Abridged general bibliography sand Creek Massacre



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Abridged GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

Sand Creek Massacre

[base bibliography about 335 pp.]


Research Use Only

Not for publication or copying without permission of compiler.
Specially prepared for Penrose Archives, Denver University, Denver, Colorado, Steve Fisher, Archivist
April 6,7, 2013
UPDATED Continuously
From notes and research for

Chaos* “When it went haywire"

A criminal investigation of the engagement at Sand Creek, November 29, 30, and December 1, 1864
Prepared, Compiled By Jeff C. Campbell, © 2002 – 2013

P. O. Box 262, Eads, CO 81036, kiowalone@yahoo.com

[contact via mail, email or Sand Creek Massacre, NHS, Eads, CO]

************************************************************************

[Will assist legitimate researchers with more specific information, chronological data, etc. JCC]

[Page Numbers may be incorrect, but order is correct.]

REVISED-SOURCES - 2013

Secondary Histories & Biographies, Dictionaries, Compendiums: ..................... p. 1

First Hand or Primary Source, - Contemporary Accounts, Diaries, Letters, Eyewitnesses,

Autobiographies and Oral Histories or Traditions: ............................................... p. 41

Articles and Essays: .............................................................................................. p. 60

Researchers, Sources of Information, Contacts: ................................................... p. 65

Pamphlets, Brochures and Booklets: .................................................................... p. 77

Contemporary Newspapers and Periodicals: ........................................................ p. 86

Modern Newspapers & Internet newspaper sites: ................................................. p. 87

Internet sources p. 87

Newspapers p. 88

United States Government Documents: ................................................................ p. 103

[OR] Official Records, War of the Rebellion, 1893, p. 106 – 200

[LOC] Library of Congress: “American Memory” p. 207

[DOI] Department of the Interior, [OIA] Office of Indian Affairs

Allotment records p. 213

Collections, Archives & Museums: ...................................................................... p. 223

Boggsville (Bent Co., Colo.) Collection p. 223

[CHS] Colorado (State) Historical Society, [SHL] Hart Library p. 227 – 240

[DPL] Denver Public Library [WHC] Western History Collections p. 242 – 262

Photographs p. 249

[DU] Denver University, Penrose Library p. 264

Fort Kearny, Fort Leavenworth p. 266

Iowa State Department of History and Archives p. 267

[KSHS] Kansas Historical Society p. 270

[OKHS] Oklahoma State Historical Society, Oklahoma City, OK p. 274

[SAND & SAND-COLL] Sand Creek Massacre NHS Collections p. 279

Wisconsin

Useful Websites: ................................................................................................... p. 281

Other Government, local or quasi-governmental agencies: .................................. p. 284

Other Sources worth finding and reviewing: ........................................................ p. 285

Other Non-Traditional Sources: ............................................................................ p. 292

Art: p. 292

Documentaries: p. 292

Cemeteries: p. 293

Riverside Cemetery, Denver

Fairmount Cemetery, Denver

Fiction: .................................................................................................................. p. 301

Sources Not Used: ................................................................................................. p. 303

[From the totally not relevant to the seriously flawed, misconstrued, diatribes by polemicists, ad infinitum]

Alpha Source Abbreviations Directory & General Abbreviations: ....................... p. 315

General & Military Abbreviations used: p. 320

Maps: p. 324
** Substantially well worth reading. Recommended.

