after the Abbasid era came to power in the mid-8th
Their works on algebra and geometry were translated into Arabic, and their instruments for celestial observation were copied and improved by Arab astronomers.
3.) Arab thinkers in all fields began to use the numerals that Hindu scholars had devised centuries earlier
4.) Indian treatises on subjects ranging from medicine to music were translated and studied by Arab scholars.
5.) Indian works on statecraft, alchemy, and palmistry were also translated into Arabic.
6.) Adoption of Indian building styles and artistic motifs.
Q.)From Booty to Empire: The Second Wave of Muslim Invasions
1.) Disputes between the Arabs occupying Sind and their
quarrels with first the Umayyad and later the Abbasid
caliphs gradually weakened the Muslim hold on the area.
2.) A later Turkish slave dynasty invasion in 962 seized power
in Afghanistan to the north of the Indus valley.
3.) One of the most successful raids was led by the third
dynasty ruler Mahmud of Ghazni.
4.) Muhammad of Ghur led raids into central India.
a.) Muslim capital became Delhi
b.) Rulers were the Sultans of Delhi (Princes of the
R.) Patterns of Conversion
1.) The main carriers of the new faith often were merchants,
who played a growing role in both coastal and inland
trade, but were most especially Sufi mystics.
Beliefs in their magical and healing powers enhanced the Sufis’ stature and increased their following
Their mosques and schools often became centers of regional political power.
Sufis organized their devotees in militias to fend off bandits or rival princes, oversaw the clearing of forests for farming and settlement, and welcomed low-caste and outcaste Hindu groups into Islam.
2.) Most Indians who converted to Islam were from Buddhist or low-caste groups
a.) Buddhist probably made-up the majority of Indians
who converted to Islam.
Untouchables and low caste Hindus, as well as animistic tribal peoples, were also attracted to the more egalitarian social arrangements promoted by the new faith.
S.) Patterns of Accommodation
1.) Many Hindus were willing to take positions as administrators in the bureaucracies of Muslim overlords or as soldiers in their armies and to trade with Muslim Merchants.
a.) They remained socially aloof from their conquerors.
b.) Muslim communities became socially divided along
T.) Islamic Challenge and Hindu Revival
1.)To offset the Islamic challenge Hindus opened membership
into the Bhaktic Cults to all (they had been reserved to
certain caste before).
2.) Kabir (a Muslim weaver) played down the significance of
religious differences and proclaimed that all could
provide a path to spiritual fulfillment.
3.) Bhakti mystics and gurus stressed the importance of a
strong emotional bond between the devotee and the god
and goddess who was the object of veneration.
U.) Stand-Off: The Muslim Presence in India at the End of the Sultanate Period
1.) The Brahmans denounced the Muslims as infidel destroyers
of Hindu temples and polluted meat-eaters.
2.) Later Hindu mystics, such as the 15th century holy man
Chaittanya, composed songs that focused on love for
Hindu deities and set out to convince Indian Muslims to
renounce Islam in favor of Hinduism.
3.) South Asia remained one of the least converted and
integrated of all the areas Muhammad’s message had
1.) From the 8th century onward, the coastal trade of India
came increasingly to be controlled by Muslims from such
regions as Gujarat in western India and various parts of
south India. As a result, elements of Islamic culture
began to filter into island southeast Asia.
2.) Widespread introduction of Islam comes about in 13th
century after the collapse of the Shrivijaya Empire
W.) Trading Contacts and Conversion
1.) As in most of the areas to which Islam spread, peaceful
contacts and voluntary conversion were far more
important than conquest and force in spreading the faith
in Southeast Asia.
The first areas to be won to Islam in the late 13th century were several small part centers on the northern coast of Sumatra.
On the mainland, the key to widespread conversion was the powerful trading city of Malacca, whose smaller trading empire had replaced the fallen Shrivijaya.
The progress of Islamic conversion shows that port cities in coastal areas were particularly receptive to the new faith.
Once one of the key cities in a trading cluster converted, it was in the best interest of others to follow suit to enhance personal ties and provide a common basis in Muslim law to regulate business deals.
Conversion to Islam also linked these centers, culturally as well as economically, to the merchants and parts of India, the Middle East, and the Med.
X.) Sufi Mystics and the Nature of Southeast Asian Islam
1.) In winning converts, the Sufis were willing to allow the
inhabitants of island southeast Asia to retain pre-Islamic
beliefs and practices that orthodox scholars would have
found contrary to Islamic doctrine.
Pr-Islamic customary law remained important in regulating social interaction, whereas Islamic law was confined to specific sorts of agreements and exchanges
Women retained a much stronger position, both within the family and in society, than they had in the Middle East and India.
2.) Pre-Muslim religious beliefs and rituals were incorporated
into Muslim ceremonies.
Y.) Global Connections: Islam: A Bridge Between Worlds
1.) Its role as the go between for the more ancient civilizations
of the Eastern Hemisphere grew as Arab trading
networks expanded into new areas.
It enriched the lives of nomadic peoples
Islam’s original contributions to the growth and refinement of civilized life greatly increased
Islam pioneered patterns of organization and thinking that would affect the development of human societies in major ways for centuries to come.
2.) Muslim divisions would leave openings for political
expansion that the Europeans would eagerly exploit,
beginning with the island Southeast Asian extremities of
the Islamic world and the moving across North India.