Ais 102 American Indians and the U. S. Political System Fall 2004



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DOMESTIC PLANT (CULTIGEN)

SCIENTIFIC NAME

USES

MESOAMERICA













Am. Corn (Maize)

Zea mays

Food, Oil, Med.




Beans (Teprary, Pinto)

Phaseolus vulgaris

food




Squash (Winter-pumpkin/ Summer-summer)

Cucurbita sp.

food




bottle gourd

Lagenaria sp.

containers,utensils




chili peppers

Capsicum sp.

food,spice,med.




cotton

Gossypium hirsutum

textile,med.




amaranth

Amaranthus sp.

food




tobacco

Nicotiana rustica

med.




cacao

Theobroma cacao

drink,food




pineapple

Ananas comosus

food




vanilla

Vanilla planifolia

spice,med




guava




food




cherimoya




food




papaya

Carica papaya

food

























SOUTH AMERICA













quinoa

Chenopodium quinoa

food grain




potato

Solanum tuberosum

root food




peanut

Arachis hypogaea

food,oil




cotton

Gossypium barbadense

textile,med.




lima bean

Phaseolus lunatus

food




sweet potato

Ipomoea battas

food




manioc/cassava

Manihot esculenta

food




Brazil nut










Cashew































NORTH AMERICA













Great N. Bean










Tepary Bean










Sunflower










Strawberry










BlackWalnut










Pecan

Carya illinoensis

food




Sumpweed










Jerusalem artichoke



















D. Classic: Farming & Empire Buildingimages/ElCastllo3.jpgi
mages/ElCastllo3.jpg

The changes that domestic plants or cultigens brought were dramatic; some we may consider good, but a lot of problems were brought upon humans throughout the world. Domestication of plants and animals most fundamentally brought about an increase of sedentary living. People were generally seasonal in the earlier hunting, gathering and modest horticulture lifestyle. As the farming took hold, people needed more fertile land and developed more intensive agricultural techniques. The sedentary lifestyle increased fertility and population density leading to a shift from village life to urban life. The emergence of urban life or cities not only saw increased populations but the emergence of social hierarchies; often resulting in a takeover of a ruling elite. In turn as urban centers developed their power base increased with trade and ultimately led to the formation of empires. In America such changes resulted in empires in Meso America ( Valley of Mexico, El Peten, Yucatan,etc.), South America (Andes, N. Tropical, Brazilian Highlands) and later in North America (Southwest, E. Woodlands, Plains). A number of courses are needed to expand on this cultural development (AIS 130; Anth 110; CS 155), but a summary will present the basic cultures and areas.



AREA

TIME/PERIOD

CULTURE

SITES

Meso America

Gulf Coast



PreClassic 2000 BC-

Olmec

La Venta,Tres Zapotes,San Lorenzo

V. of Mexico

Classic AD 300

Teotihuacano (Totonacs,Otomis)

Teotihuacan

Oaxaca




Zapotec, Mixtec

Monte Alban

Jalisco/Colima




Tarascan

Tzintzuntzan

Zacotecas/Durango




Chalchihuites

Alta Vista,La Quemada

El Peten,Yucatan, Southern Highlands




Maya

Tikal, Uaxactun, Palenque,Uxmal, Copan,Piedras Negras

Hildago

Post Classic AD 900-

Toltec

Tula







Aztec

Tenochititlan




South America

N. Andes


Initial/Early Horizon 3,500 BC-

Chavin

Chavin de Huantar

S. Andes




Paracas




C. Andes




Ancon

Garagay

N. Andes

Intermediate 300 BC-

Moche










Chimu

Chan Chan

S. Andes




Tiahuanaco

Tiahuacano







Nazca




Brazilaian Highlands




Tupiguarani




C. Andes

Late Horizon AD 1000

Chancay




S. Andes




Ica




N. Tropics Columbia




Chibchas (Tirona)




Brazilian Highlands




Santarem




Andes




Inca

Cuzco, Machu Picchu, Urubamba




North America

Southwest



L.Archaic 2500 BC-

Desert Archaic




Southwest




Cochise










San Jose




Eastern Woodlands




E. Archaic

Koster




Classic 1000 BC-







Southwest

Southwest Traditions 100 BC













Mogollon

Montezuma's Castle







Singua










Salado










Anasazi

Chaco Canyon (Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl, P. Alto; Kayenta (Keet Seel, Betatakin);Canyon de Chelly (Antelope Ruins); Mesa Verde (Cliff Palace)







Hohokam

Snaketown,







Patayan (Hakataya)







>AD 1000

Dene




Eastern Woodlands

Woodland 1000 BC

Adena

Serpent Mound, Chillicothe







Hopewell

Mound City, Havana

Plains




Hopewell

Knife River

Eastern Woodlands

Mississippian AD 900

Mississippian

Cahokia, Etowah, Town Creek, Moundsville, Spiro

Plains




Plains Village

Huff Site

These American civilizations were unique and developed with very little help from other parts of the world. American Corn is indigenous to America and Native Americans hybridized this grain to produce huge ears compared to the grains of the 'Old World'. Other 'New World' developments like the peanut or groundnut, a pea that planted itself in the ground,and the potato continue to be important world crops. Native Americans developed writing, metal and the wheel; but never used the wheel for beasts of burden. In fact Native Americans did not domestic livestock too much and preferred to keep most meat in a wild or semi-wild state. The dog was domesticated thousands of years ago by most people of the world, including Native Americans.

In spite of the differences there were many similarities between the world civilizations. Farming brought its share of problems to include exponential population growth, increased diseases, increased warfare and despotic rulers. Initially there is evidence of harmonious theocratic empires, but eventually these crumble; including those in the Americas. Since Europeans disrupted cultural development so much, we will never know how Native American traditional cultures would have faired. We will next look at some traditional Native American cultures at the moment of European contact..





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