Absolutismtestbank True/False



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True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

____ 1. The explorations of Hernán Cortés and Francisco de Coronado brought great wealth to the Americas and to Portugal.

____ 2. The Dutch revolted against Spanish rule because of corruption in the Spanish government.

____ 3. The Spanish Armada, which totaled about 130 ships and 20,000 soldiers and sailors, proved itself invincible.

____ 4. King Philip’s centralized government and the flood of American gold and silver resulted in a booming Spanish economy.

____ 5. In the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, the Huguenot queen of France ordered the killing of tens of thousands of French Catholics.

____ 6. The actions of Cardinal Richelieu showed that he was more interested in strengthening the monarchy than in supporting other Catholic monarchs.

____ 7. Louis XIV is history’s best example of an absolute monarch.

____ 8. In the War of the Spanish Succession, England, the Netherlands, and the Holy Roman Empire went to war against France.

____ 9. Louis XIV succeeded in his goal of expanding the territory of France.

____ 10. Queen Elizabeth I had a good relationship with Parliament and called it into session ten times during her 45-year reign.

____ 11. Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector of England clamped down on social life by closing theaters and limiting other forms of popular entertainment.

____ 12. William and Mary were crowned king and queen of England in order to prevent a Puritan monarch from occupying the throne.

____ 13. The Holy Roman Emperor was not an absolute ruler because leaders of the empire’s small states fought against increased imperial power.

____ 14. The German states suffered especially horrible devastation in the Thirty Years’ War.

____ 15. The Thirty Years’ War, the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years’ War involved Central Europe.



Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 16. When Charles became Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V



a.

he fought to convert all of Europe to Protestantism.

b.

he became known as Charlemagne.

c.

he lost all of Spain’s holdings in the Americas.

d.

his territory grew to include parts of Italy, Austria, and various German states.

____ 17. Who argued that women had the right to an education?



a.

Domenicos Theotocopoulos

c.

Juana Ines de la Cruz

b.

Miguel de Cervantes

d.

Queen Mary I

____ 18. King Philip decided to invade England in order to



a.

stop the seadogs and return England to the Catholic Church.

b.

convert it to Anglicanism.

c.

satisfy his suspicions about spies based in England.

d.

rob its treasury of gold and silver.

____ 19. Charles V gave up his thrones in 1556 because he



a.

no longer enjoyed the support of the pope.

b.

was terminally ill.

c.

was frustrated by failure in Europe.

d.

feared his sons would assassinate him.

____ 20. Which of the following was a challenge to the French monarchy’s philosophy of “one king, one law, one religion”?



a.

absolute monarchy

c.

the Huguenots

b.

the Catholic Church

d.

German princes

____ 21. Henry IV was able to claim the throne of France because he



a.

converted to Catholicism.

b.

converted to Protestantism.

c.

ordered the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre.

d.

fought a successful civil war.

____ 22. Louis XIV’s greatest ambition was to



a.

unite the German states under his rule.

b.

end the rivalry with the English.

c.

build up the military and expand French territory.

d.

convert England to Catholicism.

____ 23. What caused the War of the Spanish Succession?



a.

Elizabeth I’s death with no heir

b.

Louis XIV’s desire to have the Spanish throne for his son

c.

the ascension of a Huguenot to the French throne

d.

the bankruptcy of France

____ 24. Who became known as the Sun King?



a.

Louis XIII

c.

Henry IV

b.

Louis XIV

d.

Cardinal Richelieu

____ 25. What caused the English Civil War?



a.

Parliament’s vote to bring back the monarchy

b.

division over the Act of Supremacy

c.

Charles I’s decision to arrest Puritan leaders in Parliament for treason

d.

Elizabeth I’s death with no heir

____ 26. Which of the following writers described life in nature as “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”?



a.

Thomas Hobbes

c.

William and Mary

b.

John Locke

d.

Samuel Pepys

The pretended power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by regal authority, without consent of parliament is illegal. . .”

The English Bill of Rights

____ 27. Which of the following does the passage from The English Bill of Rights guarantee?



a.

Members of parliament will enjoy freedom of speech.

b.

The monarch will not have absolute power.

c.

Democratic, free elections will be held regularly.

d.

The monarch will be abolished.

____ 28. The ascension of William and Mary to the throne of England became known as the



a.

English Civil War.

c.

Glorious Revolution.

b.

Puritan Revolution.

d.

Restoration.

