Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers

: 487-487. Bulpett, C. (2002). "Regimes of Exclusion." European Urban and Regional Studies 9

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43: 487-487.

Bulpett, C. (2002). "Regimes of Exclusion." European Urban and Regional Studies 9(2): 137-149.

The concept of welfare regimes has a long pedigree inspired by the work of Gosta Esping-Andersen. This article seeks to examine the exclusionary effects of contrasting systems of welfare as manifested within two of Esping-Andersen's regime categories, the conservative regime of Germany and the liberal regime of the UK. Using a case-study approach, empirical research has centred on social housing provision in the northern German city of Hamburg and the southern English city of Southampton. These case-studies demonstrate how different regimes produce different variants of social policy despite very similar objectives. The resulting manifestations of exclusion reflect the ideology of the underlying systems as Esping-Andersen's categories have indicated. The aim of this paper is therefore to examine the manifestations of exclusion as operationalized by contrasting welfare regimes. These exclusionary tendencies are placed within the ideological discourse of citizenship as currently illustrated by the contrasting states, while the continuing relevance of Esping-Andersen's regime categories are reexamined.
Bunin, G. R., M. E. Gyllstrom, et al. (2001). "Recall of diet during a past pregnancy." 154(12): 1136-1142.

The authors conducted a study of women's ability to recall diet during a past pregnancy. For a prospective study, women, completed self-administered food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) before and during pregnancy (1989-1992),. These women, mostly White and; well-educated, were contacted 3-7 years later (1996-1997) for a retrospective dietary assessment performed: by either telephone interview (n = 154) or self-administered FFQ (n = 115). Energy-adjusted Pearson correlations ranged from 0.10 to 0.49 for the telephone interview group and from 0.02 to 0.67 for the self-administered questionnaire group. When participants' intakes were ranked, quintile agreement (within one quintile) between original diet and recalled diet ranged from 60% to 69% in the telephone interview group and from 69% to 79% in the self-administered questionnaire group. Correlations and percentages of agreement were higher among women who used the same questionnaire for both dietary assessments than among those who used different questionnaires. These results suggest that diet during pregnancy is recalled with similar accuracy as or perhaps slightly lower accuracy than adult diet generally. This may reflect, in part, the influence of current (nonpregnancy) diet on recall of past (pregnancy) diet. While the results of this study may not, be generalizable to those obtained from other populations, to the authors' knowledge it is the first study of recall, of diet during pregnancy.

Burgess, A., S. Ruxton, et al. (1996). Men and their children : proposals for public policy. London, Institute for Public Policy Research.

Burnett (1979). Plenty of want, a social history of diet in England from 1815 to the present day. London, Scolar Press.

Burns, M. (2003). "Interviewing: embodied communication." Feminism & Psychology 13(2): 229-236.

Burrows, A., S. Johnson, et al. (2004). ""Does my bump look big in this?" The meaning of bodily changes for first-time mothers-to-be." Journal of Health Psychology 9(3): 361-374.

Research on the impact of bodily changes during the transition to motherhood is contradictory. The aim of the study reported here was to provide more useful insights by employing an inductive qualitative approach. Interviews with six women in the latter stages of pregnancy were analysed drawing upon aspects of interpretative phenomenological analysis and Foucauldian discourse analysis. These analyses suggest generally negative consequence, and discursive constructions that have a greater potential to be limiting than empowering. The impact of gender ideologies on women's ways of being while pregnant is highlighted, as is the importance of developing alternative representations of the female, and the pregnant body, which do not pathologize women. (Original abstract)
Burrus, V. (2000). Begotten, not made : conceiving manhood in late antiquity. Stanford, Calif. ; Cambridge, Stanford University Press : Cambridge University Press.

Buttriss, J., S. Stanner, et al. (2004). "Successful ways to modify food choice: lessons from the literature." Nutrition Bulletin 29(4): 333-43.

Effecting positive dietary change is one of the major health challenges facing the government and health professionals and is likely to be influenced by an understanding of the factors that shape food choice. On behalf of the Food Standards Agency, the British Nutrition Foundation recently completed an in-depth, critical review of the factors that influence food choice, attempting to identify effective mechanisms and highlight existing gaps in the evidence base. This article provides a summary of the findings and recommendations of that review.
Byng-Hall, J. (2002). "Relieving parentified children's burdens in families with insecure attachment patterns." Family Process 41(3): 375-388.

