Abbott, Rachael, Victoria University of Wellington; Ben Bell



Download 3.46 Mb.
Page1/66
Date25.04.2016
Size3.46 Mb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   66

26th International Congress for Conservation Biology -- Baltimore, Maryland, USA -- July 21-25, 2013



Ordered by surname of first author.


Abbott, Rachael, Victoria University of Wellington; Ben Bell, Victoria University of Wellington; Nicky Nelson, Victoria University of Wellington
Improving conservation management of New Zealand's rarest kiwi (Apteryx rowi): An integrated approach identifies optimal release group size.

To increase the effectiveness of restocking for conservation, it is necessary to identify any elements of the release protocol which affect post release survival, and modify the procedure accordingly. Rowi are critically endangered flightless ratites which form monogamous, highly territorial pairs. Restocking of the sole remaining rowi population has been underway for over 16 years. To reflect the adult social organisation, releases traditionally took place in pairs or small groups. However, preliminary data analysis led us to hypothesize that individuals in larger groups may have higher survival rate than those in small release groups. We tested this by experimentally manipulating release group size over 3 years, followed by intensive post release monitoring. Modelling reveals that of all variables tested, group size was the only factor with significant influence on post release survival (n=67, p=0.036). Kaplan Meier analysis showed cumulative survival at 90 days post release of small groups (ф 0.545, n=22) was significantly lower than that of large groups (ф 0.911, n=45). This finding has led to a change in release protocol, and also has important theoretical implications for the interpretation of behavioral ecology, life history and demography, and their application to reintroduction biology and restocking as a conservation tool.



Abrams, Jesse, Leibniz Center Tropical Marine Ecol
The Carbon Cycle: Where does SCB's habitat trading fit in?

We need carbon but the need for carbon is also associated with one of the biggest problems of today: global warming. Carbon is exchanged between different reservoirs in what is known as the carbon cycle. The carbon cycle has both fast and slow components, which help regulate the Earth’s temperature on both short and long time scales. Certain components could act as either positive or negative feedbacks on the system. There are certain phases of the global carbon cycle that offer opportunities for reduction of future greenhouse gas impacts, such as preserving and restoring habitats that sequester carbon dioxide. A combination of potential sequestration strategies could help mitigate the problem of rising carbon dioxide levels and the secondary problems, such as ocean acidification, associated with it. Amongst these strategies are improved land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Here I will identify where SCB’s habitat trading fits into the climate change mitigation picture.



Abrams, Ron, Dru AssocIates, Inc.
SCB at Rooihoek, South Africa: Severe logistics in Baviaanskloof Mega Preserve

SCB investment in carbon offsets began after the 2007 ICCB in South Africa. The carbon offset contributions collected from 2007 through 2009 are supporting habitat restoration at Rooihoek in the Baviaanskloof Mega Reserve in South Africa. In addition to the carbon credits contracted from this work, SCB’s participation is giving impetus to an experiment in restoration combined with community-based conservation. Drought and herbivory are suppressing the growth of the restored habitat, so experimentation at Rooihoek involves replanting of spekboom along with additional species to enhance the substrate, and the area's biodiversity, as well as trials of herbivore exclusion by temporary electric fence. This collaborative research on restoration across the Eastern Cape region will reveal much about Adaptive Management of carbon sequestration projects. In the meantime, the Department of Environmental Affairs and the Eastern Cape Parks and Tourism Agency have discussed with the National Parks at Addo the designation of land that is already restored for claim by SCB for sufficient credits to meet the carbon target set in the original contract with ECPTA. Decisions remain to be made about how SCB completes its commitment to the Rooihoek project. Once SCB has approved a strategy, members of the Rhodes Restoration Group will aid SCB in revising the calculations in the contract which establish the credits needed from either ECPTA or National Parks.



Acevedo, Aldemar, Ecology and Biogeography Research Group, Universidad de Pamplona; Rosmery Franco, Ecology and Biogeography Research Group, Universidad de Pamplona; Karen Silva, Ecology and Biogeography Research Group, Universidad de Pamplona
Diversity and Conservation Status of Andean Amphibians from the Tama National Natural Park - Colombia

Anthropogenic disturbances in habitats have led to changes in composition, diversity and abundance patterns of amphibian species, as well as adverse effects on the conservation of these in the Neotropics. To evaluate these processes and determine the amphibian diversity, from August 2010 to April 2011 samplings were made in the Tama park (Colombia) in four Andean mountain areas, between 2000 to 3200 m.a.s.l. In order to determine the impact of threats; we applied the technique of formal concept analysis (AFC) to evaluate the different degrees of threat (habitat fragmentation, animal husbandry, human presence and infection with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). We recorded 538 individuals of 17 species of amphibians. 95 samples were analyzed for the diagnosis of chytrid fungus through the conventional PCR technique, 45 were positive in 12 amphibians species, being one of the most alarming registers of infection in the Colombian country. In the AFC results, six of 17 species recorded faced the five threats. This study led to the discovery of a new species (Bolitoglossa tamanese), plus five new records were reported, three new for Colombia: P. gryllus, P. melanoproctus and P. mondolfii and two species to the department of Norte de Santander: Dendropsophus pelidna and P. frater. Finally, we suggest further explorations to the areas of the Massif El Tamá, and evaluate other aspects of threats to which could be subjected amphibian species of high mountain areas.