____ 29. Who was the first czar of Russia?



a.

Ivan I

c.

Catherine the Great

b.

Ivan IV

d.

Frederick the Great

____ 30. The goal of Peter I was to



a.

introduce democratic reforms to Russia.

b.

kill the son of Ivan the Terrible to prevent his ascension to the throne.

c.

transform Russia into a modern state.

d.

end the Thirty Years’ War.

____ 31. The Thirty Years’ War was sparked by



a.

the Holy Roman Emperor’s attempt to shut down two Protestant churches.

b.

the assassination of the Prince of Prague.

c.

Maria Theresa’s refusal of a marriage proposal.

d.

a massacre in Magdeburg, Germany.

____ 32. What caused the War of Austrian Succession?



a.

the death of Frederick the Great without a male heir

b.

the rivalry between the Hapsburgs and the Hohenzollerns

c.

the launch of the Spanish Armada

d.

the Holy Roman Emperor’s attempt to combat Protestantism

____ 33. Absolute monarchs argued that their power must not be challenged because



a.

the pope had crowned them.

b.

they were the most intelligent men in their nations.

c.

they were democratically elected.

d.

they ruled by divine right.

____ 34. Why did people in the Netherlands revolt against Spain?



a.

because of corruption in the Spanish government

b.

to protest Spain’s treatment of slaves

c.

because of religious differences

d.

to stop the sea dogs

____ 35. The Edict of Nantes was a remarkable document because



a.

people were no longer forced to follow the monarch’s religion.

b.

for the first time France was a Protestant nation.

c.

it contained the signature of Cardinal Richelieu.

d.

it set into motion the events that led to the Court of Blood.

____ 36. One goal of Louis XIII was to



a.

conquer England.

b.

conquer Spain.

c.

end the Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre.

d.

limit the power of nobles and Huguenots.

____ 37. Which of the following monarchs is history’s best example of an absolute monarch?



a.

Louis XIV

c.

Philip II

b.

Henry IV

d.

Charles II

____ 38. Why were William and Mary crowned king and queen of England?



a.

to prevent a Puritan monarch from occupying the throne

b.

to prevent a Catholic monarch from occupying the throne

c.

to restore the English monarchy

d.

to end the English Civil War

____ 39. Which of the following is a cause of the Thirty Years’ War?



a.

agitation by Pugachev

b.

Catherine’s refusal to marry or name a chancellor

c.

Prussia’s drive for empire

d.

throwing the Holy Roman Emperor’s representatives out of a window


____ 40. Which cost or benefit on the chart titled “Building Versailles” was Louis XIV unlikely to have foreseen?



a.

Allowed the king to keep his nobles in check

b.

Created resentment among people

c.

Helped cause revolution years later

d.

Was clear symbol of king’s power

If anyone habitually living at Court absented himself he insisted on knowing the reason; those who came there only for flying visits had also to give a satisfactory explanation; any one who seldom or never appeared there was certain to incur his displeasure.”

Duc de Saint-Simon

____ 41. In the quote by Duc de Saint-Simon, which European monarch was he referring to?



a.

Peter the Great

c.

Charles I

b.

Louis XIV

d.

Czar Michael


Completion

Complete each statement.

42. Absolute rulers argued that they ruled by ____________________, a concept that held that the monarchs received their power from God.

43. In 1555, the _________________________ gave each German prince the right to decide whether his state would be Catholic or Protestant.

44. The Spanish painter ____________________ was famous for his elongated human figures.

45. ____________________ were English ship captains supported by Queen Elizabeth I who attacked Spanish treasure ships coming from America.

46. French Calvinist Protestants were called ____________________.

47. In England, the ____________________ limited the power of kings and queens, preventing them from becoming absolute monarchs.

48. King ____________________ began the Stuart dynasty in England.

49. In order to get money from Parliament, Charles I signed the _________________________ in 1628, which placed limits on his power.

50. ____________________ was the first European monarch to be formally tried and executed by a court of law.

51. Parliament voted to bring back the English monarchy, an event known as the ____________________.

52. A monarchy limited by law is called a ____________________ monarchy.

53. _________________________ seized power from her husband Czar Peter III.

54. The Treaty of ____________________ ended the Thirty Years’ War.

55. Charles VI approved a document called the Pragmatic Sanction, which would allow his daughter, ____________________ to take the empire at his death.

