Academic Field Major Achievements



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Ancient Greek Achievements

Academic Field

Major Achievements

Architecture

  • Some of the world’s most beautiful structures, including religious temples and statues, outdoor arenas, and government buildings

  • Used marble to build most sacred buildings

  • Developed 3 styles of architecture called orders: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian

Geography

  • Wrote about and mapped the earth’s physical features, crops, and natural resources

  • Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of earth vary close to today’s measurement of 24,805 miles

  • Eratosthenes constructed map of Europe, Asia, and Africa that included latitude and longitude

Medicine

  • Hippocrates began medical school

  • Hippocrates taught students to observe and record stages of an illness

  • Developed the Hippocratic Oath, a pledge by doctors emphasizing patient dignity and confidentiality, and doctor’s responsibility to use knowledge appropriately

Astronomy

  • Mapped position of stars and discovered existence of several planets

  • Predicted solar eclipses and identified spring and fall equinoxes

  • Aristarchus proposed sun as center of solar system with planets revolving around it

Zoology

  • Proposed theory of evolution

  • All living things come from water

  • Developed basic classification system based on groups called kingdom, genus, and species

Engineering

  • Invented war machines with reflective metals to use sun’s heat to burn ships, and catapult to throw stones

  • Explanation of the operation of a lever

Mathematics

Physics

  • Tried to understand what elements make up all things

  • Proposed 4 elements – earth, water, air, and fire- as building blocks of all matter

  • Democritus theory that unchanging atoms – protons, neutrons, and electrons- make up all things


Activity:

The U.S. Post Office has decided to issue a set of three stamps commemorating the achievements of the ancient Greeks. You are to submit designs showing what achievements the stamps should highlight and how the stamps should look. All submissions must (1) highlight a different Greek achievement, (2) represent the achievement with a simple visual, and (3) be accompanied by one of two sentences describing the achievement illustrated on the stamp.


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