Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers

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51(9): 1135-41.

OBJECTIVE: The quality of life of homeless persons with mental illness was compared with that of homeless persons without mental illness. METHODS: Subjective and objective quality-of-life ratings were obtained in face-to-face interviews with 1,533 homeless adults in Los Angeles, who were identified using probability sampling of people on the streets and at shelters and meal facilities; 520 subjects were tracked for 15 months. Ratings of homeless persons with and without mental illness were compared using chi square tests and regression analyses. RESULTS: Mentally ill homeless persons were significantly more likely than those without mental illness to receive Supplemental Security Income, Social Security Disability Insurance, Veterans Affairs disability benefits, or Medicaid. However, those with mental illness still fared significantly worse in terms of physical health, level of subsistence needs met, victimization, and subjective quality of life. Differences between groups in the subjective quality-of-life ratings were accounted for by modifiable factors such as income and symptoms rather than by nonmodifiable demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions most likely to improve the quality of life of homeless persons with mental illness include those that stress maintenance of stable housing and provision of food and clothing and that address physical health problems and train individuals to minimize their risk of victimization. Interventions that decrease depressive symptoms might also improve subjective quality of life.

Sullivan, S. A. and L. L. Birch (1994). "Infant Dietary Experience and Acceptance of Solid Foods." 93(2): 271-277.

Objective. To examine the effects of dietary experience and milk feeding regimen on acceptance of their first vegetable by 4- to 6-month-old infants. Design. Longitudinal study, of 26-days duration, observing infants aged 4 to 6 months at the start of the study. Random assignment to treatments, within-subject control. Setting. General community in a medium-sized midwestern town. Subjects. Thirty-six infants and their mothers. Subjects were solicited through birth records and advertisements in local newspapers. Interventions. Infants were randomly assigned to be fed one vegetable on 10 occasions, either salted or unsalted peas or green beans, for a 10-day period. Outcome measures. Infant intake of the vegetable consumed during the 10-day exposure period; intake of salted and unsalted versions: (1) before the 10-day exposure period, (2) immediately after the exposure period; and (3) after a 1-week period of delay. Intake of a control food was also measured before and after repeated consumption of the vegetable. Adult ratings of the infants' videotaped responses during test feedings were also obtained before and after the exposure period. Results. After 10 opportunities to consume the vegetable, all infants significantly increased their intake (P < .001). Although they did not differ initially, infants fed breast milk showed greater increases in intake of the vegetable after exposure and had an overall greater level of intake than formula-fed infants. Adult ratings of the infants' nonverbal responses correlated positively with infant intake. Conclusions. Infants increase their acceptance (reflected both in changes in intake and in behavioral response) of a novel food after repeated dietary exposure to that food. Relative to formula-feeding, breast-feeding may facilitate the acceptance of solid foods.

Susin, L. R. O., E. R. J. Giugliani, et al. (2005). "Influence of grandmothers on breastfeeding practice." Revista De Saude Publica 39(2): 141-147.

Svedulf, C. I. E., I. L. B. Engberg, et al. (1998). "A comparison of the incidence of breast feeding two and four months after delivery in mothers discharged within 72 hours and after 72 hours post delivery." 14(1): 37-47.

