2013 Summer Assignment Part I – Email (Due: June 10)
At this point, you should have already emailed me at . Continue to check your email often.
Part II – Textbook Reading (Due: First Day of School)
The College Board exam requires us to study all of American history from approximately 1450 to the present, focusing on political, economic, social, and cultural developments. Therefore, in order to do this successfully, we must begin our study this summer.
Colonial American history is vital to understanding the foundation of our nation’s political, socio-cultural, and religious heritage. The colonial period will comprise our “Unit 1: Colonial America (1491—1750).” It is imperative you dedicate yourself to studying this period in American history before regular classes begin in August. The following assignment will help you establish a solid understanding of the era and will be a sample of the coursework you will be experiencing throughout the school year. That said, here is your task:
Read chapters 1, 2, 3, and part of chapter 4 in the textbook. Reading the textbook is the single most important key to success in this class. Students who do not develop good reading habits will struggle. Use the Unit 1 syllabus (on pages 8 and 9) to break this reading up into manageable sections. You’ll notice that each “day” on the syllabus has a short reading, some terms to identify (in the first column), and some learning targets (in the second column). This syllabus is broken up in a way that is comparable to the reading you will do during the school year. Start this reading at least two weeks before school starts. You might want to follow the schedule I created for you, with the first reading on Monday, August 5.
As you read, you must also take notes on the reading. All year, I will provide you with a basic outline of course notes for each unit. (The “teacher’s notes” will be emailed to you and posted on my website.) Use these notes as a guide while you read, keeping in mind they cannot replace the reading, nor do they necessarily follow the text. The course notes are organized to help you see the “big picture” of history. As you add your own notes to them – from the textbook and class lectures – they become an invaluable study guide.
Identify key terms (“Thinking historically”)
While reading and taking notes, you need to be able to “identify” important terms and concepts in the manner described below. (Again, see the unit syllabus for the list of terms.) These terms, or “identifications” (ID’s) as I call them, include the most important people, events, concepts, and ideas from the reading. These ID’s make up the “stuff” of history – the “who,” “what,” “when,” and “where” of the past. Whereas, in your previous history courses, you may have expected your teacher to tell you these things, in APUSH, you are expected to come to class each day with a basic knowledge of these terms. In other words, you should come to class knowing what happened, when and where it occurred, and who was involved; in class, I will help you understand how and why it happened and why it is important.
See pages 5 and 6 to learn how to properly “identify” a term or concept.
The textbook should be the primary source of information for identifying these terms. Realize, however, that very few of these terms can be simply “defined” with a glossary definition of the term or concept. It is very important to read the paragraph(s) before and after to get a better sense of the context of the term.
Although the textbook should be the primary source, it need not be the only source. You are encouraged to use as many sources as possible. If the textbook seems light in its coverage of a particular term (or does not include it at all), a prep book or trusted academic website can be helpful. You can also use encyclopedias, even Wikipedia, as long as you back them up with other sources. I must, however, reiterate: the textbook should be your primary source.
The ID’s can be done in one of two ways:
You can type them using a word-processing program in a bullet-point fashion. By doing them this way, you can cut and paste information from websites, print them out or share them with other students, and add hand-written notes to them while you read and in class…OR…
You can simply add hand-written additional information, from the textbook, websites, and class lectures, to the course notes I provide you, using the substantial space in the right margin of the course notes. (See page 7 for an example and tips on how to do this.) If choosing this method, keep in mind that not every term is in the notes, nor are those terms in the notes always thoroughly identified for you. The course notes are not intended to be complete (if they were, I would call them a “textbook”); your job is to make them as complete as possible.
Regardless of the method you choose, your goal is to make note of – and comprehend – the causes, description, results/effects, and significance (think “CaDRES”) of each term. You should be able to label each part (Ca, D, RE, S) of the identification for every term.
You must realize these ID’s constitute a substantial part of your class notes. They are not simply a supplement to the course notes I provide, they are a critical component. You could say that 50% of the content you need to grasp is in the course notes I provide, and the remaining 50% you will add with your ID’s, textbook reading, and in-class note-taking. You will rely on all of these notes throughout the year, so the neater and more organized you are in completing these the more you will benefit from them later on.