Acharya, Bhoj, Sikkim Government College, Tadong (Sikkim University); Basundhara Chettri, Sikkim University
Impact of climate change on birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Eastern Himalayas and their conservation strategies

Biodiversity of the tropical mountains including Himalayas are most vulnerable to global climate change. Warming rate, and also the consequences, is higher in the Himalayas than the rest of the world. We analyzed climate change effect on four ecologically sensitive faunal groups (birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies) in Sikkim, Eastern Himalayas, India. Situated within the globally significant biodiversity hotspots, Sikkim occupies an important biogeographic location in the entire Himalayan chain. Field based studies collated with historic records shows that studied faunal taxa have extended or shifted their ranges towards higher elevation leading to reduction in their range sizes. We also observed late breeding/breeding failure among birds and early breeding of amphibians. Biased sex ratio towards females (higher temperature favors females) has been observed in snakes. Drying springs and erratic rainfall pattern has affected breeding of amphibians causing decline in their population. Long dry spells have caused the disappearance of turtles from Sikkim. Faunal habitats, especially in the low elevation areas, in Sikkim are fragmented/degraded due to various developmental activities. Consequently, many streams have dried leading to loss of potential habitat for reptiles and amphibians. Hence, conservation of community owned agro-forests and revival of dried streams could mitigate climate change impact and enhances biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas.



Ackerly, David, University of California, Berkeley
Topoclimates and climate change impacts on vegetation in Mediterranean ecosystems of South Africa and California

Species distribution models have played a central role in projections of climate change impacts on biodiversity. I present two studies examining the influences of topography on climatic heterogeneity and plant distributions at fine spatial scales, to evaluate the potential for species to persist in heterogeneous landscapes with limited dispersal. In the San Francisco Bay Area, summer and winter temperatures are inversely correlated in relation to distance from the coast. Vegetation types that are most responsive to summer temperature are projected to shift downhill and as a result they expand their potential range in lower elevation areas. Vegetation that is more sensitive to winter temperatures shifts uphill, leading to range restrictions as high elevations cover less area. On Table Mt (Cape Town, South Africa) topographic heterogeneity generates up to 3°C variation in minimum and maximum temperatures at a local scale, due to cold air pooling and solar insolation, respectively. For one high elevation fynbos species, this fine-scale variation provides a buffer of an additional 1°C rise in regional temperature before it goes extinct. The two studies together highlight the importance of enhanced spatial resolution in both climate and biodiversity modeling, and the potential importance of landscape heterogeneity for biodiversity conservation in the face of climate change.



Adams, Keenan, USFWS
The Land Ethic of African American Forest Landowners in South Carolina
African Americans account for a significant proportion of South Carolina's population but reportedly own a disproportionately smaller amount of land. Historically, African Americans in the rural South have held a close relationship to the land and the natural resources (e.g., farming, timber, wildlife). Unfortunately, many African American landowners have sold, lost, or otherwise been divested of the empowerment that natural resource management offers. Studies of Non-industrial Private Forest (NIPF) landowners in the US have been performed, but information regarding minority NIPF landowners is limited. We interviewed 14 NIPF forest landowners in South Carolina to qualify their experiences, values, and perceptions of the forest. Qualitative methods were employed using multiple disciplines to understand the essence and nature of their experiences. This study also includes formal and informal interviews with regional natural resource management professionals. The findings suggest that land is strongly associated with historical/cultural legacy and collective ownership. Furthermore, the landowners felt that they did not receive an adequate amount of technical, informational, or financial resources. Investigating African American NIPF landowners' experiences is critical in understanding their forest stewardship. Understanding perceptions of these NIPF landowners can provide insights that can yield improved forest management and meaningful stakeholder engagement.

