Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers

(1): 102-112. Wittgrove, A. C., L. Jester, et al. (1998). "Pregnancy following gastric bypass for morbid obesity." 8

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32(1): 102-112.

Wittgrove, A. C., L. Jester, et al. (1998). "Pregnancy following gastric bypass for morbid obesity." 8(4): 461-464.

Background: Women who suffer from morbid obesity are often infertile. If these women are able to become pregnant, they are considered high risk because of the hypertension, diabetes and other associated risk factors. Following the pregnancy is difficult due to limitations of the physical examinations. More costly ultrasound examinations are needed at a higher frequency. Bariatric surgery reduces the woman's weight and the incidence of obesity related co-morbidities. The number of pregnancies and rate of complications during those pregnancies in our post-bariatirc surgical patients were evaluated. Method: Our group has been doing bariatric surgery since the early 1980s. We have over 2000 active patients on our current newsletter mailing list. The patients also have a series of networks through support groups. The patients are informed to contact us when they become pregnant so we may assist the obstetrician with their care. Through these various means, we have been able to identify 41 women in our patient population who have became pregnant. Using personal interview, questionnaire, and review of perinatal records, pregnancy-related risks and complications were studied. Results: With over a 95% follow-up rate on the patients identified as having been pregnant following surgery, we found less risk of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, and cesarean section than associated with obesity. There were no patients with clinically significant anemia. Conclusion: Since the patients had an operation that restricts their food intake, some basic precautions should be taken when they become pregnant. With this in mind, our patients have done well with their pregnancies. The post-surgical group had fewer pregnancy-related complications than did an internally controlled group that were morbidly obese during their previous pregnancies. (C) 1998 Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
Witz, A. M., BL (2003). "The quality of manhood: masculinity and embodiment in the sociological tradition." SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW 51(3): 339-356.

This paper argues for the need to revisit classical sociological texts with a view to excavating the masculinity that inheres in these texts and saturates the concept of the social. Primarily through an examination of Durkheim and Simmel, it explores the strategies whereby masculine individuals could be released from corporeality and granted the sort of embodiment that allowed them to transcend their particularity and become social agents. It is argued that male embodiment is deeply sedimented in the sociological imaginary as the very condition of social action and the constituent of social agency. Thinking through the conceptual lenses of corporeality, embodiment and agency exposes some of the ways in which the analytical scaffolding of 'the social' rests on a deeply gendered ontological foundation. While the sociological tradition may indeed have continued salience for contemporary sociologies of the body, a relatively unreflexive recuperation of these texts is problematic. This paper challenges those who seek to rehabilitate the classics in the service of an embodied sociology to produce a much fuller accounting of the truncated corporeal terrain upon which classical sociology developed, and one which explicitly recognizes its gender.

Wolke, D. (2000). "Feeding problems of infants and toddlers." 10(2): 76-87.

Background: Eating is a primary biological need. Feeding is of great importance for the development and consolidation of the social relationship between infant and the primary caretaker. A minority of children and their parents, however, have distressing experiences around feeding and eating that can lead to long-term problems in the parent-child relationship and the child's health. Objective: To provide a review of the prevalence, etiological factors and consequences of feeding problems, and to describe a behavioral approach to the treatment of feeding problems. Method: Literature review. Results: Major feeding problems in infancy are refusal to eat any food or solid food, very selective eating, lack of appetite and failure to thrive with feeding problems. The prevalence of severe feeding problems has been estimated to be around 6-10%, and of failure to thrive to be between 3 and 4% in the general infant population. Feeding problems often lead to impaired growth and as a consequence have been found to affect the cognitive, behavioral and social development of children. Disturbances of mother-infant interaction, both as an etiological factor and as a secondary problem, are often found. A developmental task-orientated biological-behavioral model of the etiology of feeding problems is introduced and an approach to treating food refusal and failure to thrive is described. Behavior modification techniques, modified for the treatment of feeding problems, are introduced. A multi-disciplinary behavioral treatment approach to feeding problems has been reported in case series to be highly successful for treating feeding problems. Conclusions: Feeding problems are frequent and, if untreated, can have adverse consequences on the child's development. There is evidence for the effectiveness of a multi-disciplinary behaviorally and developmentally orientated treatment approach in small case series. However, sufficiently large randomized controlled trials of the effectiveness of behavioral treatment approaches in clinical practice are lacking.

