Ais 102 American Indians and the U. S. Political System Fall 2004

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Christmas Berry: Heteromeles arbutifolia, Christmas berry or toyon (Rosaceae) ('aatcawut).

Elderberry: Sambuscus mexicana, blue elderberry (Caprifoliaceae) (kootah).

Wild Grape: Vitis girdiana (Vitaceae), desert wild grape.

Gooseberry: Ribes speciosum, fuchia-flowered gooseberry (Grossulariaceae).

Thimbleberry: Thimbleberry, Rubus parviflorus (Rosaceae) (povlae).

Blackberry: Wild blackberry , Rubus vitifolius (Rosaceae) (picwla).

Wild Rose: Rosa californica, California wildrose (Rosaceae)(ushla).


Tea fern: The tea fern or birdfoot fern, Pellaea mucronata (Pteridaceae) fronds were steeped as beverage.


CORDAGE: This includes fine string to rope that was made mostly from the vegetal fibers below, but sometimes animal sinew or hair would be used. Vegetal fiber tended to perform better in wet applications and conditions. However, sinew was stronger with fine strands.

Nettle: Urtica dioica ssp. gracilis, Am. stinging nettle or Ca. nettle (Urticaceae) (sakicla). The least prized for cordage purposes.

Yucca/Agave: Yucca schidigera, Mohave yucca (Liliaceae) (pan'aal) and Agave deserti, desert agave(Agavaceae) . Fiber from these plants were used for a variety of applications, including woven sandles. Coastal groups also used yucca for nets and snares. Various nets were used, including fish nets (tciiwanac), rabbit nets (waanal) and carrying nets (iikat)

Dogbane: Apocynum cannabinum, Indian hemp or dogbane (Apocynaceae) (pishkwut). Used for toughest cordage applications, including as a substitute for sinew bowstrings (three to four ply).

Milkweed: Asclepias eriocarpa, woollypod milkweed (Asclepiadaceae) (pa'atamkat). Used for finer string, including the women's inner apron/skirt( pishkwut). Nets and snares were most commonly made with milkweed or dogbane (above) by inland groups.

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