*** Best of sources. Recommended.



Introduction to this Bibliography:
Herein are the collective notations of research on the Sand Creek Massacre conducted by Jeff C. Campbell since 2001.
Initially the research focused on – What was the event, Where did it occur, Who was involved, How did it happen and When did it happen? The first step of this process was to find secondary sources that described the history of the event and that turned out to be wholly inadequate since there was no consistent history and all but a few of the general histories were tainted with political and personal opinions as well as unequivocal subjective interpretations and indiscriminant illogical vituperous rages. The upshot after twelve years of research is that most secondary histories that even have the slightest mention of the massacre are usually wholly or to a large degree inaccurate because they simply perpetuate incorrect assumptions from faulty or inept research.
The second goal was to locate primary sources that had been unadulterated by editing and interpretive commentary. Again, this was a chore to find primary sources that hadn’t been tainted by either personal opinion and commentary and those sources that had been correctly transcribed. Unfortunately some compilers didn’t have their feet planted in an understanding of the overall context of time and place and imposed modern interpretations of time, distance and travel and communication upon the diarists and first hand experiences of the 1860s. Annotators of these 1800s writings misread or mistranscribed the cursive of that day and age, which is fairly easy to do. One significant deficit in the primary sources is a single complete period rendition of events, thus leading us to a compendium of hundreds of primary sources to ferret out the narrative and sequence of events in toto.
So, concurrently with the primary source research and cataloging of persons and places, as well as chronological context was constructed and continually updated. Simultaneously with that research an historical geography of the area was compiled onto working draft maps based on current U. S. G. S. topographic maps or basic crime scene maps.
Once research into the Who, What, Where, How and When were fully underway a search for motivations and the interconnected relationships of territorial government, military operations and chain of command, and the inseparable economic relationships in the developing territory coupled with the interplay of the Civil War started to take shape. Still motivations were unclear.
The final research phase, and by no means the end of research for those that follow, had to do with defining the Why. The actual why for the military leadership of Chivington, Shoup, Bowen and Downing is still unclear, however, it has become clear that the attack on Sand Creek was not the objective, but was an unfortunate coincidental objective of opportunity only settled on within the twenty-four or less hours before the attack. The larger objective had to do with clearing the title of vast ranges held by plains Indians.
It became apparent that the last phase of research would be aimed at corroborating relationships and goals of and between 1.) immediate and intimate territorial government, military, propaganda and citizenry; 2.) regional and business and governmental relationships tied to the building of the transcontinental railroad; and 3.) the national imperative of not the generalised “manifest destiny” but the destiny entrepreneurs envisioned tied to the destinies of politicians who felt their clearing of the West was their manifest duty and in making way or facilitating economic progress from China to Europe with America in between.
Sources noted in the text, if not specifically noted for their location in a particular library, archive or collection are generally located in secondary form at the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site [SAND] files, library or [SAND-COLL] Collections located at the site, the administrative offices, Bent’s Old Fort NHS [BEOL], Curatorial Collections and Library (also the NPS Group HQ) or at WACC Collections in Tucson, AZ or in several collections at the library or the administrative offices and GIS unit of the IRO. For instance, photocopies of almost all of George Bent’s handwritten letters are located in SAND COLLECTIONS. Upon completion of the Sand Creek Massacre Research Center copies of all of my research or case materials will be turned over to that repository and a copy of the same will be turned over to the Denver Public Library, Western History Collections.

Secondary Histories & Biographies:
Abel, Annie [or Anna] Heloise, The American Indian in the Civil War, 1862-1865, A Bison Book, U. of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE 1992, Intro by Theda Perdue & Michael D. Green, Originally pub. as The American Indian as Participant in the Civil War, as v. 2 or author series, The Slaveholding Indian, 1919, Arthur H. Clark Co., Cleveland, OH
Abel, Annie Heloise, Ph.D., “The History of Events that Resulted in Indian Consolidation West of the Mississippi River.” 234 pp. 1905. Contacted Yale University Library, Bill Massa at Manuscripts and Archives, Sterling Memorial Library, 203-432-1735. See One copy in archives. Dissertation published American Historical Association Report, 1906, V. XIII, pp. 233 – 450. “(To this essay was awarded the Justin Winsor Prize of the American Historical Association in 1906.)” Also printed by USGPO 1908. Available in Colorado at CHS, DPL, U. of Colo., U. C. Denver, Colo. College. Annie Heloise Abel, Ph. D., “Sometime Bulkey Fellow in History at Yale University, later Associate Professor in History at Wells College, and now instructor in History at The Woman’s College of Baltimore.”
**[CDS] Afton, Jean; Halaas, David Fridtjof; Masich, Andrew E.; Cheyenne Dog Soldiers: A Ledgerbook History of Coups and Combat, including Appendix A: Chronology of Cheyenne Military Actions 1864-1869, co-published Colorado Historical Society and University Press of Colorado, 1997 (Authors indicate that sources include; Adjutant General's Ofc., George Bent letters, U.S. Court of Claims, George E. Hyde, George Bird Grinnell, Official Records GPO 1893, Rocky Mountain News, Samuel J. Crawford, Philip H. Sheridan Papers, George W. Webb and a Record of Engagements by LG P. H. Sheridan.) [SAND]
[NOTHING] Ambrose, Stephen E., Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad, 1863-1869, Simon and Schuster, New York, NY 2000.
Andrews, Ralph W., Picture Gallery Pioneers, 1850 to 1875, Bonanza Books, Crown Publishers, 1964. Henry Faul, p. 129 John Glendinin, August 1864, an elegant room, near corner of Blake & Cherry Creek, opposite the Elephant Corral [Interlibrary loan]
Athearn, Robert G., William Tecumseh Sherman and the Settlement of the West, U. of OK Press, Norman, 1956

See Sherman to Rawlins, September 30, 1866, Division of the Missouri, Letters Received, 1866-69, Special File.

