After his defeat in Russia, Napoleon faced an increase in attacks against his empire.
His enemies grew bolder and despite several Napoleon victories, they kept up the pressure and finally forced him out of France.
Napoleon was replaced by the former King Louis XVI’s brother (Louis XVII), who was an ineffective and unpopular ruler.
Napoleon escaped his island exile of Elba after only ten months and returned to France as popular as ever.
The countries of Europe were fearful of a strong Napoleon and allied against him at the battle of Waterloo.
Waterloo was one of the most famous battles in history and Napoleon was narrowly defeated. Napoleon was then sentenced to exile to the island of St. Helena where he eventually died.
The major remaining powers at the Congress of Vienna tried to redraw the map of Europe to insure that no one country could dominate the continent as Napoleon and France had.
Directions: Read pages 118- 121 in your text Crossroads – A Meeting of Nations.
1. On a separate piece of paper, provide definitions for the following terms;
Abdication – an agreement to give up title and powers.
to route -to force an army to run wildly from the enemy, as opposed to retreating, which is a careful, well-disciplined military manoeuver
diplomat – a representative of government who works with other governments for the good of his or her country
SENTENCES; a. What was the final battle that forced napoleon to abdicate his throne for
the first time and where was he exiled to? (2 mks for quality of answer)
Near Paris. He was exiled to the isle of Elba (near Italy) b. Provide two examples of Napoleon’s popularity even when he was not Emperor
of France. (2 mks for quality of answer)
-Many people “longed for Napoleon to return because the new king Louis XVIII wanted to revive the concept of the Divine Right of Kings.
-Napoleon returned to France, walked towards a road blocked by royal troops, and announced that if they wanted to shoot their emperor, he stood before them. The soldiers came over to his side.
-Within months Napoleon had enlisted more than 300,000 soldiers c. Describe the Battle of Waterloo and provide at least two important facts
or details about this famous battle. (2 mks for quality of thought and answer)
-50,000 wounded or killed, battle lasted for 1 day, 12,000 French cavalry charged the British lines to be thrown back by musket fire from the British. The French army was routed and Napoleon defeated d. Who were the major countries responsible for the defeat of Napoleon and
what was their solution to the potential violence between European countries
and nations. (2 mks for quality of thought and answer)
-Congress of Vienna…alliance including Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia
They divided up the old empire including many of the overseas colonies belonging to France.
-The alliance tried to create a “balance of power” to prevent further wars. Tsar Alexander promised that all the rulers of Europe would work to prevent war through “charity, peace and love” 3. Use the map found on page 121 of your text to color and label the following;