Ais 102 American Indians and the U. S. Political System Fall 2004

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Three-Leafed Sumac: Rhus trilobata, three-leafed sumac (Anacardiaceae)(shooval) is used as the wrap in coiled baskets and in other applications such as the seed beater.

SHELTER: Houses were semi-subterranean 2-3 feet and peaked (smaller: kish)) or a conical (larger: kiitca mukat) with the roofing variable upon material available. Cooking was often under an outdoor open willow shelter (noylac or Sp. ramada). A sweat house was almost subterranean and eliptical. Finally a large open enclosure for ceremonial purposes (wamkish) was elliptical and measured about 38'x58' and was constructed with Rhus laurina, laural sumac (Anacardiaceae) (naqwut).

Cedar: Calocedrus decurrens, incense cedar (Cupressaceae) (tovoomal) wood was used for house posts and beams. Inland people used bark for roofing.

Tule: Scirpus californicus (Cyperaceae) (piveesac) was used by coastal people for various roofing/thatch applications.

Willow: Salix lasiolepis, arroyo willow (Saliaceae) (saxat)was used for construction, roofing, and thatch.

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