Objective: to compare breast feeding at two and four months after delivery in mothers discharged early (ED = before 72 hours post delivery) and late (LD = after 72 hours post delivery), and to explore the factors of greatest importance to the successful practice of breast feeding. Design: ex-post facto design. Setting: in the county of Harryda, Sweden. Participants: all Swedish speaking women in the county of Harryda whose babies were born between 01.01.94 and 31.05.94 and who were registered at the Child Health Station (CHS) by the age of three months. One hundred and ninety women were invited to participate and 157 (83%) accepted. Measurements and findings: no significant difference was found in the breast feeding rates between the ED and LD group. However, ED mothers breast fed exclusively to a higher extent at two and at four months (exclusive breast feeding: at two months 89% and 86% respectively, and at four months 84% and 74% respectively, partial breast feeding: at two months 6% and 10% respectively, and at four months 5% and 12% respectively). If the woman considered that she had received encouragement and support while breast feeding for the first time, the probability of her breast feeding at two and at four months were about six times as great (Exp(B) 5.7594, df = l, p = 0.0270; (Exp(B) 5.978 l df = l,p = 0.0005 respectively). Key conclusions: the length of the hospital stay had no significant effect on the incidence of breast feeding at two and four months post delivery. The most predominant factors influencing breast feeding were seen to be the mother's first experience of breast feeding and the degree of support, help and encouragement she received. Less than half of the women received a visit from the CHS nurse after their return home from hospital. Implications for practice: the findings suggest that it is important that the midwife or nurse should prepare, support and encourage the mother when breast feeding for the first time. The midwife's or nurse's interventions are important for the incidence of breast feeding, at least during the first four months, and indirectly affect public health. This must also be taken into consideration when caring for mothers in the delivery ward and before discharge, i.e. that the breast feeding is working well, that the mother experiences it as working well, and also for planning follow-up after discharge.
Swain, S. (1991). "Dear Problem Page, I'm Single Pregnant and . . ." Lilith(7): 100-112.

Examines self-help columns in Australian women's magazines and concludes that these columns were ineffective advocates for change and that by misinforming petitioners who asked questions about sex and reproduction, women's magazines added to the difficulties of single mothers.

Swanson, V. and K. G. Power (2005). "Initiation and continuation of breastfeeding: theory of planned behaviour." Journal of Advanced Nursing 50(3): 272-282.

Sweeting, H. and P. West (2005). "Dietary habits and children's family lives." Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 18(2): 93-7.

PURPOSE: To investigate associations between 'less healthy eating' and 'unhealthy snacking' at age 11, and family life (family structure, meals and maternal employment status) together with potential socio-economic confounders and gender. METHODS: Children participated in a school-based survey, questionnaires also being completed by parents. Analyses were based on those with complete data, weighted to account for bias in return of parental questionnaires (N = 2146). Data from a dietary inventory, questions on food choice and snacks were used to classify 'less healthy eating' and 'unhealthy snacking'. RESULTS: Less healthy eating' (57%) and 'unhealthy snacking' (32%) were associated with greater deprivation, fewer maternal qualifications and being male. Compared with children of full-time homemakers, the likelihood of 'less healthy eating' was reduced among those whose mothers worked part-time (this effect remaining after socio-economic adjustment), full-time (effect removed after adjustment), or were unemployed, sick or disabled (effect emerging after adjustment). 'Unhealthy snacking' was not related to maternal employment, and neither measure was associated with family structure or daily meals. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that family structure or meals were associated with children's diets, although maternal employment had a positive association. Contrasting with the size of these effects, relationships between diet and socio-economic status were strong.
Symon, A. G. and W. L. Wrieden (2003). "A qualitative study of pregnant teenagers' perceptions of the acceptability of a nutritional education intervention." 19(2): 140-147.

Objective: in order to assess the feasibility of nutritional education intervention sessions for pregnant teenagers, standard dietary assessment schedules were supplemented by a qualitative appraisal. Reported in this paper are the perceptions of pregnant teenagers who attended one or more of these sessions. Design: qualitative study using a phenomenological approach. Data were collected using semi-structured tape-recorded group interviews. Setting: two community centres and one maternity unit in Tayside, Scotland. Participants: ten pregnant teenagers aged 16-18 years. Interventions: all had attended one or more of a series of food preparation sessions led by a midwife. Food to take away was provided, as were supermarket vouchers. Findings: those who attended found the sessions to be social, educational, and practical. These young women appreciated being in a group which did not include 'older' pregnant women. To a limited extent they had changed their dietary habits at home. Food to take home was a significant attraction. Some of the teenagers sought maternity-related information from the midwife leading the session. Key conclusions: nutritional education remains an important public health issue. Despite offering a range of incentives, attracting teenagers to these sessions was difficult, making their economic feasibility questionable. Implications for practice: with better recruitment, such sessions could form an important part of improving nutrition and overall health for current and future generations. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Szreter, S. (2002). "The state of social capital: bringing back in power, politics and history,." Theory and Society 31:: 573-621,.