Wood, B. L. (2002). "Attachment and family systems - Introduction." Family Process 41(3): 284-284.

Woodward, K. (1994). Discourses of motherhood in women's magazines in contemporary Britain, Sheffield Hallam University.

Woolcock, M. (1998). "Social capital and economic development: Towards a theoretical perspective and policy framework,." Theory Society 27 27: 151-208.

Worobey, J. (1992). "Development Milestones Related to Feeding Status - Evidence from the Child Health Supplement to the 1981 National-Health Interview Survey." 5(6): 363-369.

This study examines maternal reports of the health and attainment of developmental milestones for 1374 breast-fed v. 1414 formula-fed infants. Data were drawn from the 1981 Child Health Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS-CHS), a nationally representative sample of some 40000 households in the United States of America. The results showed smiling to be reported earlier for the infants of breast-feeding mothers. Formula-feeding mothers were quicker to introduce their infants to solid foods, and also reported earlier success in toilet-training their infants than did breast-feeding mothers. Ratings of physical health were comparatively better for the breast-fed than for the bottle-fed infants. Although partially accounted for by duration of breast-feeding, demographic factors of low family income and maternal education predicted poorer infant health. These findings suggest that feeding method may modestly influence infant social development and physical well being.
Wright, A., S. Rice, et al. (1996). "Changing hospital practices to increase the duration of breastfeeding." 97(5): 669-675.

Objective. To change the breastfeeding policy in a university teaching hospital in accord with the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding of the United Nations Children's Fund and World Health Organization and to assess the impact of hospital practices on the duration of breastfeeding. Methods. One hundred ninety-two and 392 postpartum women in a maternity ward were interviewed in 1990 and 1993, respectively, regarding how they were feeding their infants and feeding practices in the hospital. Between these two periods, the hospital infant-feeding policy was reviewed and revised in accord with the Ten Steps. Two hundred seventy of the mothers interviewed in 1993 were interviewed again when their infants were 4 months old regarding the duration of full and partial breastfeeding. Results. By 1993, more newborns were put to the breast in the first hour of life (63.2% vs 24.8%); fewer breastfed infants were fed foods other than breast milk (27.9% vs 46.7%); and more mothers received breastfeeding guidance from hospital staff (81.9% vs 61.3%). The duration of breastfeeding in 1993 was longer for women who did not receive formula in the hospital, who were not given discharge packs containing formula and/or coupons, and who roomed-in more than 60% of the time. These associations persisted after controlling for confounding. Conclusion. Infant-feeding policies and practices are amenable to change, and policies such as the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative may contribute to an increase in the duration of breastfeeding.

Wrigley, N. (1998). How British retailers have shaped food choice. The Nation's Diet. The Social Science of Food Choice. A. Murcott. Essex, Pearson Education: 112-128.

Yang, F.-C. I. (2004). "International Women's Magazines and the Production of Sexuality in Taiwan." Journal of Popular Culture 37(3): 505-530.

Discusses how women's magazines in Taiwan promote a version of feminism that perpetuates global capitalism. The author begins by explaining the rise in such periodicals as situated within Taiwan's political and economic globalization. The article then describes how the magazines, supported by international advertising agencies, use an "international" language of sexual pleasure to construct feminine empowerment as consumption.
Yeo, E. A., L. Bequet, et al. (2005). "Attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding and other infant feeding options - A study from Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire." 51(4): 223-226.