You will notice that some terms are in BOLD print. This indicates that these terms are major events or concepts and ones you should thoroughly identify and understand. These items will appear frequently on tests and in essays throughout the year. While some terms may seem to be minor details that only the most dedicated students will recall months later (Leisler’s Rebellion, for example), those in bold print must be well-understood by all students in order to simply pass the class.
You will occasionally discover a few terms cannot be found in the textbook (sometimes labeled [NIB] for “not in book”). You are still required to identify them using other sources.
Note well: You must know these terms (and all the terms in later units) and know them well. Each class can (and often will) begin with an “ID quiz” in which you will have 3 minutes to “identify” a term I select from the previous night’s reading. Although these quizzes are only worth a few points each, taken together they will constitute 15% to 20% of your overall grade. Moreover, identifications are the foundation of everything we do; if you do not know the ID’s well enough for a daily quiz, you will not know them well enough for a unit test or when asked to write about them in an essay. Knowing these terms is your primary responsibility in this class. As the teacher, my role will be to clarify the terms and make sure you understand how and why they are significant. Furthermore, I will ensure that you understand the broad themes and connections in history (the “big picture”), but that cannot be done effectively if you do not know the details.
Consider the learning targets
While completing the identifications will help you understand the events of the past, they will not be sufficient in helping you see the “big picture” of history. To do well in this course and on the College Board exam, you need to go beyond what happened and be able to analyze events. This means that you must be able to explain or describe how and why things happened; it means you have to understand causes and effects; and it almost always means that you see how events are interconnected. This is what I often refer to as seeing the “big picture” of history.
To help you see the “big picture,” you need to focus on the learning targets listed in the last column of each unit syllabus (labeled with letters). These learning targets are the major concepts and developments in American history that often make up the core of an essay question. As you read, consider these learning targets. As you study for quizzes and tests, be certain that you can thoroughly discuss or explain each of the learning targets.
Part III – Multiple-Choice Quiz and Short Essay (Completed on the First Day of School)
The College Board AP exam (which you will be taking in May) consists of both a multiple-choice section and an essay, both of which are worth fifty-percent of the total score. In this course, you will learn to master the content and to develop good test-taking skills so that you will perform very well on the multiple-choice part of the exam. Writing is also a key component of this course, and it is important we develop good writing skills early and often. Right now, I do not expect you to test or write with the same skill and clarity you will possess by the end of next school year; however, I must have some sense of your abilities at this time. Therefore, on the first day of school, I will quiz you on the material you read over the summer.
This quiz will consist of twenty-five multiple-choice questions and one short essay. You will have about forty minutes to complete this quiz, and should spend about twenty minutes on each part. The multiple-choice section will be scored as a grade; the essay section will not. I will use both sections, however, to help you decide if this course is right for you. (Please do not worry about this. Over 90% of students do fine on this first quiz, and I only recommend a course “drop” to a very few.)
Completing your summer assignment and following my directions carefully should be enough to prepare you for this quiz. To further assist you, I will give you four possible essay questions that may appear on the quiz. You will be asked to write a short essay (a few paragraphs) in response to the one I select in August.
Compare and contrast the British, French, and Spanish imperial goals in North America between 1580 and 1763.
Analyze the origins and development of slavery in Britain's North American colonies in the period 1607 to 1750.
Early encounters between American Indians and European colonists led to a variety of relationships among the different cultures. Analyze how the actions taken by BOTH American Indians and European colonists shaped those relationships in New England, the Chesapeake, and the Spanish Southwest in the 1600s.
Analyze the extent to which religious freedom existed in the British North American colonies prior to 1700.
As you can see, you are often asked to “analyze” when writing essays in this course. To analyze means to consider causes and effects and to explain why something happened as it did.
