Weakened by internal strife and finally invaded by more traditionalist Muslims from Morocco in 1591.
Region fragmented into competing kingdoms. Islam became more radicalized and anti-animist.
Reformist Islam under this Caliphate attempts to destroy animism. Many prisoners are taken in the military conflicts that ensue, most are exported to the coast and sold as slaves. Others are kept as slaves in the region.
Rise of slave villages (plantations) producing agricultural crops such as peanuts and cotton.
Region was dominated by regional kingdoms such as Great Zimbabwe which traded gold and copper directly to the coast until the trade was disrupted by the Portuguese.
After 1500 the Portuguese used South Africa as a stop-over on their way to the Indian Ocean.
The Dutch landed at Cape of Good Hope
Dutch mariners built a trading post at Cape Town, 1652
Increasing Dutch colonists by 1700, drove away native Khoikhoi
South Africa became a prosperous European colony
Boers (Dutch farmer) developed language, Afrikaans
Boer competed with Zulu, Ngoni
1795: The British took control of the colony. The Dutch reaction was to move north. This mass migration is known as the Great Trek.
18th - 19th century Mfecane move into the region. This is the rise of the Zulu kingdom. Shaka Zulu was a military, organizational genius and further scattered Ngoni but led to rise of strong Bantu kingdoms to oppose Zulu.