56. As a result of the Seven Years’ War, ____________________ emerged as the strongest military power in Europe.

57. When Charles V abdicated in 1556, his son, ____________________, took over the Netherlands, Spain, Sicily, and Spain’s colonies in the Americas.

58. In 1598, the compromise known as the ____________________ gave certain rights to Huguenots as a way to restore peace in France.

59. The ____________________ wanted to purify the Church of England.

60. The War of the _________________________ was fought to prevent France and Spain from being ruled by members of the same family.

61. A republican government based on the common good of all the people is called a(n) ____________________.

62. Beginning with Ivan the Terrible, absolute monarchs in Russia were known as ____________________.



Matching

Select the letter of the term, person, or place that matches each description. Some answers will not be used.

a.

Yemelyan Pugachev

k.

westernization

b.

Miguel de Cervantes

l.

Diego Velázquez

c.

St. Petersburg

m.

Puritans

d.

Rump Parliament

n.

Edict of Nantes

e.

Golden Century

o.

Michael

f.

Act of Supremacy

p.

boyars

g.

Treaty of Utrecht

q.

Philip II

h.

Louis XIII

r.

commonwealth

i.

Oliver Cromwell

s.

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

j.

absolute monarch

____ 63. Name of government that supported Cromwell

____ 64. A republican government based on the common good of all people

____ 65. Ruled the Netherlands, Spain, Sicily and American colonies after Charles IV abdicated

____ 66. Minister of finance who reduced France’s debt

____ 67. Compromise that ended religious wars in France

____ 68. Spanish painter who portrayed people with great dignity

____ 69. Landowners who ruled Russia during the 1500s

____ 70. Commander-in-chief of Parliament’s army

____ 71. Stipulated that France and Spain would never be ruled by the same monarch

____ 72. As ruler of France, relied on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu

____ 73. Russia’s warm-water port

____ 74. A ruler whose power was unlimited

____ 75. Wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha

____ 76. Challenged the rule of Catherine the Great in Russia

____ 77. Wanted to reform the English church

____ 78. First of the Romanov dynasty in Russia

Select the letter of the term, person, or place that matches each description. Some answers will not be used.

a.

Charles I

h.

El Greco

b.

Huguenots

i.

Cardinal Richelieu

c.

Peace of Augsburg

j.

Oliver Cromwell

d.

Treaty of Westphalia

k.

Spanish Armada

e.

Petition of Right

l.

Henry of Navarre

f.

Spanish Inquisition

m.

James I

g.

Peter I

____ 79. Painter famous for his elongated human figures

____ 80. Led the English government after the execution of Charles I

____ 81. Fleet assembled by Philip’s navy

____ 82. French Protestant nobleman who became king after converting to Catholicism

____ 83. Began the Stuart dynasty

____ 84. Limited the power of monarchs

____ 85. First European monarch to be formally tried and executed by a court of law

____ 86. Ended the Thirty Years’ War

____ 87. Czar who brought western culture to Russia

____ 88. French Protestants

Short Answer

89. What caused the Dutch to revolt against Philip II?

90. How was the Dutch Revolt resolved?

91. What happened to the Spanish Armada?

92. What did King Henry IV accomplish in his short reign?

93. How did Louis XIV’s palace at Versailles impact the power of French nobles?



94. Which of the benefits listed in the chart titled “Building Versailles” most helped Louis XIV as an absolute monarch? Explain your answer.

95. Study the chart titled “Building Versailles.” What were the non-monetary costs of building the palace at Versailles?

96. Why did Louis XIV build a palace at Versailles? Use your knowledge of the chapter as well as information from the chart titled “Building Versailles” in your answer.

If anyone habitually living at Court absented himself he insisted on knowing the reason; those who came there only for flying visits had also to give a satisfactory explanation; any one who seldom or never appeared there was certain to incur his displeasure.”

Duc de Saint-Simon

97. Use your knowledge of the chapter to explain why Louis XIV acted in the way described in the passage by Duc de Saint-Simon.

98. Why did James I have difficulty getting along with Parliament?

99. Describe two goals of the Puritans.

100. What were the two sides in the English Civil War, and who tended to support each side?

101. Why were the years from 1547 to 1563 known as Ivan IV’s “good period”?

102. Name three reforms instituted by Peter the Great in Russia.

103. Describe the philosophy that guided the leadership of Catherine the Great of Russia and its results.

104. How did religious differences and alliances impact the Thirty Years’ War?

105. What problems did Charles V encounter in his attempt to keep Europe Roman Catholic?

106. What was the Court of Blood, and how did it contribute to the Dutch Revolt?

107. If you had lived in England in the mid-17th century, which side would you have supported in the English Civil War? Explain your answer.

