How did George Washington and the American Patriots respond to Lord Dunmore's declaration of freedom to the slaves if they supported the British against the Americans in the American revolution?
Initially, George Washington barred Africans from fighting on the side of the colonists. However, as the war progressed he reversed this decision and allowed Africans to fight on the side of the colonists if they have fought in earlier battles. They responded by giving freedom to African slaves if they joined the army because the British had more African soldiers than the patriots and the Americans. They also promised them money, which they sometimes didn't receive.
What was the compromise over slavery in the writing of the U.S. Constitution?
The North wanted representation based on population of free man. The South want the slaves counted for taxation and representational purposes. The compromise was that representation in the House would consist of representation by population and the Senate would consist of two representatives from each state. The Northern states argued if each slave was counted as a person the South would dominate congress therefore Africans slaves were counted a 3/5's of a person. To halt the flow of fugitive slaves from the South to the North, this concept was later clarified in Article IV, Section 2 of the Constitution to include "No person held in service or labor in one State, under the laws therefore, escaping into another, shall in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party of whom such service o labor may be due."
What was the first major social organization among quasi-free African-Americans in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, resulting from discrimination?
The Free African Society, (April 12, 1787).
What was the last cash crop of the slave trade?
The year slavery was introduced in (English) North America (Jamestown, Virginia) was 1619.
What was the importance of the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) in laying the grounds for the legal outlawing of the slave trade.
Led by Tousaint L'Overturne and Desolanes African Haitian defeated the two strongest European armies of those times who came to crush their revolution for freedom. Started by a "medicine man" who the west would call a "witch doctor" the revolution defeated both the British and French armies. Napoleon, many historians say could not stand being defeated by previous African slaves and fearing revolt in his North American domain and the possibility of another defeat by Africans sold Louisiana (much more land then present day Louisiana) to the United States government in 1803 known as "the Louisiana Purchase" One of the main reasons the Haitians were able to wage such successful battles was because of terrains (hills and mountains) and because under the Spanish and French they were allowed to retain high degree of the African culture. The best book on the Haitian revolution is C.L.R. James Black Jacobins. Fearing the rise of other successful slave revolts the British outlawed the legal continuation of the slave trade in 1808 and outlawed slavery in it's "new world" colonies in 1833. Haitians at the time of independence had the largest standing Army in the Western Hemisphere ("new
world")- The Haitian revolution gave stimulus to increasing slave "resistance" insurrections in North America.
What happened in 1793 which further led to expansion of slavery in the south?
The invention of the cotton gin.
The Cotton Gin being used in South, demand for slaves increased. Demand for slaves = demand for cotton. Demand for the ability of slaves to mass pick cotton. The invention of Spinning Gin was the ability to mass manufacture cotton (cloth).
The Louisiana Territory Theft
One prominent example of land theft and slaughter of Moors in the Moorish territories and provinces (falsely called Spanish to displace history and geography), was this fraudulent Louisiana Purchase of 1800-03. This theft and sale was directly patterned after the Blois and the Inquisition. This same treaty and trade system was adopted and used successfully by the Union of States Society (U.S. of A.) The Blois would make a deal or treaty, break that deal or treaty and steal the land by whatever means necessary. The "Make a deal and Cheat" Blois systemof usurpation, murder and the formulated "grab the land" tactics of the Roman Church Inquisition are very clear and evident in the Union of States' political makeup. The Church Inquisition never ended, upon examination of the historical records and the Colonists' treaty violations and war tactic patterns.
The Francs falsely claimed ownership of the Moorish Territoryknown today as the Louisiana Territory. Napoleon Bonaparte planned to establish a great Roman Empire in the Western Hemisphere of the weakened and falling Moorish Empire. He sent an army to accomplish this usurpation, but Napolion's army was defeated in San Domingo by the brilliant military tactics of a Moorish Chieftain. It was this failure and defeat of Napolion Bonaparte (1803) by a Moorish Chieftain that influenced his negotiation and the subsequent fraudulent sale of the Louisiana Territory to the competing Union of States Society Colonial government (U.S. of A.)
The fraudulent Franciscan to Union States sale of the Muurs/Moors' Louisiana Territory created conditions which caused more Moorish slave rebellions than at any other time in North African (North American) history. North Al Moroc was also called North Africa after a Frenchman (Africanus).
The unconstitutionality of acquisition of these lands (Louisiana Territory) and the sovereign rights of the Wachita De Dugdahmounday Moors(The Mound Building Muurs) were ignored by the Union States of America's President Thomas Jefferson. Keep in mind that false and reconstructed history refers to those Muurs/Moors as Indians or Spaniards. The Americas (Al Morocs) are not India and the indigenous peoples are not Indians, they are Moors!
