Civil war happened from 1861 to 1865. The causes of the Civil War were very complicated since the war started. Among a variety of reasons, slavery was the main one which led to the political tension in the 1850s. The Northern antislavery political forces strongly protested the expansion of slavery into the Western territories. Meanwhile, the South tried their best to protect their rights to their own slaves. Getting angry with this issue, seven Southern states declared their independence from the Union. This major cause adding to many other conflicts created the most traumatic episode in American history. But it resolved two matters that had vexed Americans since 1776. It put an end to slavery, and it decided that the country was not a collection of semi-independent states but an indivisible whole. (Toward the City on a Hill, n.d.). The evidence was that on January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued The Emancipation Proclamation proclaiming the freedom of slaves in the ten states.