The HIV/AIDS-pandemic causes many problems for the most affected societies and their health care systems. One of these is the 'parent to child transmission' (PTCT) through breastmilk and its prevention (PPTCT). As economic and hygienic conditions do not always assure safe replacement feeding in developing countries, a WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF-expert panel proposed methods to reduce the risk of PTCT but to use breastmilk for infant feeding. The study presented here aimed at identifying the expected acceptance of such a concept by addressing the attitudes of women in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Interviews were performed with 150 mothers and 60 pregnant women. The vast majority regarded breastfeeding as the appropriate method of infant feeding, although the idea of exclusive breastfeeding was not well accepted. Water, especially, was felt to be a necessary supplement. In case of a suggested HIV-infection of the mother, 74 per cent of the women voted for weaning after 3 months. Eighty-three per cent accepted the exclusive use of breastmilk substitutes from birth. Seventy-six per cent were ready to boil their milk for pasteurization. Only 37 per cent considered a wet-nurse to breastfeed their child. As mixed breastfeeding implies a highest risk of PTCT of HIV, the most favoured option-exclusive breastfeeding and early weaning-requires some effort to convince women that breastmilk is a sufficient source of nutrients, fluid and energy for their child and that this feeding should preferably be practised up to 6 months of age. For affluent women, breastmilk substitutes can also be considered as a means of PPTCT in overall resource-poor countries. For the majority of women, there is no real alternative to breastfeeding and to the use of breastmilk for which appropriate technologies of PPTCT are to be developed with respect to national, local and household specifications.

Yip, K.-s. (2000). "The community care movement in mental health services: Implications for social work practice." International Social Work 43(1): 33-48.

This article is a critical review about the community care movement in mental health services in the UK and the USA. This movement has important implications for psychiatric social work practice. First, social workers have to enrich the concept of community care with those of normalization and social integration. Second, they have to develop an accepting community for mental patients and outpatients. Finally, they are the most suitable people to integrate formal and informal community care.

Young, I., F. A. de Boer, et al. (2005). "Healthy Eating at School: a European forum." Nutrition Bulletin 30(1): 85-93.

Young-Hyman, D., L. J. Herman, et al. (2000). "Care giver perception of children's obesity-related health risk: a study of African American families." Obesity Research 8: 241-248.

Yovsi, R. D. and H. Keller (2003). "Breastfeeding: An adaptive process." 31(2): 147-171.

Breastfeeding is not only a natural way of feeding children but also a parenting system that is practiced differently in diverse cultures depending on the ecological conditions and cultural values. In this study, videotapes of breastfeeding sessions and interviews with breastfeeding mothers of two ethnic groups of rural Cameroon, sedentary Nso farmers (n = 33) and nomadic Fulani pastorals (n = 18), were analyzed. The primary socialization goal of the two groups is the health and survival of the child in a hazardous. environment. Yet their ideas about self-construct differ, with the Nso following a more interdependent developmental pathway and the Fulani following a more individualistic pathway. The results are discussed with respect to their relevance in defining a culturally informed developmental science, as well as developing intervention programs that are tailored to the needs of people in varying contexts.

Zeldis, J. B., B. A. Williams, et al. (1999). "STEPS (TM): A comprehensive program for controlling and monitoring access to thalidomide." 21(2): 319-330.