Taanila, A., P. Larivaara, et al. (2002). "Evaluation of a family-oriented continuing medical education course for general practitioners." Medical Education 36(3): 248-257.

Objective To explore the long-term effects of a 2-year Family Systems Medicine course. Fifteen experienced GPs participated in the training programme. Setting Continuing Education Centre, University of Tampere, Department of Public Health Science and General Practice, University of Oulu, Finland. Methods The participants assessed the development of their professional skills on the Doherty-Baird scale and filled in 2 questionnaires. The material obtained from the application form and 2 questionnaires was analysed using the grounded theory method. Results The reasons for taking part in the course seemed to be the constant increase in the workload, problems caused by the demands for change and adaptation, stress and exhaustion. Furthermore, 10 health centres out of 15 had adopted the population-based practice, which requires different working methods compared to the old routines. Some trainees reported that their family-centred working methods improved during the course. A year after the end of the training, all of the GPs who had participated were using such methods in their daily practice. Half of the participants felt that they had also improved the functioning of their working group by making it more family-oriented. The significance of multiprofessional collaboration was one of the most important insights during the course. Conclusion The 2-year family-oriented training programme provided GPs with systemic thinking and with new skills, including the ability to work with families. The programme raised awareness of the need for multiprofessional collaboration in the primary care sittings
Talbot, M. (2003). "Gender in interaction: Perspectives on femininity and masculinity in ethnography and discourse." JOURNAL OF PRAGMATICS 35(10-11): 1733-1735.

Tamari, T. (2002). Women and consumption : the rise of the department store and the #new woman' in Japan 1900-1930. Nottingham, Nottingham Trent University.

Tapias, M. (2006). "'Always Ready and Always Clean'?: Competing Discourses of Breast-feeding, Infant Illness and the Politics of Mother-blame in Bolivia." Body Society %R 10.1177/1357034X06064324 12(2): 83-108.

In this article I explore the multiple and at times conflicting public health and folk discourses which shape breast-feeding practices in Punata, Bolivia. I examine why women may cease to breast-feed despite active efforts made by the healthcare system to promote breast-feeding. Breast-feeding practices are saturated with meaning and circumscribed by time and economic constraints as well as numerous cultural factors. These include conceptualizations of the body, emotions and illnesses that affect infants who are breast-fed, as well as constructions of the mother-infant bond and attitudes about what constitutes good mothering' and its relationship to gender and class expectations. In this locality, the emotions of lactating women are said to find release through their breast milk and are seen to cause illness in their breast-feeding infants. I explore how mothers accepted, challenged or contested such views, and how they negotiated the politics of blame that emerged regarding who was at fault for their infant's illnesses. I demonstrate how breast-feeding is an embodied experience intrinsically linked to ideas about motherhood and show how the deployment of blame for these illnesses can strategically obfuscate or shed light on the numerous social and economic constraints under which women may find themselves.

Tardy, R. W. and C. L. Hale (1998). "Bonding and cracking: The role of informal, interpersonal networks in health care decision making." 10(2): 151-173.

This study examined the role and impact of informal, interpersonal networks in health care decision making. Questioning the traditional approach to studying health communication as it is situated within institutions (e.g., Burgeon, 1992; Nussbaum, 1989; Pettegrew & Logan, 1987), this ethnographic study ventured into the lived experiences of women in a mothers' and toddlers' playgroup as they discussed their own, their family members', and their friends' health experiences. Their conversations revolved around such health-related issues as pregnancy and delivery, physicians and hospitals, breastfeeding, illnesses and accidents, and diet and nutrition. The conversations were found to serve not necessarily opposing but distinctive functions including a rather practical purpose of "cracking the code" of institutional practices, as well as a "bonding" function evidenced through stories or narratives. The conversations are not only exchanges of information but also narratives through which shared experiences are created and maintained. In addition to these narrative functions, examination of these conversations reveals how diagnoses and remedies from the institutions are discussed and decisions are made. The conclusion offers ideas for how agencies and institutions can utilize the findings of this particular research venture.

