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I CAN explain why the South and Tennessee needed to become industrialized and mechanized after the Civil War.
Tennessee and the South After the Civil War

After the Civil War, much of the south was in ruin. Many southern fields, farms and factories were destroyed. Most southerners knew that there was a need to become a productive region once again. During and after Reconstruction, the South began a time known as the second industrial revolution. There was a need for a new way of thinking and creating businesses.

1. Define industrialized

2. Define mechanized

3. Define industrial revolution


Henry Grady

As editor of an Atlanta newspaper, Henry Grady wrote and spoke of his beliefs regarding plans to rebuild the South. He was a believer that the South had to give up the old ways (from before the Civil War) and switch to the spread of small farms, the power of building factories, creating bigger cities and competing with the industrial North. Grady’s beliefs did not happen quickly. However, in Chattanooga, Tennessee there were 58 factories operating by 1870.

4. What did Grady mean by the South giving up its “old ways?”


Those 58 factories in Chattanooga provided more than 2000 jobs. The Coca-Cola bottling company was an example of an early Chattanooga success. The Coca-Cola Bottling Company was the largest beverage production in the United States. Factories, combined with rebuilding the railroads, led to a slow resurrection of the South.


5. Where was Coca-Cola founded?

6. Where was the first Coca-Cola bottling plant?


The lumber industry in Tennessee became a huge industry between 1880 and 1920. Large scale timber industry occurred after the emergence of the railroad throughout our state. The dense forests of Tennessee provided an endless amount of a variety of wood for the lumber companies and lumber industries across the southern states. Combined with the railroads and rivers as a way to transport the lumber, hundreds of men found jobs in the Tennessee lumber industry.

This video from YouTube explains the importance of lumber in the history of our country.




The timber industry in Tennessee became large scale.

Coal Mining

When you talk about Tennessee products, you need to include things mined. Six examples of this are coal, limestone, marble, zinc, copper and clay.

Coal is black and rocky; it looks sort of like charcoal but is much heavier. When pure coal catches on fire it burns for a long time and gives off a lot of heat. Many years ago, most homes were heated with a coal furnace. In fact, if you live in an old house, you many find remnants of a pile of coal in your cellar.

Today most homes in Tennessee are heated by electricity or natural gas. The Tennessee Valley Authority, however, still uses a lot of coal at some of its plants. In fact, TVA is the largest user of coal in the United States.


8. After looking at the pictures above, what can you INFER about life as a coal miner in the late 1800’s?


After the Civil War, the nation was changing and growing. Railroad companies used this time to build railroads. This gave lots of people work. Railroads became one of the biggest industries of this new age. The nation was about to be covered from East to West and North to South with railroad tracks. WATCH THE BRAINPOP BELOW FOR MORE RAILROAD INFORMATION!

9. Why did the building of railroads cause urban areas (towns and cities) to grow?

10. Why were railroads so important for industries to grow?

Steel and Iron

The Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company (1852–1952), also known as TCI and the Tennessee Company, was a major American steel manufacturer with interests in coal and iron ore mining and railroad operations. Originally based entirely within Tennessee, it relocated most of its business to Alabama in the late nineteenth century. The Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company was founded as the Sewanee Furnace Company, a small mining concern established in 1852 by Nashville entrepreneurs seeking to exploit Tennessee's rich coal reserves and the 19th century railroad boom. After losing money, the business was sold to New York investors in 1859 and reorganized as the Tennessee Coal and Rail Company, but the outbreak of the Civil War the following year saw the fleeting company repossessed by local creditors. It became Tennessee's leading coal extractor over the next decade, mining and transporting coal around the towns of Cowan and Tracy City in the Cumberland Mountains, and soon branched out into coke manufacture. This practice of both extracting and moving coal to market by building private rail tracks was not unusual at the time, as by owning the tracks that served their mines, businesses could undercut rivals at market by saving money on transportation. A Thomas O'Connor purchased the company in 1876 and expanded the business into iron manufacture in order to stimulate coke sales, building a blast furnace near Cowan. The business was subsequently renamed the Tennessee Coal, Iron, and Railroad Company.
11. Write a paragraph explaining why the South, and Tennessee, needed to become industrialized after the Civil War.

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