See Sherman to Townsend, June 24, 1868. Division of the Missouri, Letters Received, 1866-69, Special File

See Carson and Bent to [Gen] Pope, October 27, 1865, Letters Received, 1865-69, Office of the Secretary of War. Records of the War Department, NARA, Letter endorsed by Sherman on November 7, 1865


Ayres, Carol Dark, Lincoln and Kansas: Partnership for Freedom, Sunflower University Press, 1531 Yuma, POB 1009, Manhattan, KS 66505-1009, ©2001 Saint Mary College, Leavenworth, KS, ISBN: 0-89745-254-2 [JCC-COLL]
**[TLW] Bailey, Lynn R., The Long Walk: A History of the Navajo Wars, 1846-68, 1964, Westernlore Press 1988, Tucson, AZ. Well written. Good basic text. [JCC-COLL]
Bailey, W. F., Compiled & Published by, The Story of the First Transcontinental Railroad: Its Projectors, Construction and History, Pittsburg Printing Co., ©1906.
[EEX] Bain, David Haward, Empire Express; Building the First Transcontinental Railroad, Penguin Books, Penguin Putnam, Inc., New York, NY, 1999. A good comprehensive text. Unfortunately the narrative about Evans, Chivington, the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, and Sand Creek is taken from overused secondary sources and is not credible overall reciting several misconceptions. However, the book gives enough information on the major and minor players, politicians and businessmen to draw direct lines of association and outlines the complicity between dreamers, schemers, realists and profiteers. [Donated to SAND]
Barnum, Joseph K., Surgeon General, The Medical and Surgical History of the Civil War, Index Vol. II & Vol. VII, Broadfoot Publishing, Wilmington, NC 1991, formerly by USGPO, Washington, D.C. 1870. Surgeon General, Joseph K. Barnum? There is an interesting notation for Sand Creek or Big Sandy, which seems to be two separate entries, which upon review of records appears to support the fact that there were more men who were killed at Sand Creek. [FT SCOTT library]

Entry, v. VII, CXXX, November 29th, Big Sandy, 3 KIA, 21 WIA. [which appears to be the timely report by the 1st Regiment surgeon]


Entry, v. VII, CXXXII, December 9th, Ft. Lyons [sic] Indian Territory] “Massacre of 500 Indians Also Known as Sand Creek” 9 KIA, 40 WIA. [which appears to be the casualties for the 3rd Reg. on Nov. 29th]
[Then there were two more soldiers, 3rd Reg. killed on the field Nov. 30th, and at least four more

1st / 3rd Reg. soldiers who died of their wounds at Ft. Lyon bringing the total 14 KIA, 4 died of

their wounds = 18. 61 reported as WIA on the field, although the number appears to be higher

after careful analysis of the records. It should also be noted that medical personnel on the field

believed that 50% or more of the wounded had bullet wounds consistent with rifles carried by 3rd

Regiment soldiers on the field Nov. 29.


Bearss, Edwin C., The Battle of Wilson’s Creek, Wilson’s Creek National Battlefield Foundation, 1992, Litho Printers and Bindery, Cassville, MO [JCC-COLL]
[JAYHAW] Benedict, Bryce D., Jayhawkers: The Civil War Brigade of James Henry Lane, U. of Okla. Press, Norman, 2009 [JCC-COLL]
[BCH] Bent County (Colorado) History, Published by “The Book Committee,” Las Animas, CO 81054, 1986-87, printed by The Holly Publishing Co., Holly, Colorado. Book Committee: Cleva Bourne, Chester Beck, Robert Ham, Evelyn Ham, Leah Baublits, Lillian Beaman, Octavia Beck, Fern Lacy, Martha Lowe.
[TSC] Berthrong, Donald J., The Southern Cheyennes, U. of Okla. Press, Norman, OK, 1963. V. 66 in the Civilization of the American Indian Series. [SAND]

Appears to have been well researched, however in Sand Creek references and subsequent events such as Little Arkansas Treaty and Medicine Lodge Treaty very few references from Cheyenne point-of-view or recollections other than George and William Bent. Draws on George Bent's letters. Excellent and extensive bibliography. "Donald J. Berthrong, who holds the Ph. D. degree from the University of Wisconsin, is Professor of History in Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana." Berthrong is deceased, reportedly left his research collection to John Sipes who is now also deceased.