In this article, I will explore how parentfication, in which children take on parental roles, develops within the context of insecure attachments. I argue that parentification is more prevalent than is generally supposed. Adaptive parentfication is differentiated from destructive parentification, which is associated with a range of childhood problems. In this article, attachment theory is placed within a family systems framework and family concepts are described, such as a secure family base and family scripts, which can help to understand parentification. The ways in which two attachment relationships-insecure/ambivalent and insecure/controlling- contribute to parentification processes are delineated. Transgenerational patterns are discussed. Family therapy can provide a preventive intervention aimed at reducing current parentification and interrupting transgenerational transmission. A central aim is to reduce the need for a parent to turn to a child for care. To this end, work can be done to resolve conflicts between parents' thus freeing them to provide sufficient mutual support to each other. Children need to be detriangulated from the parental relationship. Working with transgenerational patterns, including work with grandparents, is recommended. Therapy with a family with a preschool child illustrates these issues as well as the prevention of the establishment of destructive parentification

Callen, J. and J. Pinelli (2004). "Incidence and duration of breastfeeding for term infants in Canada, United States, Europe, and Australia: A literature review." Birth-Issues in Perinatal Care 31(4): 285-292.

Campbell, H. and I. Jones (1996). "Promoting breastfeeding: A view of the current position and a proposed agenda for action in Scotland." 18(4): 406-414.

The prevalence of breastfeeding in Scotland is the second lowest in Europe. There is good evidence that breastfeeding results in decreased gastrointestinal, and to a lesser extent respiratory infections, in the first year of life, and reduced serious infections in low-birthweight babies. Published evidence for the effectiveness of interventions which seek to promote successful breastfeeding within populations is scanty and of poor quality, although numerous studies have highlighted hospital practices which discourage and undermine breastfeeding. Changing these poor practices has been shown to be achievable and can lead to improved breastfeeding rates. Experience in other industrialized countries such as Canada, Australia and Norway has shown that substantial increases in breastfeeding are achievable through combined government and health service action over a period of one or two decades. We recommend a combination of government and health service action to promote breastfeeding in Scotland including: implementation of the international Code on Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes: reviews of health professional basic and in-service training in breastfeeding management, maternity leave and allowances, and workplace facilities for breastfeeding mothers; promotion of the 'Baby Friendly Initiative'; development of community support for breastfeeding mothers; routine collection of breastfeeding data to support annual monitoring of breastfeeding rates: and support for research on the effectiveness of strategies which seek to promote breastfeeding.
Campbell, K. R. M., David Crawford PhD, Michelle Jackson PhD, Karen Cashel RD MPH, Anthony Worsley PhD, Kay Gibbons RD and Leann L Birch PhD (2002). "Family food environments of 5-6-year-old-children: Does socioeconomic status make a difference?" Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11(Supplement): 553.

The environment in which a child learns to eat is complex and differs across SES. This study highlights a number of differences in aspects of a child's family food environment that are likely to impact on a child's dietary patterns and thus risk for nutrition related disease. Consideration of the opportunities for the modelling of healthy eating, the use of takeaway meals, and the differences in reported food availability, affordability and quality, provide important examples of areas that need to be considered in the design of nutrition promotion strategies targeting families and their children.

Campbell, M. W. C., J. Williams, et al. (2006). "Maternal concern and perceptions of overweight in Australian preschool-aged children." Medical Journal of Australia 184(6): 274-277.