108. Describe English society under Oliver Cromwell.

109. Describe the importance of the English Bill of Rights.

110. What did Peter the Great gain by fighting Sweden?



Absolutismtestbank

Answer Section

TRUE/FALSE

1. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.1

2. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.3

3. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.3

4. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.3

5. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.1

6. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.2

7. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.3

8. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.3

9. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.3

10. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.1

11. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.3

12. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.4

13. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.4.4

14. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.4.4

15. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.4.4



MULTIPLE CHOICE

16. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.1

17. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.2

18. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.3

19. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.1

20. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.1

21. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.1

22. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.3

23. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.3

24. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.3

25. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.3

26. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.3

27. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.4

28. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.4

29. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.4.1

30. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.4.2

31. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.4.4

32. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.4.4

33. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.1

34. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.3

35. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.1

36. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.2

37. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.3

38. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.4

39. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.4.4

40. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.3

41. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.3

COMPLETION

42. ANS: divine right

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.1

43. ANS: Peace of Augsburg

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.1

44. ANS: El Greco

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.2

45. ANS: Sea dogs

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.3

46. ANS: Huguenots

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.1

47. ANS: Parliament

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.1

48. ANS: James I

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.2

49. ANS: Petition of Right

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.2

50. ANS: Charles I

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.3

51. ANS: Restoration

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.4

52. ANS: constitutional

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.4

53. ANS: Catherine the Great

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.4.2

54. ANS: Westphalia

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.4.4

55. ANS: Maria Theresa

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.4.4

56. ANS: Prussia

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.4.4

57. ANS: Philip II

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.1.3

58. ANS: Edict of Nantes

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.1

59. ANS: Puritans

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.3

60. ANS: Spanish Succession

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.2.3

61. ANS: commonwealth

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.3.3

62. ANS: czars

PTS: 1 DIF: 2 NAT: 18.4.1

MATCHING

63. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.3.3

64. ANS: R PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.3.3

65. ANS: Q PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.1.3

66. ANS: S PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.2.3

67. ANS: N PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.2.1

68. ANS: L PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.1.2

69. ANS: P PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.4.1

70. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.3.3

71. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.2.3

72. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.2.2

73. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.4.2

74. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.1.1

75. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.1.2

76. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.4.3

77. ANS: M PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.3.3

78. ANS: O PTS: 1 DIF: 1

79. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.1.2

80. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.3.3

81. ANS: K PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.1.3

82. ANS: L PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.2.1

83. ANS: M PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.3.2

84. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.3.2

85. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.3.2

86. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.4.4

87. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.4.2

88. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 NAT: 18.2.1

SHORT ANSWER

89. ANS:

Calvinist Protestantism had spread through the Low Countries. The Dutch refused to declare allegiance to Philip II because he was Catholic. Philip II set up the Court of Blood, which tortured and executed thousands of suspected rebels, only making the rebellion worse.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.1.3

90. ANS:

The revolt dragged on for decades, until finally a truce was reached in 1609. The seven northern provinces in the Low Country became the independent nation of the Netherlands, while the southern provinces remained in Spanish hands.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.1.3

91. ANS:

The Spanish Armada sailed into the English Channel in 1588. The fleet faced a series of fierce naval battles with England which severely damaged it. Then, the English set eight ships on fire and aimed them at the remaining ships of the Armada. The Spanish ships fled, and several were wrecked on the way home. It was a total defeat.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.1.3

92. ANS:

He issued the Edict of Nantes, which gave Huguenots limited freedom of worship. The document ended the religious wars in France. King Henry IV repaired his war-torn country by eliminating the national debt, creating new industries, draining swamps, building canals and roads, stimulating trade, and encouraging agriculture.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.2.1

93. ANS:

Louis required his nobles to visit him at Versailles, and nobles gained prestige by serving him there rather than by fighting or building local influence, thus reducing their power. In addition, nobles were required to dress expensively at the palace, making them poorer and dependent on the king’s generosity.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.2.3

94. ANS:

An absolute monarch has unlimited power over his nation and his subjects; because the palace was a clear symbol of the king’s power, it most helped him be an absolute monarch. By reducing the power of the nobles, Louis had fewer threats to his own power.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.2.3

