Aka Charles Louis de Secondat (1689-1755) influential writer of the Enlightenment from France



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152. Montesquieu
aka Charles Louis de Secondat (1689-1755) influential writer of the Enlightenment from France; Spirit of the Laws (1748) about English separation of powers and checks and balances (did not really exist in Great Britain); believed in aristocratic authority; Persian Letters(1721) satirical, attack religious zealotry, system of justice necessary; against slavery
153. Diderot, (Denis)
(1713-1784) created the Encyclopedia, greates collab achievement in Enlightenment by scholars known as "Republic of Letters"; Encyclopedia spread Enlightenment ideas beyond borders of France; (censored sometimes because criticized religion/monarchy)
154. Jean Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1778) most radical of the philosophes, France; believed in creation of direct democracy not const. monarchy; greatest work The Social Contract (1762) "All men are born free, but...in chains."; helped set Romantic Movement
155. Immanuel Kant
Greatest figure of enlightenment in Germany; (1724-1804) argued in Critique of Pure Reason (1781) against idea that knowledge was emprical; believes in knowledge beyond reason (Romantic)
156. Cesare Beccaria
writer from Italy, (1738-1794) wrote On Crimes and Punishment (1764), called for overhaul in jurisprudence; rights for accused; humanitarian;
157. David Hume
philosopher from Scotland (1711-1776); delved into Atheism; Inquiry into Human Nature cast complete doubt on religion- no proof
158. Edward Gibbon
author from Scotland (1737-1794); part of growing interest in history; wrote Decline and Fall of the Roman- Christianity weakened Empire
159. Adam Smith
professor of University of Glasgow in Scotland, (1723-1790); 1776 published Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations argued against mercantilism, became associated with Laissez-Faire: government leave economy alone; "invisible hand"
160. Marquise (or Madame) de Pompadour
Louis XV's mistress, helped Diderot avoid censhorship during Enlightenment;
161. Mary Wollstonecraft
English-woman, (1759-1797) during Enlightenment, wrote Vindication of the Rights of Women: women should enoy rights vote and political office-- first published statement of these ideas
162. Enlightened absolutists (aka despots)
monarchs who sought to govern using ideas of French philosophes, ie Catherine the Great, Joseph II, and Frederick II; safely toyed with philosophes ideas because those philosophes were believers of monarchy-- was able to strengthen state at expense of church, which previously stood in the way of centralizing
163. Frederick William ("The Great Elector")
(r. 1640-1688) ruler of Prussia, poor German state; served as one of the electors of the Holy Roman Emperor formerly as ruler of Bradenburg; "tapped into Prussia's potential"; mutual relationship with Junkers (nobility) raised an expanded army;
164. Frederick the Great
King of Prussia (r. 1740-1786); often cited as Enlightened Absolutist; reigned during Prussia's power zenith; freed serfs on royal estates but not on private, ended capital punishment and limited corporal punishment on serfs (not Jews); used rational thought;
165. Maria Theresa
Empress of Austria during Enlightenment, daughter of Charles VI who suceeded to throne with Pragmatic Sanction; made series of reforms-- removed some hardships on serfs; put down dangerous revolt in Beohemia and remained on throne with help of Hungary (recognized for agreement to Pragmatic Sanction)
166. Pragmatic Sanction
Pushed by Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI (r. 1711-1740) who lacked male heir: sanction allowed Habsburg to remain under one ruler, and granted female right to succeed to throne of Austria if no direct male heir, caused War of the Austrian Succession;
167. Diplomatic Revolution
During the War of Austrian Succession (German Prussia vs. Austria), Maria Theresa of Prussia brought this by woring out an alliance with France, traditional enemy of Habsburgs, for this alliance France demanded Austrian Netherlands; Sweden and Russia signed on for territorial gains at Prussian expense (lead to Seven Years War)
168. Peter the Great
Tsar of Russia from Romanov family (r. 1682-1725); transformed Russia into major European power; westerenized Russia; est central bureaucracy, est St. Petersburg 1703; built first Russian navy; expanded territory, ended Sweden's great power;
169. Catherine the Great
Tsarina of Russia, Romanov family (r. 1762-1796); inspired by western thought- French philosophes; revised and codified Russian law, dabbled with reform; dropped idea later- but helped established primacy of French culture and Russian aristocracy ideas
170. Robert Walpole (first "prime minister")
was Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1721-1741 in Great Britain; able to mold political system due to Kings' lack of interest in domestic politics; used complex patronage system to control lower house- vital for ministerial power; resigned when support lost