Objective: To assess maternal concern about overweight in Australian preschool-aged children and factors predicting maternal concern about children's current and future weight status. Design: Cross-sectional survey of child's body mass index and parent questionnaire. Setting: Metropolitan Melbourne, Victoria, 2002. Participants: A community-based cohort of 324 4-year-old children and their parents. Main outcome measures: Mothers' reports of concern about the child's current and future weight status, and perceptions of the child's weight, diet and activity relative to their peers were compared with the child's measured weight status, and parent and child characteristics. Results: The prevalence of overweight orobesity was 19%, but only 5% of mothers indicated concern about their child being currently overweight, while 16% worried their child would become overweight. Over 70% of mothers of overweight children saw them as being of similar weight to their peers. Most mothers saw their children as being equally or more active than other children and having a diet at least as healthy as their peers. Overweight daughters were more likely to elicit maternal concern about current weight than overweight sons (relative risk, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.1-19.8). Mothers were more likely to worry about their child's potential for future overweight if they or the child's father were overweight. Conclusions: Despite mounting public concern about childhood obesity in Australia, most mothers surveyed were not concerned about their child's weight, and many mothers did not perceive their overweight children as different from their peers. This may have implications for interventions that rely on acknowledgement of child overweight as a first step to change.

Cantrill, R. M., D. K. Creedy, et al. (2003). "An Australian study of midwives' breast-feeding knowledge." Midwifery 19(4): 310-317.

Caplan, P. (1997). Food, health and identity. London ; New York, Routledge.

Caplan, P., Ed. (1997). Food, Health and Identity London, Routledge.

Caplan, P., A. Keane, et al. (1998). Studying food choice in its social and cultural contexts: approaches from a social anthropological perspective. The Nation's Diet. The Social Science of Food Choice. A. Murcott. Essex, Pearson Education: 168-182.

Caraher, M., Dixon, P., Lang, T. & Carr-Hill, R. (1999). "The state of cooking in England: the relationship of cooking to food choice.'" British Food Journal 101(8): 590 - 609.

Caraher, M., P. Dixon, et al. (1999). "The state of cooking in England: the relationship of cooking skills to food choice." British Food Journal 101(8): 590-609.

Carbonell, X., F. Botet, et al. (1998). "The incidence of breastfeeding in our environment." 26(4): 320-324.

Aims: To establish the incidence of breastfeeding and its persistence after three and six months; to identify the factors which might modify attitudes towards breastfeeding. Methods: An interview, administered to mothers of term born infants of adequate weight for gestational age, after a delivery of one sole foetus, between 1st March and 31st May 1997. Mothers were asked about: previous pregnancies, children and type of feeding; during this pregnancy, their intentions regarding feeding; supervision of pregnancy, and the information received regarding breastfeeding; their work situation, and educational level. Questions regarding the neonatal period referred to the kind of lactation initiated, information received, and the use of a pacifier and supplements. A two-part poll was conducted by telephone after 3 months and after 6 months, enquiring about what kind of feeding was used, the reason for change (if any), who had provided information regarding the change, degree of satisfaction, and work situation. Three hundred and twenty-nine polls were completed, accounting for 70% of the births. Results: During pregnancy 91% of mothers had intended to breastfeed, and this Figure was maintained at birth. A trend towards breastfeeding was observed: 74% of those who had fed earlier children artificially started breastfeeding this time, compared with 7% of mothers who changed from breastfeeding to artificial feeding. After three months, 57% of mothers continued to breastfeed their child, and 24% after six months. High educational level exerted a positive influence on the duration of breastfeeding (OR = 1.7; p = 0.03) and the giving of supplements had a negative effect (OR = 0.4; p = 0.04). The fact that mothers work outside the home did not modify the duration of breastfeeding. Conclusions: The rate of breastfeeding is high (91%). Among mothers with previous children, there is a greater trend to change from artificial feeding to breastfeeding (74% vs 7%; p < 0.002). The mother's educational level is the most important positive factor, and the early giving of supplements the most important negative factor.

Carfoot, S., P. Williamson, et al. (2005). "A randomised controlled trial in the north of England examining the effects of skin-to-skin care on breast feeding." Midwifery 21(1): 71-79.

