College Board, AP Human Geography Course Description,
May 2008-May 2009
“Economic activity has a spatial character influenced by the interaction of several factors, including natural resources, culture, policies, and history in specific places. By dividing economic activities into key sectors, students can appreciate whey natural resources have different values for different societies, and how places and regions acquire comparative advantages for development.
“In this section of the course, students learn about the geographic elements of industrialization and development. Students need to understand how models of economic development, such as Rostow’s stages of economic growth and Wallerstein’s World Systems Theory, help to explain why the world is described as being divided into a well-developed core and a less-developed periphery. The course also includes a comparison of location theories, such as those by Weber and Von Thünen, which stress resource and market dependence, with accounts of economic globalization, which accent time-space compression and the new international division of labor. For example, students might study the reasons why some Asian economies achieved rapid rates of growth in the 1980s while most sub-Saharan African economies experienced decline. In addition, students need to understand patterns of economic growth and decline in North America.
“This part of the course also addresses contemporary issues surrounding economic activity. For example, countries, regions, and communities must confront new patterns of economic inequity that are linked to geographies of interdependence in the global economy. Communities also face difficult questions regarding use and conservation of resources, and the impact of pollution on the environment and quality of life. Students study the impact of deindustrialization, the disaggregation of production, and the rise of consumption and leisure activities.”
TOPIC OUTLINE VI. Industrialization and Economic Development
A. Growth and diffusion of industrialization
1. The changing roles of energy and technology
2. Industrial Revolution
3. Evolution of economic cores and peripheries
4. Geographic critiques of models of economic localization
B. Contemporary patterns and impacts of industrialization
1. Spatial organization of the world eocnomy
2. Variations in levels of development
3. Deindustrialization and economic restructuring
4. Pollution, health, and quality of life
5. Industrialization, environmental change, and sustainability
6. Local development initiatives: government policies
7. Globalization and international division of labor
GLOSSARY DEFINITIONS Keyed to the Major Textbooks in Human Geography:
D: H. J. deBlij, A. B. Murphy, E. H. Fouberg, Human Geography, 8th ed., Wiley, 2007.
F: J. D. Fellmann, A. Getis, J. Getis, Human Geography, 9th ed., McGraw-Hill, 2007.
J: T. G. Jordan-Bychkov, et al., The Human Mosaic, 10th ed., Freeman, 2006.
K: P. L. Knox and S. A. Marston, Human Geography, 4th ed., Pearson, 2007.
N: W. Norton, Human Geography, 5th ed., Oxford University Press, 2004.
R: J. M. Rubenstein, Human Geography, 9th ed., Pearson, 2008
F: The principle that an area produces the times for which it has the greatest ratio of advantage or the least ratio of disadvantage in comparison to other areas, assuming free-trade exists
K: principle whereby places and regions specialize in activities for which they have the greatest advantage in productivity relative to other regions – or for which they have the least disadvantage
Conservation of Resources
F: The wise use or preservation of natural resources so as to maintain supplies and qualities at levels sufficient to meet present and future needs
K: The view that natural resources should be used wisely and that society’s effects on the natural world should represent stewardship and not exploitation
R: The sustainable use and management of a natural resource, through consuming at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced
D: Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery processes in the world-economy
F: [area] the national or world districts of concentrated economic power, wealth, innovation, and advanced technology.
J: [area] The territorial nucleus from which a country grows in area and over time, often containing the national capital and the main center of commerce, culture, and industry
K: [regions] Regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity within diversified economies
D: Process by which companies moved industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
F: The cumulative and sustained decline in the contribution of manufacturing to a national economy
J: The decline of primary and secondary industry, accompanied by a rise of the service sectors of the industrial economy
K: A relative decline in industrial employment in core regions
N: Loss of manufacturing activity and related employment in a traditional manufacturing region in the more developed world
F: The process of growth, expansion, or realization of potential; bringing regional resources into full productive use
N: A term that should be handled with caution because it has often been used to an ethnocentric fashion; typically understood to refer to a process of becoming larger, more mature, and better organized; often measured by economic criteria
R: A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
N: The capacity of a physical system for doing work
D: The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales.
F: A reference to the increasing interconnection of all parts of the world as the full range of social, cultural, political, and economic processes becomes international in scale and effect
K: The increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change
N: A complex combination of economic, political, and cultural changes that have long been evident but that have accelerated markedly since about 1980, bringing about a seemingly ever-increasing connectedness of both people and places; it is often claimed that this transformation, broadly understood, is the greatest challenge facing humans today
R: Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
D: The term applied to the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce and manufacturing that resulted from technological innovations and specialization in late-eighteenth-century Europe
F: The term applied to the rapid economic and social changes in agriculture and manufacturing that followed the introduction of the factory system to the textile industry of England in the last quarter of the 18th century
J: A series of inventions and innovations, arising in England in the 1700s, that led to the use of machines and inanimate power in the manufacturing process
N: The process that converted a fundamentally rural society into an industrial society beginning in England, c. 1750; primarily a technological revolution associated with the development of new energy sources
R: A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
D: A logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated. The agricultural location theory contained in the von Thünen model is a leading example.
F: An idealized representation, abstraction, or simulation of reality. It s designed to simply real-world complexity and eliminate extraneous phenomena in order to isolate for detailed study causal factors and interrelationships of spatial systems
F: An abstraction, an imaginary situation, proposed by geographers to simulate laboratory conditions so that they may isolate certain causal forces for detailed study
N: An idealized and structured representation of the real world
D: Any valued element of (or means to an end using) the environment; including minerals, water, vegetation, and soil
F: A physically occurring item that a population perceives to be necessary and useful to its maintenance and well-being
New International Division of Labor
R: Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries
D: Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; and generate less wealth than core processes in the world-economy
K: [regions] Regions with undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity
F: The outer regions or boundaries of an area
N: The release into the environment of substances that degrade one or more of land, air, or water.
R: Addition of more waste than a resource can accommodate
J: The survival of a land-use system for centuries or millennia without destruction of the environmental base, allowing generation after generation to continue to live there
K: [sustainable development] A vision of development that seeks a balance among economic growth, environmental impacts, and social equity
N: [sustainable development] A term popularized in the 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, referring to economic development that does not damage the environment
D: A term associated with the work of David Harvey that refers to the social and psychological effects of living in a world in which time-space convergence has rapidly reached a high level of intensity
F: [/convergence] Expressions of the extent to which improvements in transportation and communication have reduced distance barriers and permitted, for example, the instantaneous diffusion of ideas across space
N: [convergence] A decrease in the friction of distance between locations as a result of improvement s in transport and communication technologies
R: The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communication and transportation systems
D: [Model] A model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market
F: [Model] Model developed by Johann Heinrich von Thünen (1783-1850), German economist and landowner, to explain the forces that control the prices of agricultural commodities and how those variable prices affect patterns of agricultural land utilization
Wallerstein’s World Systems Theory
D: Theory originated by Immanuel Wallerstein and illuminated in his three-tier structure, proposing change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world
K: [world system] An interdependent system of countries linked by economic and political competition