171. Jansenists
Catholic sect, in France, believed predestination; attacked by papal decree, Louis XV support decree, stopped by "parlements" French noble law court: believed decree was despotic (challenged throne-- rational thinking will lead to revolution 1789)
172. Louis XVI
Weak monarch in France (r. 1774-1792); had to persuade nobility to give up tax-free status (after rebellion that gave them freedom from taxation) recall Parlements, formerly abolished by Louis XV; married Marie Antoinette who inalienated country from court
173. Marie Antoinette
unhappy Austrian princess, married to King Louis XVI of France; (supposed to aid relations between France and Austria); very insensitive towards peasants, infedelity widened gap between court and country
174. Problems Facing French Monarchy
Financial problems- France went bankrupt in 1789, eighteenth century experienced many wars (defeat in Seven Years War and help in American Revolution); French monarchy unable to tap into wealth of the nation
175. Estates-General
an institution from Medieval Times consisting of a 3 house body made of clergy nobility and commons; demanded by the nobles in the 1787 Assembly of Notables(about tax issue) called by Louis XVI in France-- would end up in nobles' downfall (was supposed to ensure noble privileges because 1st and 2nd alwasy dominated at meeting)
176. First, Second, and Third Estates
First was clergy, Second nobility, Third "commons"- anyone from bourgeeoisie to peasants; called together in Estates-General in France; but many parish priests from First Estate felt more Third
177. Abbe Sieyes
obscure lower clergyman from France, (1748-1836); wrote most famous pamphlet "What is Third Estate? Everything. What has it been...Nothing. What does it ask?...become something."
178. National Assembly
Third Estate, commoners (majority), were "nothing"--1788 double of Third reps didn't change; June 17, 1789--Third declared that it would only assemble as national assemby representing entire French nation; many parish priests from First voted to join Third;
179. Tennis Court Oath
In the Revolution of Commoners, Third Estate gathered at tennis court on grounds of Versailles- promised to continue to meet "until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon solid foundations."; Louis XVI granted concessions-- continual Estates General meeting, drop on some taxes to Third, June 27 agreed to consolidate all three estates into National Assembly
180. Bastille
A fortress prison in Paris, France; stormed during Louis XVI reign, because rumor that king was not interested in meeting National Aseembly and was organizing troops to scatter it; revolution
181. Commune of Paris
new municipal government; created during reign of Louis XVI in France in concession to the Bastille storming; would play pivotal role later in the Revolution
182. Marquis de Lafayette
First leader of the National Guard (King created it in making concessions after Bastille incident), France (1757-1834); champion of liberty, involved in the American Revolution, wrote Declartion of Rights
183. Great Fear
Was a panic around 1780s in France; peasants believed rumors that aristocracy was using anarchy to organize groups to steal from peasants-- peasants attacked noble estates and burned documents; caused Aug 4 National Assembly to make Aristocrats renounce their privileges-- all citizens were equal under same laws
184. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
document written in France declaring rights of the new citizens, during reign Louis XVI; written by Lafayette aided by Thomas Jefferson; declared political sovereignty rested in nation at large and citizens were equal and free, offered rights of private property;
185. Olympe de Gouges
writer supporting women, from France; in 1791 wrote The Rights of Women, she argued women should enjoy right to education, property, divorce-- but didn't demand full rights; rights would be given then taken away during Napoleon
186. assignats
government bonds that were backed by the sale of church lands; issuing took place late 1700s in France; National Assembly took control of church to address financial crisis/debt
187. Civil Constitution of the Clergy
legislation that made church department of state-- to King's horror; passed in France, 1790; clergy had to uphold state law; ultimately led to another revolt and a new government system, full political rights to all, freed slaves, independent Carribean, complex election system
188. Constitution of 1791
Constitution that created the new legislative assembly (constitutional monarchy); 1791, France; changed course for revolution-- debates were held (Jacobins and Girondins) led to 1792 declaration of war on absolutist states: further radicalized te Revolution
189. emigres