Part IV – OPTIONAL Book (Due: Monday, September 2)
Throughout the school year, I will offer you several opportunities (of various types) to earn bonus points. These opportunities can help boost your grade, but more importantly, they provide you a chance to learn the material better and ultimately perform better on quizzes, tests, and essays. This summer, you may choose to read a book about the Colonial or Revolutionary eras to earn bonus points. (Again, this is OPTIONAL.) Each of these books will help you understand important people, events, and concepts in early American history.
If you would like to read one of these books, email me right away with the title you have chosen. I will then reply to you with more specific questions I would like you to consider and other directions. While the deadline for this assignment is September 2 (Labor Day), it is imperative you start the book over the summer. There is precious little time to complete an outside reading once school starts. Do not begin to read any of these books until you email me first. I will send you further instructions at that time. Recommended Reading List American Colonies: The Settling of North America by Alan Taylor
Colonial America: A Very Short Introduction by Alan Taylor
A Voyage Long and Strange: Rediscovering the New World by Tony Horwitz
A Land as God Made It: Jamestown and the Birth of America by James Horn
Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War by Nathaniel Philbrick
The French and Indian War: Deciding the Fate of North America by Walter Borneman
The War that Made America: A Short History of the French and Indian War by Fred Anderson
1776 by David McCullough
The Birth of the Republic, 1763—89 by Edmund Morgan
Revolutionary Mothers: Women in the Struggle for America’s Independence by Carol Berkin
Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation by Joseph Ellis
American Creation: Triumphs and Tragedies in the Founding of the Republic by Joseph Ellis
The First American: The Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin by H.W. Brands
To be prepared for the first day of class in August, make note of the following:
Be sure you have read the assigned textbook readings.
Be sure you have identified (and can identify) all the terms for Unit 1.
Be sure you have considered and taken notes on all the learning targets for Unit 1.
Be prepared for a 25-question multiple-choice quiz over Unit 1. This will count as a grade.
Be ready to write a short essay on one of the four possible essay questions.
Have the following materials with you every day beginning with the first day:
a pen and pencil
a 3-ring binder with a two-inch binding (required)
a package of college-ruled loose-leaf paper
You do not ever need to bring your textbook to class. We do not use it in class; however, you will use it extensively at home.
Keys to Success in APUSH
I have often asked my successful students to identify the most important keys to succeeding in this class. Here is a list of the eight things I have heard most frequently. Take this advice seriously.
Read the textbook. There is no substitute for reading the textbook. If you are not committed to reading the textbook throughout the year, APUSH is not the class for you.
Keep up with the readings, ID’s, and learning targets. Do not fall behind. Work ahead if you can.
Be prepared for an ID quiz every day reading is assigned. Do not try to guess when there will be one.
Participate in class discussions every day. Ask a lot of questions about the material.
Be an active note-taker. Add your own notes to the course notes as you read and in class.
Study for all tests and quizzes at least three days in advance. Last-minute cramming does not work.
Keep a well-organized binder. The binder is the ultimate study guide for the final and AP exams.
Take advantage of as many bonus-point opportunities as you can. This will not only improve your grade, but will also help you understand material better.
How to Complete “Identifications” (and “Think Historically”) “Identifications” are more than definitions and go far beyond what a textbook might list in its glossary. The goal of identifying terms is to make sure you understand everything historically significant about a particular term or concept. This is a daunting task, but it is necessary if you plan to succeed in this course.
Identifications have four main parts. I use the acronym “CaDRES” (pronounced ‘KAH-drays’) to help students remember how to structure an identification. The “Ca” stands for causes; the “D” means description; the “RE” stands for results and/or effects; and the “S” means significance. Each part is more thoroughly explained below:
Part I – Causes
Start the identification by describing all of the causes of the event. Every significant development in history occurred for several reasons and had several causes. Every identification should begin with an explanation of what preceded the event, what was going on before it, or what caused it to occur. By starting the identification this way, you provide context for the event. Nothing just happens without reason or cause; something always preceded it and led to it. For example, if a student punched another student in the cafeteria, the story of this fight wouldn’t make sense unless we first understood what was said or done in the past that caused this student to throw a punch. Likewise, the Great Awakening was a major religious revival in the mid-18th century that swept across the colonies. But the Great Awakening didn’t just arise because someone woke up one morning and said, “You know what would be fun…?” It was caused by several factors, including sagging church membership, concerns that parishioners were no longer motivated by fear of damnation, and new liberal ideas of the Enlightenment that had been challenging traditional religious views. All events have causes, and often several causes. Start your identification there.