Carnell, S., C. Edwards, et al. (X2005). "Parental perceptions of overweight in 3-5 y olds." International Journal of Obesity. Vol. 29(4): 353-355.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of parents' perceptions of their 3 to 5 y old children's weight status in a large UK sample. METHOD: Parental perception and concern about child weight, demographic variables, and children's height and weight were obtained for 564 parent-child dyads. RESULTS: Only 1.9% of parents of overweight children and 17.1% of parents of obese children described their child as overweight. The odds of parents perceiving the child as overweight were increased for overweight (2.7; 95% CI 0.4, 16.5) and obese (28.5; 7.1, 115.4) compared with normal weight children, but were not associated with parental weight or with any demographic factors. Although few parents perceived their overweight children as overweight, more (66.2%) expressed concern about their overweight child becoming overweight in the future. Odds of concern were progressively higher for overweight (2.5; 1.6, 3.9) and obese children (4.6; 2.2, 9.7), and were also higher for parents who were themselves overweight (1.9; 1.2, 2.9) or obese (2.5; 1.3, 4.8). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that parents of 3-5 y olds show poor awareness of their child's current weight status. Reframing discussions in terms of preventing future overweight may be an effective way to engage parents. copyright 2005 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.
Carr, J. (1983). UK market for women's monthly magazines, Centre for Business Research.

Carruth, B. R., J. Skinner, et al. (1998). "The phenomenon of "picky eater": A behavioral marker in eating patterns of toddlers." 17(2): 180-186.

Objective: To determine if toddlers who were considered "picky eaters" had lower dietary scores than non-picky eaters, and if family environment and socioeconomic status were significantly related to picky eater status and dietary scores. Methods: An incomplete block design provided two interviews at randomly assigned times (24, 28, 32, or 36 months) of Caucasian mothers from upper socioeconomic (n = 74) and lower socioeconomic status (n = 44). Using trained interviewers, 6 days of food intake, two administrations of a questionnaire about toddler's eating behavior, and one administration of the Family Environment Scales were collected in the home. MANOVA, discriminant function analysis, and logistic regression procedures were used to determine significant differences between picky and non-picky eater groups. Results: Picky eaters had lower dietary variety (p = .03) and diversity scores (p = .009) than non-picky eaters. Mothers of picky eaters compared to those of non-picky eaters used persuasion (p = .0001) and ranked their child's eating behaviors as more problematic (p = .0001). Conclusion: Toddlers perceived by their mothers as picky eaters had significantly lower dietary variety and diversity scores. Parents need information and strategies to increase the number of foods acceptable to their toddlers and to develop a sound feeding plan.
Carruth, B. R. and J. D. Skinner (2000). "Revisiting the picky eater phenomenon: Neophobic behaviors of young children." 19(6): 771-780.

Objectives: To compare picky eater behaviors (food neophobia) elf children as toddlers and at 42 to 84 months of age and to assess their mothers' neophobic behaviors. Methods: In a follow-up study of toddlers' picky eater behaviors, trained interviewers conducted four in-home interviews with mothers (n = 71) when their children were 42, 60, 72 and 84 months of age. Mothers reported children's diets (1 weekend day and 2 week days, 12 days total) and their behaviors; weight and height were measured. An additional interview at 48 months involved only mothers' behaviors. Nutritionist IV software, correlations, t tests and repeated measures ANOVA were used to determine nutrient intake, behavioral relationships and differences by picky eater status. Mothers' descriptions of the children's food neophobia and bothersome behaviors were analyzed by qualitative methods. Results: Mothers reported children's neophobic behaviors at all ages. Mothers' and children's behaviors were significantly and consistently correlated for number of attempts before deciding an unfamiliar food was disliked (p < 0.01) and trying unfamiliar foods away from home (p < 0.01). Other behavioral associations were significantly related for some ages but not for all the children's ages. There were no significant differences by picky eater status for nutrient intake or height and weight at any age. Mothers most frequently attempted unfamiliar entrees away from home because of social setting/relationships. About 20% of mothers attempted unfamiliar foods or new recipes just because they were different. Conclusions: Findings suggest that some neophobic behaviors of children did not improve with maturity. Mothers' perceptions about their children's picky eater status were inconsistent over time.

Carruth, B. R. and J. D. Skinner (2001). "Mothers' sources of information about feeding their children ages 2 months to 54 months." 33(3): 143-147.

The purpose of this study was to determine sources and types of information about child feeding practices that were received by 62 mothers with children aged 1 to 54 mont hs. Each mother participated in 10 or 11 in-home interviews. Data analysts included chi-square testing for differences in information sources over time and content analyses to develop information themes. As sources, citations for professionals and magazines decreased, with no significant charters for relatives over time. After 24 months. newspapers, television. and friends were reported more frequently than earlier. Mothers reported multiple and concurrent information sources over time. Thus, nutrition educators have concurrent and multiple opportunities to disseminate nutrition information.