Adams, Vanessa, Charles Darwin University
Estimating landholders' probability of participating in a stewardship program, and the implications for spatial conservation opportunities

The need to integrate social and economic factors into conservation planning has become a focus of academic discussions and has important practical implications for the implementation of conservation areas, both private and public. We conducted a survey in the Daly Catchment, Northern Territory, to inform the design and implementation of a stewardship payment program. We used a choice model to spatially predict landholders’ probability of participating in the stewardship program at the resolution of individual properties. We then incorporated these predictions into conservation planning software to examine the potential for the stewardship program to meet conservation objectives. We found a tension in our study region between planning for a cost-effective program and planning for a program that targets properties with the highest probability of participation. Underlying this tension was the tendency for properties that were least costly to be the least likely to participate. We present a generalized analysis of how correlations between management costs and probability of participation can affect the potential to achieve spatial conservation objectives. We conclude by discussing the implications of these results for conservation opportunity assessment.



Adams, Vanessa, Charles Darwin University
Estimating landholders' probability of participating in a stewardship program, and the implications for spatial conservation opportunities

The need to integrate social and economic factors into conservation planning has become a focus of academic discussions and has important practical implications for the implementation of conservation areas, both private and public. We conducted a survey in the Daly Catchment, Northern Territory, to inform the design and implementation of a stewardship payment program. We used a choice model to spatially predict landholders’ probability of participating in the stewardship program at the resolution of individual properties. We then incorporated these predictions into conservation planning software to examine the potential for the stewardship program to meet conservation objectives. We found a tension in our study region between planning for a cost-effective program and planning for a program that targets properties with the highest probability of participation. Underlying this tension was the tendency for properties that were least costly to be the least likely to participate. We present a generalized analysis of how correlations between management costs and probability of participation can affect the potential to achieve spatial conservation objectives. We conclude by discussing the implications of these results for conservation opportunity assessment.



Adams, Vanessa, Charles Darwin University
Planning for conservation and development: can a regional strategic plan link to on ground local actions?

We present a regional planning exercise currently being undertaken in the Daly river catchment, Northern Territory, Australia and the potential opportunities and barriers to implementation. Although the Daly catchment currently has relatively little clearing, there is interest in future development projects including intensifying agricultural and pastoral uses. Therefore, a concurrent development and conservation planning process is being undertaken to allow for objectives to be formulated and trade-offs to be considered explicitly. Both development and conservation of natural resources in the catchment will affect human wellbeing and the long-term provisioning of ecosystem services; therefore the engagement process with residents has focused on quantifying the importance of key factors to their wellbeing. The engagement process uniquely links these factors to spatial features in the catchment and we compare the factors identified as being most important to wellbeing and the plan priorities (objectives) set by the catchment management authority. We discuss how alignment the plan priorities to factors important to resident wellbeing might contribute to the overall acceptance of the plan. Lastly, we discuss the potential for the regional plan to be implemented both at a regional scale as well as linking to local actions.




Adhikari, Yagya, TUM; Anton Fischer, TUM
Conservation and sustainable utilization perspectives for epiphytic orchids in subtropical Himalayas

Anthropogenic disturbance is a major driver for biodiversity loss. This is especially true for subtropical and tropical forest ecosystems. Epiphytes in these forests fundamentally depend on host trees. We established a 1.5 km grid net including surrounding forest areas and analysed epiphytic orchids (EOs): 156 systematically distributed grid points, 10 trees per point as close as possible to the respective point in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Data from remote sensing were used for classification of land use types. We identified the main habitat requirements for the conservation of EOs and outlined keystones of a management approach for their protection. This approach is based from a literature review of existing knowledge and our own research on EOs. It is the first study to include all relevant types of habitat (from natural habitats to single tree habitats) transformation at a single study site and developed conservation perspectives. Keystones for sustainable conservation and utilisation of EOs are: i) the elements that should be protected, ii) the activities that should be carried out, and iii) the socio-economic background of conservation. While remnants of natural habitats are crucial for the conservation of EO communities, groups of native trees in urban settings can still serve as stepping stones. Finally, proposed keystones of a management concept for protection is essential for the long-term conservation of the high epiphytic diversity in Himalayas and elsewhere.



Agaldo, Jennifer, A .P. Leventis Ornithological Research Institute. University of Jos Nigeria
Plight of the Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee in Oban division Forest; a reflection of the state of one of Nigeria's most important Biodiversity hotspot

Little is known about the endangered/endemic Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee in Oban division forest of Cross River National Park. As Nigeria's most important remaining forest blocks, lack of recent research on the status of this forest and its species is ironical. This study aimed to provide data for informed conservation decisions for the protection and conservation of the Chimpanzee from local/global extinction as well as providing recent account on status of the biodiversity rich Oban forest. Guided-reconnaissance walks were used in a stratified random manner where all chimpanzee signs encountered were identified and noted. All signs of anthropogenic activities encountered were also recorded. Interaction with local communities around the area was also carried out aimed at assessing local perspective of the chimpanzees and the Oban Forest. This study confirmed the presence of chimpanzees at very low densities in the Oban forest as no chimpanzee was sighted except nest and calls heard. Hunting, logging and farming were also identified as the greatest of 13 threat identified to the chimpanzees and the forest. It demonstrates the need for urgent steps to eliminate anthropogenic activities which affect the chimpanzees as well as other species of conservation importance in the habitat. It provides data in line with a recent regional IUCN action plan to conserve the Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee.