In July 1998, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the marketing of thalidomide for the treatment of cutaneous manifestations of erythema nodosum leprosum. To ensure that fetal exposure to this teratogenic agent does not occur, the manufacturer has instituted a comprehensive program to control prescribing, dispensing, and use of the drug. This program, known as the System for Thalidomide Education and Prescribing Safety (S.T.E.P.S.(TM) [Celgene Corporation, Warren, New Jersey]), is based in part on experience gained with other drugs-specifically isotretinoin and clozapine-that offer important clinical benefits but carry the potential for serious harm. To achieve its goal of the lowest possible incidence of drug-associated teratogenicity, the S.T.E.P.S.(TM) program uses a three-pronged approach: (1) controlling access to the drug; (2) educating prescribers, pharmacists, and patients; and (3) monitoring compliance. Clinicians who wish to prescribe thalidomide must be registered in the S.T.E.P.S.(TM) Prescriber Registry and agree to prescribe the drug in accordance with S.T.E.P.S.(TM) patient eligibility criteria and monitoring procedures. Pharmacies must also register and agree to comply with patient identification and monitoring criteria. Finally, patients receive visual aids, including a videotape, written material, and verbal counseling about the benefits and risks of thalidomide therapy, the importance of not becoming pregnant during therapy, and the types of contraception required (including emergency contraception) and their availability. Women of childbearing potential must agree to undergo pregnancy testing before starting therapy and on a regular schedule during therapy. All patients must agree to complete a confidential survey about their compliance with contraception, testing, and drug therapy. The manufacturer is monitoring survey results and outcome data and is prepared to make whatever modifications to the S.T.E.P.S.(TM) program are necessary to ensure its effectiveness. In addition to minimizing the potential risk for fetal harm associated with thalidomide therapy, the S.T.E.P.S.(TM) program may provide a model for future cases in which a drug offers compelling benefits but poses profound risks unless its distribution is carefully controlled.

Zeller, M. and S. Daniels (2004). "The obesity epidemic: family matters." Journal of Pediatrics. 145(1): 3-4.

Zhang, Q. and Y. Wang (2004). "Socioeconomic inequality of obesity in the United States: do gender, age and ethnicity matter?" Social Science and Medicine 58: 1171-1180.

Ziegler, P., C. Hanson, et al. (2006). "Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: Meal and snack intakes of hispanic and non-hispanic infants and toddlers." 106(1): S107-S123.

Objective To describe meal and snack patterns of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers. Design A cross-sectional telephone survey in which mothers or other primary caregivers reported their infants' and toddlers' food and beverage intake for a 24-hour period. Subjects/setting Subjects were a subset of the national random sample of children aged 4-24 months who participated in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study includes a stratified random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers aged 4-24 months. Three hundred seventy-one Hispanic and 2,637 non-Hispanic children who had 24-hour dietary recalls are included in the subset. Analyses Means +/- standard errors of daily intakes of energy, nutrients, and nutrient densities were calculated, as were percentages of children consuming foods at each eating occasion. Results Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers, on average, were fed seven times per day. Overall, the percentages of children who ate snacks increased with age, and more than 80% of toddlers aged 12-24 months consumed afternoon snacks, with more than 90% of Hispanic children consuming an afternoon snack. In each age group, there were significant differences between ethnic groups in nutrient intakes by eating occasion. No significant difference was seen for energy across all meal occasions. At age 6-11 months, Hispanic children had a significantly lower intake of carbohydrate at dinner and lower intake of saturated fat at afternoon snacks compared with non-Hispanic children (P <.05). The main difference between Hispanic children's and non-Hispanic children's intakes by eating occasion is at age 12-24 months. Hispanics aged 12-24 months had significantly (P <.05) lower percentages of energy from fat and saturated fat and a significantly (P <.05) higher percentage of carbohydrate at lunch compared with non-Hispanic children. For dinner, Hispanic toddlers had significantly (P <.05) lower intakes of total fat and saturated fat compared with non-Hispanic toddlers at age 12-24 months. Overall fiber intake contributed 2 g/meal for both ethnic groups. Snacks contributed, on average, less than 1 g fiber, except Hispanic toddlers had significantly higher fiber intake at afternoon snacks (1.5 g) than non-Hispanic toddlers. Foods frequently consumed at meals and snacks were lacking in whole grains, vegetables, and fruits. Most nutrients were not significantly different between Hispanics and non-Hispanics for meals and snacks. Conclusions Considering the sizeable contribution that snacks make toward overall energy, parents and caregivers should plan toddlers' snacks to complement meals by including additional fruits, vegetables, and whole grains that are culturally appropriate rather than fruit drinks, cookies, and crackers. This will increase fiber intake and limit fat and sugar intakes. To develop healthful eating patterns, introduce toddlers to foods eight to 10 times to increase food acceptance and the likelihood of establishing healthful eating patterns. Dietetics professionals need to consider cultural differences when developing meal and snack patterns for Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers.
Ziersch, M. A., Baum, F. E., MacDougall, C. And Putland, C. ( 2005). "Neighbourhood life and social capital: the implications for health." Social Science & Medicine 50: 71-86.