The Louisiana Territory was often spoken of as being the last stronghold of Allah-Moors - (Alamo) - upholding the Crescent and the Star against formidable odds. The Isle of Orleans never gave up all of the Moorish culture and maintains the use of the Moorish Crescent and Star. The inverted use of the Crescent and Star implies the Moorish Nation (Al Moroc) is in distress and usurped.
The claimed justification for the so-called Louisiana Province/Territory Sale, relating to the French and the so-called Spaniards (1795 to 1800's) and the subsequent
sale to the Union States Colonists was and is fraud. Continuing disputes and battles took place in the succeeding years between the Moors and the foreign Colonial usupers. One of the most famous battles that took place in the Louisiana territory is known today as "Custer's Last Stand."
General George Armstrong Custer was carrying out one of the ongoing Treaty-breaking inquisition campaigns of purging the land of indigenous Moorish peoples. June 25, 1876 was Custer's day in the Sun. He met his fate, along with his troops of well over two-hundred men at Little Bighorn. General Custer gained notoriety and fame among his Christian armies for his well-known slaughter of Moors. His reputation was surpassed only by his ruthless massacring of thousands of indigenous people, especially women and children. This was usually done by surprise attacks.
Flower De Luce
The Flower De Luce (fleur-de-lis) is a Heraldic Amoral Emblem used by the king of France. This Amoral Emblem was to play a more sinister role in Al Moroccan (American) history than that expressed in Heraldry. It became a favored mark for branding irons. The Flower De Luce is a three petaled iris flower, stylized (Iris Germanica).
The Franciscan Brotherhood (The Roman Catholic Church) is credited with the overthrowing of the Imperial Islamic Moorish Empire of North Al Moroc (America). North Al Moroc is also called The Temple of the Moon and Sun
From Brother Taj Tarik Bey, Moor Orderofthe Roundtable Civic Lesson Booh, Number 2, Titles Nationality and Berto Rights Taken Away from the Moors and The Blade Codes of 1724. [Camden, New Jersey, (Schechaber) p. 201, 1996] pp 25-26
The Nuwaubian Moors Newsletter (ed.l, Vol.16, October 19, 1997) shocked the world with this incredible revelation:
The First President of The United States Was a "Black" Man, a Moor
They boldly proclaimed that:
George Washington was not the First President of the United States. He was the 9th. The real first President on the United States was John Hanson who understood the importance of the war and was concerned."
"He served as president from 1781-1782 A.D. In fact, he sent 800 pounds of sterling silver, by his brother Samuel Hanson, to George Washington to provide the troops with shoes ...
John Hanson was described as a man of action with great organizational abilities. He organized two riflemen groups that were the first to join General George Washington during the revolutionary war. He also appointed George Washington as general. John Hanson was the assemblyman for Charles County in Maryland and was chairman of the Frederick County on two committees: The Committee of Observation and The Committee of Correspondence.
Upon his death, he was eulogized by the Maryland Gazette, on November 21, 1783, A.D. and I quote:
"Thus was ended the career of America's greatest statesman. While hitherto practically unknown to our people, and this is true as to nearly all generations that have lived since his day, this great handwork, the nation which he helped to establish, remains as a fitting tribute to his memory. It is doubtful if there has ever lived on this side of the Atlantic, a nobler character or shrewder statesman. One would search in vain to find a more powerful personage or a more aggressive leader, in the annals of American history . . . (author's italics)
Abraham Lincoln, the supposed 16th president, said John Hanson should be honored equally with George Washington."
The article maintained that:
"They try to hide the true identity of John Hanson ... They'll show you a mulatto looking person who is Europeanized or Euro-American while the real John Hanson, the original picture is buried; but if you go on the Internet, which they don't expect "Black" people to have, if you go to the
The Library of Congress website (Iweb2.1oc. gov), which you can find under "American Memories" under Dagurerreotype pictures, which is an early photographic process with an image made of a light sensitive silver metallic plate, will you see that he is unmistakably a Moor ..."
The Great Seal of the United States Was Designed By John Hanson
So, in actuality, George Washington was the 9th president of The United States and
the 1st president under the Constitution. (1790-1797 AD)
Proof of this can be seen on a bronze medallion that on one side shows Washington reviewing his troops, and on the other side shows.
John Hanson's caption:
"First President Under the Articles Of Confederation."
The medallion was made by Congress on the 200th anniversary of the Surrender of
From Indus Khamit-Kush, What They Never Told You In History Class, Volume One
[Brooklyn, New York: A+B Publishers Group, 1999] pp. 13-15
What happened in 1808 with the official outlawing of the slave trade in the U.S.?
