Ais 102 American Indians and the U. S. Political System Fall 2004

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FIRE DRILL: Baccharis douglasii, saltmarsh baccharis (Asteraceae) (morwaxpic).

GUM/GLUE: Gum was made from various species of pine, Pinus sp.(Pinaceae) or Adenostoma fasciculatum, greasewood or chamise (Rosaceae) ('u'ut).

DYE/PIGMENT: Tatooing dye was made from Solanum douglasii, black nightshade (Solanaceae) (takavshic). Leatherroot, Hoita macrostachya (Fabaceae) roots produced a yellow dye.Wild Cucumbers, Marah macrocarpus (Cucurbitae) (puwiimawic) was used as a grease base for paints. A red was produced from pond scum bacterium, Leptothrix ochracea (mooshic) that was dried , burned and added to the grease base. Mineral pigments were derived from hematite Fe2O3, red or yellow (navyot); charcoal, black, (tuula); manganese oxide MnO2, black; kaolin, white, (toovic). Also, various colors were derived from different wood ashes.

RATTLES: The seeds of the following were used in box turtle or gourd rattles.Great berried Manzanita, Arctostaphytes glauca(Ericaceae) (koolul), Constricted-seed Mazanita, A. bicolor (muukul), Western Chokecherry, Prunus demissa (Rosaceae) ('aatut) or Ca Fan Palm, Washingtonia filifera (Palmae) (maaxul).

:CLEANING: Dodder, Cuscuta californica (Cuscutaceae) and horsetail or scouring rush, Equisetum sp. (Equisetaceae) were used to scrub utensils and containers.


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