
Horus later avenged the death of his father against Set. Horus lost his left eye (the moon) in the contest between the two. Horus was identified with Lower Egypt and Set with Upper Egypt in this battle, which lasted eighty years. The gods judged Horus to be the winner, and Set was either killed or castrated. The consequence of Horus's victory was the union of Upper and Lower Egypt. The Egyptian Pharaoh was believed to be an incarnation of Horus, and the name of Horus formed part of his name. The Pharaoh was said to become Horus after death. Set restored the eye he had torn from Horus, but Horus gave it instead to Osiris. The image of the "eye of Horus", a human eye combined with the cheek markings of a falcon, became a powerful amulet among the Egyptians.
Among the various manifestations of Horus were: Harpokrates (Heru-Pa-Khret, Harpakhrad): "Horus the child." This refers to his birth and secret rearing by Isis. In this form he is often depicted as a naked child seated on Isis's lap.
Haroeris (Har Wer): "Horus the elder." In this form Horus battled against Set.
Harakhte (Harakhti, Heraktes): "Horus of the horizon." Horus at Heliopolis, linked with Ra in the sun cult. In this form he is associated with the rising and setting sun. He was pictured as a falcon, or as a sphinx with the body of a lion. The Great Sphinx of Giza is an example of "Horus in/of the Horizon."
Harendotes (Har-nedj-itef, Har-End-Yotef): "Horus the savior of his father." A reference to the avenging of his father's murder.
Harmachis (Heru-Em-Akhet, Harmakis): "Horus in the horizon." Horus as symbol of resurrection, linked with the setting sun.
Harsiesis (Harsiese, Har-si-Ese, Hor-Sa-Iset): "Horus, son of Isis." Horus as a baby/child
Harsomtus (Har-mau): "Horus the Uniter." This is a reference to his role in uniting Upper and Lower Egypt.
Hor Behdetite (Behedti): "Horus of Behdet." Originally a local form of Horus, at Behdet. In this form he symbolized by the winged solar disk.
Hu The creating word of the sun-god of Heliopolis and a god of authority. With Sia Hu forms a primeval pair, both born from a drop of blood from the penis of Ra (sometimes by the tears of Ra), and together the personify the wisdom and insight of the sun-god. They also accompany him on his solar barque and help the bring order in chaos.
I Imiut A protective deity of the underworld.
Imhotep (Amenhotep, Amenhotep-Son-of-Hapu) Imhotep was the chief minister of the Pharaoh Djoser. He was the architect of the Step Pyramid, which was the first of the Egyptian Pyramids. Imhotep was latter raised to the level of a god (deified). As a god he was responsible with medicine and learning. Normally depicted as a seated man holding an open papyrus.
Imsety (Amset, Mestha) God of the deceased's liver, he was protected by Isis; One of the Four Sons of Horus.
J Joh (Jah) An Egyptian god of the moon.
K Kebechsenef (Kebehsenuf, Qebshenuf, Qebehsenuf) A Son of Horus. He protected the Canopic jar where the viscera of the lower body where kept after mummification.
Kek God of darkness and a member of the Ogdoad. His consort was Kauket.
Kepra (Kheper, Khepera, Khepris, Chepre, Chepri) An Egyptian sun god who appeared often in the form of a scarab or a dung beetle and often as a beetle within the sun disk. He was a manifestation of the god Ra rising in the east at dawn. This association supposedly resulted for the similarity between the scarab rolling a ball of dung along the ground and Ra rolling the sun across the sky. Kepra was the one who pushed the sun up from the underworld to be reborn at dawn. In the Heliopolitan cosmology he appeared as a primordial sun god who created himself out of the earth. His principal cult center was at Heliopolis.
Khepri A scarab headed god. The Egyptians believed that Khepri pushed the sun across the sky in much the same fashion that a dung beetle (scarab) pushed a ball of dung across the ground.
Kherty (Cherti) "Lower One." Ram god of the underworld and ferryman of the dead. In the Pyramid Texts Kherty was said to be a threat to the Pharaoh, who had to be defended by Ra himself. However, as an earth-god, he also acts as a guardian of the Pharaoh's tomb. Letopolis, northwest of Memphis, was Kherty's main cult center. He was shown as a man with the head of a ram or as a ram.
Khnum (Khnemu) "To Create." Egyptian ram god. Khnum was credited with creating life on a potter's wheel at the behest of the other gods. He was also said to control the annual inundation of the Nile, although the god Hapi physically generates the inundation. The goddesses Satis and Anuket assisted him in their supervisory role. His major cult center was on the Elephantine Island near the first cataract of the Nile (Near modern Aswan) where mummified rams sacred to Khnum have been found. He also had an important cult center at Esna, to the north of the first cataract. He was usually depicted inhuman form with a ram's head - the horns extending horizontally on either side of the head - often before a potter's wheel on which a naked human was being fashioned.
Khonsu (Khons, Khensu, Chons) "Wanderer." Egyptian moon god. Son of Amun and Mut (occasionally the son of Sekhmet) with whom he forms the triad of gods revered in Thebes. Depicted in human form, sometimes with the head of a hawk, clothed in a tight-fitting robe and wearing a skullcap topped by the crescent of the new moon subtending the disk of the full moon. His head was shaven except for the side-lock worn by Egyptian children, signifying his role as Khnosu-pa-khered - "Khonsu the child." His principal sanctuary was in Thebes, where he figured prominently as a member of the Theban triad. He also had a temple in Karnak. His sacred animal was the baboon, considered a lunar animal by the Egyptians.