The Domestic Slave Trade
The expansion of the Cotton Kingdom south and west combined with the decline of slavery in the Chesapeake to stimulate the domestic slave trade. As masters in Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and Kentucky trimmed excess slaves from their workforces - or switched entirely from slave to wage labor - they sold men, women, and children to slave traders. The traders in turn shipped these unfortunate people to the slave markets of New Orleans and other cities for resale. Masters also sold slaves as punishment, and fear of being "sold down river" led many slaves in the Cheaspeake to escape. A vicious circle resulted: masters sold slaves south to prevent their escape and slaves escaped to avoid being sold south.
Some slave songs record the anxiety of these facing separation from loved ones as a result of the domestic trade. One song laments the slave of a man away from his wife and family:
There's a better day coming, Will you go along with me? There's a better day coming, Go sound the jubilee!
The number of people traded was huge and, considering that many of them were ripped away from their families, tragic. Starting in the 1820s, about 150,000 slaves per decade moved toward the southwest either with their masters or traders. Between 1820 and 1860, an estimated 50 percent of the slaves of the upper South moved involuntarily into the Southwest.
Traders operated compounds called slave prisons or slave pens in Baltimore, Maryland; Washington, D.C.; Alexandria and Richmond, Virginia; Charleston, South Carolina; and in smaller cities as well. Most of the victims of the trade moved on foot in groups called "coffles" chained or roped together. From the 1810s onward, northern and European visitors to Washington noted the coffles passing before the U.S. Capitol. There was also a considerable coastal trade in slaves from Chesapeake ports to New Orleans and, by the 1840s, some slave traders were carrying their human cargoes in railroad cars.
The domestic slave trade demonstrated the falseness of slaveholders' claims that slavery was a benign institution. Driven by economic necessity, by profit, or by a desire to frustrate escape plans, masters in the upper South irrevocably separated husbands and wives, mothers and children, brothers and sisters. Traders sometimes tore babies from their mothers' arms. The journey from the Chesapeake to Mississippi, Alabama, or Louisiana could be long and hard, and some slaves died along the way. A few managed to keep in touch with those they had left behind through letters and travelers. But most could not, and after the abolition of slavery in 1865, many African Americans used their new freedom to travel across the South looking for relatives from whom they had been separated long before.
From Darlene Clark Hine, William C. Hines, Stanley Harrold, The African-American Oddyssey [Third Station-Combined Volume] [Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2006] pp. 147-149
Domestic breeding: To meet the demand for slave labor thousands of African women were raped and breeded. If the children weren't the children of the slave master, often they were the children of the slave driver or overseer both who had free reign over the women. Slave owners encouraged males on the plantation to impregnate the women slaves and often children were sold to another plantation before birth. The slavemaster would wait until the child was born and weaned from the mother and then sold downriver. The state state of Virginia became a slave breeding state for slaves who were sent to the Southwest (Mississippi, Alabama, Louisiana and eventually Texas).
In 1829, who wrote what, saying what?
In 1829, David Walker published Walkers Appeal, In four articles: Together with a Preamble to the Colored Citizens of the World, but in particular, and very expressly, to those of the United States of America. He made a call for the universal emancipation throughout the world. For American Blacks, he advised action to overthrow slavery, calling for slaves to cut the throats of slave master. Southern governors sought the cooperation of Boston's white political leaders in destroying Walker's book and in detaining the author behind bars. A bounty of $3,000 was offered to anyone who killed Walker. David Walker died within the year. His body was found in 1830, and his death remained unexplained.
Who founded the Negro Convention Movement in 1830?
Richard Allen was elected the president at the first National Black Convention which opened on September 20, 1830 in Philadelphia.
What were the slave codes? Explain.
The slave codes emerged to define social distinctions. Barbados developed the first slave codes in 1644, which served as a model for colonial statutes. All slaves living in England homes had to undergo military training in 1652. New England slave codes merged around 1680.
Prior to such codes taking hold in the New World, they were used extensively in Portugal/Spain and France. England did not have a formal slave code. English law was based on precedents, or common law. Under common law the slave was considered a thing, i.e. having qualities of both property and person.
Slave codes applied to runaways, drunkenness, theft, and destruction of public property. The codes tried to prevent riots and insurrections, while curtailing slave freedom of movement. Slaves could not wander beyond the town limits without a ticket or a pass. Some codes punished assault or defamation of whites. Codes provided guidelines for manumissions and reinforced the property rights of the owners. Slave codes controlled slave behavior to prevent conspiracies.
The African and Indian uprising in Hartford in 1657 lead to the emergence of slave codes in the colonies. Codes severally restricted the lives and movement of slaves. Even guidelines for manumissions and the property rights of owners were dictated by the slave codes.