Part II – Description
Continue the ID by thoroughly describing the term or concept. To do this, it is helpful to answer these questions about the term:
What is it? This may be an actual definition of the term. You should describe what the term is. For example, consider the Maryland Act of Toleration. Do not begin this identification by saying “This was when...” Instead, start by stating what it is: “The Maryland Act of Toleration was a law…” If the term is a person, such as Jonathan Edwards, start by stating, “Jonathan Edwards was a fiery preacher…,” and not “Jonathan Edwards was a guy who…”
Who is involved? This can include specific individuals or groups of people. If you are identifying one person, then it is obvious who is involved, but in the case of the Mayflower Compact, you should note that it involved a group, the Pilgrims, and one individual in particular, William Bradford. In identifying the Maryland Act of Toleration, you would likely discuss Lord Baltimore, the Catholic minority, and the Protestant majority.
When did this occur? Not every date in American history is critically important, but each term should be placed in time. In some cases, this may be as broad as a century or decade, but with other terms you may want to know the exact year. Be as precise as possible with the date, but be certain to place the term in context of other events. For example, the Pilgrims established the Plymouth colony in 1620, and as you will soon learn, that is a “key date” to know and so you should note the exact year. The Great Awakening primarily spanned the decades of the 1730s and 1740s, and in this case, that is as precise as you need be. However, someone like John Smith is important because he saved Jamestown from early destruction, so it would be acceptable to state in that ID: “In the early years of the Jamestown settlement, John Smith…” rather than give a specific year.
Where did this occur? When necessary and not completely obvious, identify where the item took place. Do not be so broad – and sarcastic – and state that “the Maryland Act of Toleration was passed in Maryland.” However, it is important to note that the House of Burgesses existed in Virginia or that the Witch Trials were in Salem, Massachusetts.
How did it develop? Especially when identifying an event, discuss how the event developed over time. This could be a chronological listing of key steps in its development. Include additional information or details that you find in the textbook or another reliable source as these may further your understanding of the topic.
Examples? Whenever possible, include examples. This helps make your identification stronger and it will help you better understand the topic. Consider this example: In identifying the Great Awakening, you will likely mention fiery preachers who delivered a series of rousing sermons. You can strengthen this ID by mentioning examples of the preachers (Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield) and the sermons (“Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”).
Part III – Results and Effects
Even more important than describing the causes of an event is discussing its results and the effects it had on people and society. Identifying the effects can be more challenging because it requires you to understand what is to come, and you may not read or learn that for some time to come. However, the effects are often noted in the text, notes, and other sources, and this information should be available to you. If not, do your best to “see ahead” and definitely make note of the effects later on. And, as stated about causes, results and effects are plural words. Most events have multiples results and effects.
Part IV – Significance (Analysis)
Perhaps the most important part of the identification is analyzing the event or concept and explaining why it is significant to this period in American history. At times, determining the significance of a term can be challenging because it requires you to step back and take a broader view of history. In other words, you have to see how this item fits into the “big picture.” To do this, consider the following:
What does this item tell us about “change(or continuity) over time?” History is largely an examination of the changes that occur over time. Your identifications (as well as your essays) should demonstrate how and why these changes occurred and how things changed (or remained the same) over a significant period of time. For an example of a significant change, consider salutary neglect. After describing it and noting examples, state how it marked a significant change in British colonial policy from the strict Navigation Acts to a more relaxed policy that allowed the colonies to develop semi-independent governments and economies.
Did this item establish a precedent or did it mark a “turning point” in history? Many key events will mark the start of something new or will indicate a turning-point in history. Your ability to see this is critical. For example, both the Mayflower Compact and the Zenger trial set precedents. The Compact established the principle of self-government and democracy in colonial New England, while the Zenger trial established the principle of freedom of the press which will later be embedded in the First Amendment.