95. ANS:

Non-monetary costs of building the palace at Versailles include creating resentment among French people and helping to cause a revolution years later.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.2.3

96. ANS:

It helped him reduce the power of the nobles. They were required to attend him at Versailles where he could keep an eye on them. In addition the palace was a symbol of the Sun King’s power as an absolute monarch.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.2.3

97. ANS:

Louis XIV wanted to keep absolute control over his nobles. By requiring them to be at the court in Versailles, he could limit the ways in which nobles could gain power and influence outside of the palace.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.2.3

98. ANS:

James I wanted to rule as an absolute monarch and believed in the divine right of kings, leading to difficulties with Parliament. In addition, because James I was from Scotland, he was viewed as an outsider.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.3.2

99. ANS:

The Puritans wanted to purify the English church of practices they thought were still too Catholic; for example, the priests still dressed in elaborate robes and worshippers knelt during services. The Puritans also wanted to take power away from church officials.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.3.3

100. ANS:

In the English Civil War, the Royalists fought the Roundheads. The Royalists supported the king, and consisted of mainly wealthy nobles. The Roundheads supported Parliament, and included Puritans, merchants, and some members of the upper classes.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.3.3

101. ANS:

In these years, Ivan made many reforms. He created a general council that included merchants and lower-level nobles. He promoted military officers on merit rather than status. He drew up a new legal code, and expanded Russia’s borders and trade. This period contrasts starkly with the strict policies and violent actions of his later years.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.4.1

102. ANS:

Any three of the following are acceptable: he modernized the army, built a navy, brought the church under state control, built up Russian industry, started the first newspaper in the country, sponsored schools, supported education, encouraged Russians to adopt European styles of clothing and grooming, modernized the calendar, and promoted officials based on service rather than status.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.4.2

103. ANS:

Catherine the Great, influenced by major European thinkers of the time, began an ambitious plan of reforms because she believed that a strong and wise ruler could improve life for his or her subjects. She reformed Russia’s legal and education systems and removed some restrictions on trade, as well as promoting science and the arts.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.4.3

104. ANS:

The Thirty Years’ War began as a religious dispute. The Catholic Holy Roman Emperor ordered two Protestant churches to be shut down. Members of the Hapsburg family, who were monarchs, joined the Emperor’s side. Rivals to the Hapsburgs joined the Protestant opposition. The Hapsburg family, which controlled the Holy Roman Empire, was joined by Spain, while the Protestant side included Bavaria, Austria, other German states, France, Denmark, and Sweden.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.4.4

105. ANS:

Charles V encountered several problems. During his reign, a growing Protestant movement threatened his influence. Charles confronted Martin Luther and declared him an outlaw. However, rebellions against Catholic rulers spread. After years of war, Charles had to sign the Peace of Augsburg in 1555. This gave each German prince the right to decide whether his state would be Protestant or Catholic.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.1.1

106. ANS:

Calvinist Protestantism was spreading through the Low Countries. A revolt began when the Dutch refused to declare allegiance to Philip. To punish them he sent an army under the command of the Duke of Alba. Alba set up a court (Court of Blood) that tortured and executed thousands of people suspected of being rebels. After years of revolt a truce was reached in 1609. The southern provinces remained under Spanish rule. The northern provinces formed the independent nation of the Netherlands.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.1.3

107. ANS:

Sample answer: I would support Parliament, along with those who decided to rise up against Charles I because he intended to take back power from Parliament. Or: I would support Charles I, because I would oppose changes likely to be put in place by a Puritan government, including laws restricting entertainment.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.3.3

108. ANS:

Oliver Cromwell, a Puritan, was given the title Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. He demanded complete obedience. He also closed theaters and limited other forms of entertainment. Eventually he dissolved Parliament and ruled alone until his death.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.3.3

109. ANS:

William and Mary had to sign the document before taking the throne. It prevented monarchs from levying taxes without the consent of Parliament. Decades later, the Bill of Rights was reflected in the U.S. Constitution. The Bill of Rights was central to England’s growth as a constitutional monarchy. England had rejected the concept of an absolute monarch who supposedly ruled by divine right for a monarchy ruled by law.

PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.3.4

110. ANS:

Peter gained a port that would not freeze and would be open to western trade all year long.



PTS: 1 DIF: 3 NAT: 18.4.2

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