French term meaning someone who has fleed/left their state/country for politico-social reasons; 1791 counter-revolution movement: borders of France resided many nobles work to restore old system
190. Flight to Varennes
Border town in France; June 20, 1791, royal family attempted to flee and reached here but King Louis XVI was exiled and escorted back to Paris: will stage monarchy's collpase
191. Jacobins
A famous club within the National Assembly; called this because they met in the Jacobin monastery in France; played part in assembly debate, one of many political clubs; later gained influence over Girondins and expelled them
192. Girondins
Most influential club within National Assembly; faction primarily made of people from Gironde department north of Paris; pushed for revolutionary war to free people living in absolutist states; lost major influences due to conservatism and corruption/lack of sympathy for Parisians
193. sans-culottes
literally those who did not wear fancy breaches of aristocracy, France; demanded wider political participation, est radical gov "Commune" (spurred by threats to Paris); August 10 stormed Tuileries palace, massive slaughter because rumor that prisoners were about to escape and attack French army
194. National Convention
New legislative body using universal male suffrage: force-called together by Paris Commune to National Assembly in France; task: draw up new constitution ending const. monarchy
195. Republic
France officially became republic on September 21, 1792; royal family placed under arrest: King Louis guillotined 1793 for exchanged letters with brother-in-law Austrian Emperor
196. William Pitt
prime minister of Britain; looked at France's new Republic was looked at with enthusiasm; "present convlusion in France must...culminate in general harmony... regular order"
197. Edmund Burke
leading politician, from Brittain, attached to the Whig faction; 1790 wrote Reflections on the French Revolution opposed the Revolution but not against reform; believed reform could take place only by keeping present political structure (evolutionary change): leading piece for modern conservatism
198. Reign of Terror
after reign of Bourbon during French Revolution (1793-1794), France, time when thousands were executed and there was brutal suppression to destroy "enemies and conspirators"
199. The Mountain
radical Jacobins on left side of the all where the Convention met on a raised platform; members of National Assembly in France during Revolution and Reign of Terror; had much support from san-culottes: put price limits and taxed wealthy for war effort
200. laissez-faire
government absence in economic affairs; supported by the Girondins, members of the National Assembly in France-- Jacobins believed in gov regulation, helped them get san-culottes support
201. Vendee
counter-revolutionary movement largely inspired by anger toward restrictions placed on the church; place in France in March of 1793; helped the beginning of "Reign of Terror"
202. Committee of Public Safety
created by the National Convention, France, one of two committees: assumed virtually dictatorial power over France throughout the following year (1790s?)
203. Maximilien Robespierre
an anti-monarchical lawyer, one of three leaders in the Security Committee, France, during "Reign of Terror"; est Cult of the Supreme Being to move people away from "corrupting influence of church" turned Notre Dame into Temple of Reason, lead radical anti-Christian faction (Hebertists), but the movement turned on him and lead to 100 Jacobins to the guillotine (by Thermidorians)
204. levee en masse
drafting of the entire population for military service: occured on August 1793 in France by Lazare Carnot, head of military; marked first time all citizens of a nation were called to serve country; proved to be successful, turned war in French favor
205. Republic of Virtue
an ideal the Jabobins worked to create during the "Reign of Terror" in France; had to obliterate all traces of old monarchical regime: new calendar and month/year labels; attacked Christianity/churches, religious symbols, movement away from religion
206. Cult of the Supreme Being
Established by Robespierre, France during late 1790s; moved people away from "corrupting" influence of church; Robespierre turned Notre Dame into a Temple of Reason
207. Guillotine
symbol for the age "Reign of Terror" in France; many rights were taken away, political clubs banned, executed leading Girondin politicians: 20,000 individuals executed, 15% clergy, rest peasants
208. Directory
new government created by Thermidorians after abolishment of Paris Commune and Committee of Public Safety; France, (1795-1799); led by an executive council of five men as director; new constitution provided two house legislature; triumph of rich over poor
209. Council of Ancients/Council of 500
a part of new government "Directory," two house legislature: Council of Ancients discussed and voted on legislation proposed by second house: Council of Five Hundred; France, (1795-1799)
210. Napoleon Bonaparte
