Ais 102 American Indians and the U. S. Political System Fall 2004

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Acorns/Oak: Quercus sp. (Fagaceae) A primary staple; at least 7 species used with Quercus kelloggii, Black Oak ( kwiila) acorns being the most important. Other known species in which the acorns were used are Q.agrifolia, coast live oak (weahsahl), Q. chrysolepis, canyon live oak, Q. engelmannii, Engelman oak, Q. wislizenii, interior live oak.

Pine Nuts:Pinus coulteri, Coulter pine and Pinus monophylla, Pinyon pine (Pinaceae) (Yoela) nuts were gathered or traded for.


Sunflower: Helianthus annuus, Bush sunflower (Asteraceae)(ahpahokel)

Sage: Salvia columbariae, chia sage; S. carduacea, thistle sage; S. mellifera, black sage; S. apiana, white sage(Lamiaceae)(Luiseno:quaashil). Chia sage seeds were one of the most important seed sources. All of these seeds are high in protein (>15%).

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