[PCH] Betz, Ava, A Prowers County History, with editing assistance by Virginia Downing, Dixie Munro and Florence Dolsen. Prowers County Hist. Soc., Big Timbers Museum, Lamar, CO, 1986.

Bibliography: selections

Coues, Elliott, The Expedition of Zebulon Montgomery Pike, Minneapolis, MN, Ross & Haines, Inc., 1895, 1965

George A. H. Baxter Scrapbooks, CHS, microfilm,

WPA Writers Project, 1934, CHS

Rainey, George, 1937, No Man’s Land, Enid, OK, private publish

Goff, Richard & Robert H. McCaffree, 1967, A Century in the Saddle, pub. by Colorado Cattlemen’s Centennial Commission, Boulder, CO, Johnson Pub. Co.

[BLD] Black, Henry Campbell, M.A., Black’s Law Dictionary, Abridged Sixth Edition, West Group, West Publishing, St. Paul, MN, 8th Reprint, 1998,


Bright, William, Native American Placenames of the United States, U. of OK Press, Norman, 2004. Appears to be well researched, eclectic, and broad in scope. [JCC-COLL]
[CSP] Brill, Charles J., Conquest of the Southern Plains, OKC, Golden Sage Publishers, 1938.

Brill, Charles J., Custer, Black Kettle and the Fight on the Washita, U. of Ok. Press, Norman, 1938, 2001 [SAND TPB.]


Bromwell, Henrietta E., Colorado Portrait and Biography Index, Gathered and arranged from Histories, Magazines, Newspaper Files, Land Records, many other sources, 1931, 1932, 1933. See http://digital.denverlibrary.org
Burkhimer, Michael, 100 Essential Lincoln Books, Cumberland House, Nashville, TN, 2003.
Caldwell, Martha B., Compiler, Annals of Shawnee Methodist Mission and Indian Manual Labor School, Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas, Second Edition 1977. [No mentions of Chivington visiting or in relation to the conference or M. E. Church therein.]
[CBB] Carson – Bent – Boggs Genealogy, compiled by Quantrille D. McClung, published by Denver Public Library, Denver, CO
[CBB2] Carson – Bent – Boggs Genealogy Supplement “Additions and Corrections for Line of William Carson, Ancestor of “Kit” Carson Famous Scout and Pioneer of the Rocky Mountain Area with the Western Branches of the Bent and Boggs Families with Whom “Kit” was associated and the Line of Samuel Carson Supposed to be a Brother of William Carson With Some Attention to the Boone Family.” Compiled by Quantrille D. McClung (collaborator Mrs. Bernice Blackwelder). Published by Denver Public Library, 1973, LOC 62-21154, Denver, CO
[RTW] Castel, Albert, Civil War Kansas: Reaping the Whirlwind, U. Press of Kansas, 1958 by Cornell U. Press as A Frontier State of War: Kansas, 1861-1865. 1997. [JCC-COLL]

KSHS Photos

Lane, Robinson, Pomeroy, Carney, Jennison, D. R. Anthony, James G. Blunt

Samuel R. Curtis – Iowa State Historical Soc., Thomas Ewing, Jr.

John M. Schofield – U. S. Army Signal Corps, Sterling Price – Chicago Hist. Soc.
[See U. S. Congress, Senate, Report of the United States Pacific Railway Commission, Sen. Ex. Doc., 50th Cong., 1st Sess., vol. III, no. 51, pt. 4, pp. 1595-1596.]
See KSHS: Mark W. Delahay Papers, Thomas Ewing, Jr. Papers, Hugh Dunn Fisher, Papers

Isaac T. Goodnow Diary, James Henry Lane Papers, James L. McDowell Papers

Thomas Moonlight Papers, Samuel Clarke Pomeroy Papers
U. of KS Library: James Henry Lane Collection