Zipper, E., G. Vila, et al. (2001). "Childhood and adolescent obesity, mental disorders and familial psychopathology." 30(30): 1489-1495.

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the type and frequency of psychopathological disorders observed in obese children and adolescents. We also looked for a correlation between psychic disorders in the obese children, the degree of obesity and paternal psychopathology. Patients and methods The study group included 84 obese children and adolescents aged 5 to 16 to years (mean age 10.9 +/- 2.8 years). There were 55 girls and 29 boys. The z-score expressing deviation from the ideal body mass index (IMC) varied from +2 to +10.6 (mean +5.4 + 1.9). Psychopathological disorders observed in these obese patents were compared in children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The standard diagnostic interview (K-SADS PL) and self-administered questionnaires (Sielberger STAIC-Trait for anxiety and CDI for depression in children or CBCL or GHQ for their parents) were also used to evaluate psychic disorders. Results More than half of the obese children (47 out of 84) had a DSM-IV diagnosis, often involving anxiety (n = 28). The rate of internalized and externalized psychopathological disorders (measured by STAIC-Trait and CBCL) was higher in the obese children than in the diabetics, The children's psychopathological disorders were more marked if their parents were perturbed, particularly when their mother had an internalised disorder. No correlation was found between the degree obesity and psychopathological disorders in the obese children and adolescents. Conclusion Our findings show the frequency of mental disorders in obese children and point out the importance of parental psychopathology. This underlines the usefulness of a pedopsychiatric approach implicating the entire family for therapeutic management of these patients. (C) 2001, Masson, Paris
Zittel-Palamara, K. M. "Psychosocial Contributors to Runaway and Homeless Adolescent Nutrition: A Social Work Perspective."

This is an exploratory study of 91 runaway/homeless youths' nutritional intake. Specifically, this study examines the influences of these youth's psychosocial characteristics on nutritional intake. Findings show that these youth's diets are high in fat/sugar, tend to be fried, and easy to access/consume while on the run. Homeless and throwaway youth were found to have the worst nutritional intake patterns of all the youth in the sample. Youth between ages twelve and fifteen consumed more sucrose daily, but had better vitamin, calcium and iron consumption than did youth between ages sixteen and eighteen. Youth whose parents received public assistance, disability insurance and social security had better iron and calcium intake than youth whose parents had salaried income. Youth that experienced more psychological issues consumed the least calories daily and consumed the least calories from sucrose daily. Experiencing physical abuse by one's mother, part of a three variable model, was found to predict higher levels, of sucrose intake daily. Also, experiencing neglect by one's father, part of a four variable model, was found to predict more caloric intake daily. Youth shelter-based social workers and health care-based social workers need to assess these youth's food choices and access to food while living on the streets and intervene as part of multidisciplinary teams. In that way, they may be instrumental in the development of community networks that provide food and assistance to runaway and homeless youth while on the run.

Zook, M. (2004). "The three-piece suit and modern masculinity: England, 1550-1850." JOURNAL OF INTERDISCIPLINARY HISTORY 34(3): 450-451.

Zuckerman, M. E. (1991). Sources on the history of women's magazines, 1792-1960 : an annotated bibliography. New York, Greenwood Press.

Zuckerman, M. E. W. A History of Popular Women's Magazines in the United States, 1792-1995 (Contributions in Women's Studies)

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