born 1769 to minor nobles on island Corsica; was able to move up the ranks because of French Revolution; became famous for helping France expand using military power; changed legal system, church; made himself emperor 1804 from a plebiscite
211. Admiral Horatio Nelson
commander of British land fleet at Egypt for Battle of Abukir on August 1, 1798; prevented Napoleon from further victories by defeating his French fleet, causing Napoleon to abandon his army and rush back to France
212. First Consul
one of three consuls in a new powerfully executive government established by Napoleon and Sieyes after the coup d'etat on November 10, 1799 in France; Napoleon, politically ambitious, appointed himself first Consul: new structure granted universal male suffrage
213. plebiscite
a vote by the people, Napoleon staged this after coup d'etat of 1799 in France; helped popularity of Napoleon's new const., passed well
214. Concordat of 1801
a settlement created by Napoleon and Pope Pius VII in maintaining political stability; 1801, France; declared "Catholicism was the religion of the great majority of the French"--not official state relig, still tolerant; papacy and church lands under First Consul, old calendar restored
215. Napoleonic Code
also known as Civil Code of 1804; France; Napoleon reformed French legal system: provided framework for modern day-- single unitary legal system rather than hundreds of localized codes:equality, property, reaffirmed the paternal nature (women's rights from Revolution gone)
216. Treaty of Amiens
treaty between France and Great Britain in 1802: officially at peace; Napoleon only saw as temporary - sought to limit British influence
217. Battle of Trafalgar
battle between French and British Royal Navy on October 21, 1805; although Admiral Nelson died, Britain ultimately defeated French fleet and destroyed Napoleon's hope of French landing in England
218. Third Coalition
a joining of forces of Austria and Russia to Great Britain; Napoleon was able to defeat both the Austrians and Russians (on land) and Prussian army when they joined Third Coalition; resulted in abolishment of Holy Roman Empire and creation of Confed of the Rhine under French rule
219. Confederation of the Rhine
created by Napoleon, a loose grouping of 16 German states under French influence; Napoleon abolished Holy Roman Empire in order to have this confederation
220. Treaty of Tilist
treaty between Russian Tsar Alexander I and Napoeleon after collapse of Prussian army to France; met on Neiman River July 7, 1807; tsar decided it was necessary to make peace: Prussia saved from extinction on tsar's insistence but reduced to half its size-- had to become ally of France against Great Britain
221. Continental System
established by Napoleon as an attempt to ban British goods from arriving on the continent-- because he could not defeat its navy; rather than damagin Britain, it weakened the economies of conquered states
222. Invasion of Russia
one of three reasons Napoleon was defeated; Napoleon took his "Grand Army" of 600,000 men in June 1812 into Russia; Russians merely retreated, and Moscow was already ruined when French occupied; few supplies, combo of Russian attacks and brutal winter on French created biggest retreat in military history
223. Grand Army
Napoleon's force of 600,000 men taken into the Russian invasion on June 1812; a big defeat to Napoleon after invasion fiasco-- only 40,000 men returned to France
224. Duke of Wellington
pushed British force towards France through Spain; after the Russian Retreat by French forces; in March when British were in Paris, Napoleon abdicated
225. Congress of Vienna
a meeting that took place to bring back peace after revolution; the allies met beginning in September 1814, France: (ie. Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia) headed mostly by Austrian Chancellor, Metternich; made sure no nation can dominate Europe again
226. Prince Klemens von Metternich
Austrian chancellor, great architect of Congress of Vienna; (1773-1859); "turned back the clock" to policies before French Revolution (Polish demands unanswered)
227. balance of power
no nation should ever dominate Europe again; decided at Congress of Vienna, Sept 1814; France walked with generous terms (ie keep land); erected series of states to serve as barrier to future French expansion
228. Battle of Waterloo
Napoleon's resistance battle; June 18, 1815, occurred because Napoleon escaped from exile, and with popular support resinstalled as Emperor; allies would not allow this: Wellington, British commander, and Marshal Blucher, Prussian leader, defeated Napoleon to exile for the last time
229. Hundred Days
name given to Napoleon's remarkable return; Napoleon returned to France March 15, 1815, escaped from Elba (country supportive b/c return of Bourbons and "white terror" against Jacobin/Bonaparte support); ultimately ended in defeat: Napoleon exiled on St. Helena, died 1821
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