Kansas City, Kansas, Public Library: William E. Connelley Collection

Library of Congress: Thomas Ewing, Jr. Papers, Robert Todd Lincoln Collection

John M. Schofield Papers

Kansas State Archives, KSHS: Governor’s Correspondence (Thomas Carney)
** [CDW] Chalfant, William Young, Cheyennes at Dark Water Creek: The Last Fight of the Red River War, Fwd. by Fr. Peter John Powell, U. of OK Press, Norman, 1997. Chalfant "... a practicing attorney in Hutchison, Kansas ... Father Peter John Powell, founder and director of St. Augustine's Center for American Indians in Chicago, Illinois ... author ..." Well-written, useful. [JCC-COLL]
** [C&HS] Chalfant, William Y., Cheyennes and Horse Soldiers: The 1857 Expedition and the Battle of Solomon’s Fork, foreword by Robert M. Utley, Illustrations by Roy Grinnell, Red River Books, U. of OK Press, Norman, 1989, 2002. A very informative text, shedding light on the pre-Civil War encounters between the Cheyennes and the U. S. military and lessons both learned about warfare against each other. [Donated to SAND library.]
[CCH] Cheyenne County History, Eastern Colorado Historical Soc., Cheyenne Wells, CO. 1979
[HUL] Clark, George B., History of Union Lodge No. 7, A. F. & A. M., Denver, Colorado 1863-1938, Denver, 1938, R. J. Williams Company, C366.12 D438hi
[CLH] Coel, Margaret, Chief Left Hand Southern Arapaho, U. of OK Press, Norman, 1981.

Coel of Boulder, CO, now a mystery writer, suma cum laude graduate of Milwaukee U., a journalist,

It is speculative in some respects. Overall picture given by author is fairly representative of the period and Chief Left Hand. On release the book received critical acclaim. Her work does have a lot of research attached to it and used in it. Unfortunately there is really little known about Left Hand #1 not to be confused with Left Hand #2 who became a chief of the Arapaho tribe in the late 1800s and was about 20 years the junior of #1. [SAND-LIB]
Collins, Robert, Kansas Train Tales: A Collection of Railroad History, ©2009 by Collins, published by Create Space, January, 2009. ISBN: 1-440499-16-0 [JCC-COLL]

p. 47 “Sabotaged by Fate & Greed: The Transcontinental Chance of the U. P. E. D.

p. 107 “The First Growth Plan: The Railroad Convention of 1860
Bibliographic notes, see:

Glick, George W., “The Railroad Convention of 1860,” Kansas Historical Collections, v. 9, 1906

Collins, Robert, Kansas Pacific: An Illustrated History, South Platte Press, 1998.

Cruise, John D., “Early Days on the Union Pacific,” Kansas Historical Collections, v. 11, 1910

Farley, Alan W., “Samuel Halett and the Union Pacific Railway Company in Kansas,” Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 25, No. 1, Spring, 1959
Collins, Robert, The Race to Indian Territory: Three Railroads, Their Struggle, and Their Ultimate Fates, ©2010 by Collins, ISBN: 1-450549071. [JCC-COLL]
[CFTH] Colorado Families: A Territorial Heritage, Compiled and Published by The Colorado Genealogical Society, Inc., Denver, Colorado 1981 LOC # 81-68024 CGS, POB 9671, Denver, CO 80209. Helps fill in some voids in particular individual’s biographies.
[HEC] The Historical Encyclopedia of Colorado by the Colorado Historical Association, Thomas S. Chamblin, Editor, 1960. Volume 1 and 2. Very hard to use. It is not alphabetical.
[CWVR] Colorado Territory Civil War Volunteer Records, A Comprehensive Index to the Twelve Volumes of Military Clothing Books Found in the Colorado State Archives. “Containing the Historical Background of the Volunteers of Colorado Territory During the Civil War Period, 1861-1865.” Records Extracted by Columbine Genealogical and Historical Society, Inc., POB 2074, Littleton, Colorado, 80161-2074, 1994. Printed Hansen Bros. Printing, Littleton. 303-794-0544, G973.7488 C714 Text written by, Lilly Wright Budd, Edited by Charles O. Counts, Honorary Captain First Regiment Colorado Volunteers, A Living History Group. [DPL/WHC Genealogy]

It should be noted that not all the soldiers who served in the U. S. Volunteer regiments of infantry, cavalry or batteries of Independent Artillery are listed herein. Also Co. F of the Veteran Battalion, 1st Colorado Volunteer Cavalry [the consolidated 1st Regiment Cavalry, Colorado Volunteers of January – November 1865] is missing. Additionally the 3rd Regiment Cavalry, Colorado Volunteers – 100-days regiment partially involved at Sand Creek is not included, which seems to be a general problem with that regiment’s records as they are spread out and missing in pieces.

Convis, Charles L.,



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