Carruth, B. R. and J. D. Skinner (2002). "Feeding Behaviors and other motor development in healthy children (2-24 months)." 21(2): 88-96.

Objectives: To monitor infant's gross, fine and oral motor development patterns related to feeding. Design: An incomplete block design was used with 57 to 60 (sample = 98) mothers interviewed when their children were 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 24 months (within +/- 5 days of birth date). Each mother had 5 to 6 interviews. Setting: Selected developmental feeding behaviors were monitored using in-home interviews conducted by trained interviewers (n = 2). At each interview, mothers reported the child's age when behaviors first occurred, and anthropometric measurements were performed. Subjects: Subjects were healthy white children who lived mostly in homes with educated two-parent families of upper socioeconomic status. Results: Mean behavioral ages were within normal ranges reported in the literature, whereas individuals exhibited a wide diversity in reported ages. Examples of gross motor skills (age in months, +/- SD) included sitting without help (5.50 +/- 2.08) and crawling (8.00 +/- 1.55). Mean ages for self-feeding fine motor skills showed children reaching for a spoon when hungry (5.47 +/- 1.44), using fingers to rake food toward self (8.87 +/- 2.58) and using fingers to self-feed soft foods ( 13.52 +/- 2.83). Oral behaviors included children opening their mouth when food approached (4.46 +/- 1.37), eating food with tiny lumps (8.70 +/- 2.03) and chewing and swallowing firmer foods without choking (12.17 +/- 2.29). Conclusions: Mean ages for feeding behaviors occurred within expected age ranges associated with normal development. However, mothers reported that individual children exhibited a wide age range for achieving these behaviors. Our results should be considered in counseling mothers about infant feeding practices.

Carruth, B. R., P. J. Ziegler, et al. (2004). "Prevalence of picky eaters among,Infants and toddlers and their caregivers' decisions about offering a new food." 104(1): S57-S64.

Objectives To determine the prevalence of infants and toddlers who were considered picky eaters, the predictors of picky eater status and its association with energy and nutrient intakes, food group use, and the number, of times that caregivers offered a new food before deciding their child disliked it. Design Cross-sectional survey of households with infants and toddlers (ages four to 24 months) was conducted. Subjects/Setting National random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers. Methods Data included caregiver's socioeconomic and demographic information, infants' and toddlers' food intake (24-hour recall), ethnicity, and caregivers' reports of specified times that new foods were offered before deciding the child disliked it. Statistical Analyses For picky and nonpicky eaters, t tests were used to determine significant mean differences in energy and nutrient intakes. Logistic regression was used to predict picky eater status, and chi(2) tests were used for differences in the specified number of times that new foods were offered. Results The percentage of children identified as picky eaters by their caregivers increased from 19% to 50% from four to 24 months. Picky eaters were reported at all ages for both sexes, all ethnicities, and all ranges of household incomes. On a day, both picky and nonpicky eaters met or exceeded current age-appropriate energy and dietary recommendations. Older children were more likely to be picky. Those in the higher weight-for-age percentiles were less likely to be picky. The highest number of times that caregivers offered a new food before deciding the child disliked it was three to five. Applications/Conclusions Dietetics professionals need to be aware that caregivers who perceive their child as a picky eater are evident across gender, ethnicity, and household incomes. When offering a new food, mothers need to provide many more repeated exposures (eg, eight to 15 times) to enhance acceptance of that food than they currently do.

Carvel, J. (2006, 22 April 2006). "Child obesity has doubled in a decade." The Guardian Retrieved 25 April 2006, 2006, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/food/Story/0,,1758945,00.html.

Cathro, J. (1991). Men: Food for Thought? The male influence on shopping and food choice. Leatherhead, Information Group Services (Market Intelligence Section).

Chabrol, H., V. Walburg, et al. (2004). "Influence of mother's perceptions on the choice to breastfeed or bottle-feed: perceptions and feeding choice."

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