Agapito, Melinda, Memorial University of Newfoundland; Rodolphe Devillers, Memorial University of Newfoundland; Evan Edinger, Memorial University of Newfoundland; Ratana Chuenpagdee, Memorial University of Newfoundland; Mariano Koen-Alonso, orthwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Decision realities: tradeoffs and 'hard' choices in GIS-based marine conservation planning

Marine conservation planning processes are often characterized by competing stakeholders' objectives where 'hard choices' and tradeoff decisions are inevitable. We implemented a decision-making framework, spatial tier framework (STF), where conservation goal and objectives are identified and delineated through spatially-explicit decision criteria. We then integrated a multicriteria decision-analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) that allows weighting of stakeholders' values on various decision criteria. We tested this approach in the Newfoundland and Labrador shelf bioregion, Canada, (~1.2x106 km2). We generated 25 spatially-explicit criteria obtained from various biological and human-use datasets such as scientific surveys for ground fish, habitat-forming invertebrates and seabirds, commercial fishing logbooks, transportation and oil and gas activities. Workshop participants generated weights and evaluated the approach. MCDA-OWA identified about 0.5% of the areas as 'easy choices' characterized by high biodiversity and low economic impacts. Inshore high biodiversity regions were prioritized only when fishing 'cost' was sacrificed. Priority areas became restricted towards the shelf edge when higher weights were applied to socio-economic objectives. Our approach, combining STF and OWA, can constrain 'hard' and 'easy' choices and tradeoff decisions using GIS-based decision criteria within an inclusive decision-making framework.



Aguirre, Alonso, George Mason University
Conservation Medicine: bridging the gaps to face transdisciplinary challenges and integrative research in ecological health

Conservation Medicine has emphasized the need to bridge disciplines, thereby linking human health, animal health, and ecosystem health under the paradigm that “health connects all species in the planet” with the urgent need to address the rapid deterioration of the world. The recent convergence of global problems including climate change, biodiversity loss, habitat fragmentation, globalization, and infectious disease emergence demanded integrative approaches breaching disciplinary boundaries. This integration requires commitment not only from government agencies, universities and other organizations but eventually will attempt to generate new international structures. Conservation Medicine needs to orient itself toward research that accounts for these global changes and contextualize it in terms of human development. The challenges faced today and how to overcome them at a pivotal time in the environmental history of humanity require true regionalization of ecological health. Perhaps most importantly, not only research needs expansion to all sciences but also needs to be truly geographically and culturally participatory. The strategies of Conservation Medicine include long-term monitoring, health assessment, and interventions to protect species, ecosystems and humans at risk. We are grappling with finding solutions for today’s most compelling challenges: conserving fragmented ecosystems, addressing threats to biodiversity from climate change, understanding emerging infectious diseases and ecosystem health. Consistent with this philosophy and goals, we need to strive to ensure lasting local conservation impacts with global health solutions with every project by training community leaders, volunteers and school children, in addition to professional, in-country experts. These groups comprise the next generation of planetary doctors.



Agyekumhene, Andrews, Wildlife Division (Forestry Commission); James Akwovia, Wildlife Division (Forestry Commission); Cynthia Okine, Forest Services Division (Forestry Commission)
Community participation in natural resource conservation: Success story from Muni-Pomadze Ramsar site, Ghana

Anthropogenic activities within the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar Site (MPRS) threaten wildlife species and their habitat. Ghana Wildlife Division uses law enforcement and conservation education programs conserve the resources. However, there has been an immediate need for programs that engage local communities to actively participate in protecting the natural resource. This work examines the impacts of some efforts on resource conservation at the MPRS. A site management committee (SMC) which is made up of staff of WD and selected opinion leaders from the community was established to help in decision making and implementation at the site. Resource protection volunteer groups were formed in the communities to protect the natural resources. Income-generating alternative livelihood activities were introduced. The establishment of a site management committee was helpful in enacting by-laws that protected the resources. Resource Protection Volunteer Groups in the communities has been helpful in reducing the degrading activities to the natural resources as the volunteers doubled as informants to give information to the WD. Introduction of income generating Alternate livelihood activities has reduced greatly the threats to the resources. Of all the programs introduced, alternative livelihood seems to be the most embraced program by the community members.



Ahmadia, Gabby N. , World Wildlife Fund


Share with your friends:
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   66




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page