The Rhode Island code of 1652 limited slavery to ten years. Slaves under the age of 14 served their masters until age 24 when they received their freedom. Owners who tried to breach that provision were fined.
Stealing and breach of the peace were the most common offenses and flogging was the most common punishment. Whites were prevented from buying or receiving goods from African, Indian, or mulatto servants. This was to preclude the establishment of outlets for stolen goods. Servants found guilty of breaching this code received whippings of up to 20 lashes. Regions of higher African presence such as Boston and Kingston, Rhode Island, usually had the most severe punishments.
Ostensibly, slave codes controlled slave behavior primarily to prevent slave conspiracies and possible revolts. Africans and Indians were forbidden to be on the streets after a certain time at night.
Punishment for offenses in the South were much more brutal than in the North. In South Carolina for the first offense of striking a white resulted in a public flogging. The second
offense caused the nose of the offender to be slit and the face to be branded. A third offense resulted in death.
In Virginia and South Carolina, the killing of a slave was not a punishable offense. Name and discuss the five major slave revolts or conspiracies. Bacon's Rebellion -1676 - Jamestown, Virginia
Indentured servants and poor indebted white farmers attacked the Indians and royal government to gain the Indians' land. The revolted against the governor of Virginia. African slaves joined the rebellion thinking they might gain freedom. The rebels burned Jamestown to the ground.
Stonfi Rebellion -1739 - South Carolina
Africans outnumbered whites by approximately 10:1 and Spanish authorities promised freedom for fugitives, setting the stage for one of the most notorious rebellions. As a result it forced white settlers to cooperate to prevent further uprising.
On January 8, 1811 a major slave insurrection took place near New Orleans led by Charles Deslondes. Five-hundred slaves took to the highway, armed and carrying flags and banners engaged in battles with the militia and were eventually defeated. Darlene Clark Nine, Williams C. Him, Stanley Harrold, the African American Odyssey, 3rd Edition, The African American Odyssey; Volume One to 1877[Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2006] [p. 121
In 1800, in Henrico County, Virginia, Gabriel Prosser, twenty-four, six foot two, with no record of resistance, plotted for months to capture Richmond. A blacksmith taught to read by his master's wife, Prosser was a devoted student of the Old Testament. Samson was his hero. With his wife, Nanny, and his brothers, Solomon and Martin, on the night of August 30, 1800, Prosser assembled on his master's estate a force estimated at more than nine hundred.
Some carried scythes and clubs, other bayonets, and a few had guns. Prosser and his officers, knowing of L'Ouverture's alliance with France, planned to spare Frenchmen and Quakers, and to recruit Catawba Indians and poor whites. His strategy was to divide his forces into three columns under previously selected officers, capture Richmond's armory, and subdue the city. Believing fifty thousands blacks and "friends of humanity" would join him, he foresaw a victory as great as the one in Haiti.
A sudden storm brought floods that poured over the six miles of roads to Richmond. The conspirators were drenched, isolated for their target, and disheartened. Convinced heaven had spoken, they went home to wait for a better omen.
The conspiracy began to unravel. Prosser and his officers were betrayed, captured, and sentenced to death. One bravely told his captors he had done for African Americans what Washington had done for Americans: "I have ventured my life ... to obtain the liberty of my countrymen."
Though federal intervention was unneeded, Governor James Monroe requested and received permission to use the Federal Armory at Manchester. Thus, a federal government made its first commitment to crush slave revolts. The governor's investigation claimed the Prosser plot "embraced most of the slaves" in and near the city and "perhaps the whole state."
Governor Monroe had served in the Revolutionary Army and studied law with Thomas Jefferson. Now this former revolutionary came to interview the present one. The governor left no record of the exchange. Prosser "seems to have made up his mind to die" in silence, he wrote. Monroe later added. "Unhappily, while this class of people exists among us, we can never count with certainty on its tranquil submission."
Gabriel Prosser and thirty to forty followers were hanged at the Richmond jail, but even as they died, some whites spoke of their "true spirit of heroism" and "utmost composure."
From William Loren Katz, Breaking the Chains: African-American Slave Resistance [New York: Atheneum, 1990] pp 114-115
Denmark Vesey - 1821 - Charleston, South Carolina
Vesey was a carpenter who had bought his freedom two decades prior to the planned insurrection, however his wife and children were still in slavery. His followers were primarily artisans and craftsmen and preachers. Their freedom of movement allowed them to recruit several thousand participants. Their anti-white attitudes and rhetoric helped them to form and articulate and ideology rich in political and social consciousness. However, before they could carry out their plans they were betrayed by a young slave who told his master of the plans. Consequently, the plan never came to fruition. However, the conspirators did not confess or show fear when brought to trial or in facing death at the gallows. Unlike the slaves, the white co-conspirators received prison sentences and fines.