What if this event did not occur?Many students of history often forget that the past was not predetermined. No more than we can “know” our own future, those who lived in the past did not know their own. As historians, our focus should not be on what didn’t happen but what did happen. However, it is helpful when trying to understand the significance of key events to think about how things would have been different had that event not occurred. For example, had Columbus not reached the New World in 1492 and begun to establish permanent European settlements, how would the history of Europeans and Native Americans been different? Would Europe have grown as powerful in the last several centuries if it didn’t have the staple crops of corn and potatoes to form the foundation of its diet? If the Native peoples had another century to develop before “contact” would they have grown strong enough to ward off European colonizers? Thinking about these things helps us better understand the significance of the Columbian Exchange.
Sample Course Notes Below is an excerpt from the course notes I provide for you. On the left-hand side are the original course notes; on the right-hand side are some handwritten notes a student might add from the textbook. Note how the student’s notes include elements of “CaDRES” not included in the course notes.
Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)
William Berkeley, royal governor, upset VA’s western frontier settlers by favoring the wealthy eastern planters and failing to protect the frontier from Indians attacks Indians were responding to white encroachment
Nathaniel Bacon raised an army and led raids against Indian villages on the frontier; he then defeated the governor’s forces and burned Jamestown
Bacon soon died of dysentery; his army collapsed; and Berkeley brutally punished them
rebellion highlighted two long-lasting disputes that would continue into 18c:
sharp class differences between wealthy planters (east) and poor, frontier farmers (west)
colonial resistance and resentment of royal control
1630s – Charles I divided VA and granted land on either side of Chesapeake Bay to Catholic George Calvert (Lord Baltimore) for his loyal service
to avoid persecution from Puritans, many English Catholics flocked to MD but were soon outnumbered by Protestant farmers
Calvert persuaded MD’s assembly to pass Act of Toleration which:
was first colonial statute to grant religious freedom to all Christians
but also called for death of anyone who denied divinity of Jesus (or belief in the Holy Trinity)
Protestant revolt against Catholics in late 1600s led to brief civil war and repeal of act; Catholics were denied right to vote
Causes of Bacon’s Rebellion:
VA economy depressed
VA gov’t feared indentured servants and disfranchised the landless poor
Bacon himself envied VA’s ruling elite
VA’s colonial gov’t did not realize that the poor frontiersmen wanted serious reforms
VA’s wealthy elites came to resent British authority and formed a united front against royal appointees
tension between Md’s Catholics & Protestants intensified due to English Civil War
Signif: this was rather tolerant considering religious persecution was common in Europe at this time
act was repealed when local Puritans seized control of gov’t (more evidence of Puritans’ intolerance)
Advanced Placement United States History
Unit 1: Colonial America
Chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4 (partial) in the Divine textbook
The AP student’s primary responsibility is to read each assigned section of the textbook and add notes from the reading to the course notes. To better understand the reading, students should focus on the “terms to identify” and “concepts to grasp” and be prepared for a quiz on any of these items. The teacher’s role is to clarify the significance of the readings, terms, and learning targets, and to show the student how they fit into the “big picture” of American history. If the student does not fully understand a term or concept, he/she must ask in class.
Day 1 (Monday, August 5): “New World Encounters” (Ch. 1; pp. 2-17)
Columbian Exchange (see also pp.14-15)
describe the Eastern Woodland cultures (pp. 7-9)
summarize the “cultural negotiations” between Europeans and Natives (pp. 9-10)
Day 2 (Wednesday, August 7): “Spain, France, and England in the New World” (Ch. 1; pp. 17-30)
conquistadores (see also pp. 19-20)
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
Cortés and the Aztecs
New France, fur trade
defeat of the Spanish Armada
“lost colony” of Roanoke
describe Spanish objectives in the New World
describe French objectives in the New World
describe English objectives in the New World
Day 3 (Friday, August 9): “Chesapeake Colonies” (Ch. 2; pp. 32-42)