Tarkka, M. T., M. Paunonen, et al. (1999). "Factors related to successful breast feeding by first-time mothers when the child is 3 months old." 29(1): 113-118.

The aim of the reported study was to gain information on those factors which contribute to the success of breast feeding in first-time mothers when the child is 3 months old. The study is part of a wider longitudinal project which follows-up the growth to motherhood of first-time mothers in Finland over a period of 8 months postpartum. Data collection was by questionnaires distributed between March and September 1995. The sample comprised 271 first-time mothers. The mothers completed the questionnaires when their infants were 3 months old. the analysis applied was a polychotomic logistic regression analysis. When the child was 3 months old those mothers who perceived themselves competent as mothers and who felt that society appreciated motherhood appropriately coped better with breast feeding. Also, those mothers who had worked at home prior to the birth of the child and who felt that breast feeding was important in motherhood coped better with breast feeding. Those mothers whose state of mind was more balanced after the birth coped better with breast feeding. The more affirmation the mother received from members of her social network the better she coped with breast feeding. The research findings suggest that factors influencing successful breast feeding in first-time mothers at 3 months post-partum are the mother's own resources and attitude to breast feeding, support from the social network and the current appreciation of breast feeding in society.

Taub, D. E. (2005). "Revolting Bodies?: The Struggle to Redefine Fat Identity." Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews 34(6): 677-679.

Taylor, L. J., M. Gallagher, et al. (2004). "The role of parental influence and additional factors in the determination of food choices for pre-school children." International Journal of Consumer Studies 28(4): 337-346.

Tchibindat, F., Y. Martin-Prevel, et al. (2004). "Bringing together viewpoints of mothers and health workers to enhance monitoring and promotion of growth and development of children: A case study from the Republic of Congo." 22(1): 59-67.

In 1996, the Government of the Republic of Congo launched a pilot project to improve the child Growth and development component of primary healthcare. The present study was carried out (i) to explore perceptions and practices of mothers and health workers regarding child growth, health, and development, and (ii) to design culturally-appropriate tools to enhance their monitoring and promotion. The study was carried out in two randomly-selected health centres in Brazzaville. Qualitative data collected included 16 focus-group discussions with 174 mothers, two focus-group discussions with 18 health workers, and 20 individual interviews with paediatricians or psychologists. The health workers reported that the main indicator of child growth was weight, while the mothers used broader concepts for evaluating growth and development of their toddlers. A strategy encompassing anthropometrics, developmental milestones, and acquisition of social skills was elaborated to enhance communication between health workers and mothers. Anew growth chart was designed, and a new calendar of systematic visits, including key tasks and messages, was established. However, these new tools derived from the formative research still need to be carefully tested.

Teasley, S. (2005). "Home-Builder or Home-Maker? Reader Presence in Articles on Home-Building in Commercial Women's Magazines in 1920's Japan." Journal of Design History 18(1): 81-97.

Thaisz, E., A. Rappai, et al. (1993). "Screening and Care of Gestational and Insulin-Dependent Diabetic Pregnancies - the 1st 4 Years Experience." 6(6): 373-375.

In accordance with the St. Vincent Declaration we aimed to achieve similar outcome of pregnancies in diabetic and healthy women with a team work frame. We have been screening for gestational diabetes in all pregnant women referred to our patient clinic since January 1989. A test break fast containing 75 g of carbohydrate is administered and the 2-hr post prandial blood glucose determined; 124 cases were identified as gestational diabetes out of 4676 pregnancies (2.67%). All gestational diabetics were registered immediately. Normoglycaemia (HbA1c: 5.4+/-0.4%) was achieved in all cases either by dietetic measures (56%) or by insulin administration. Prematurity rate was 3.75% (under 10 percentile). Neither malformations nor significant fetopathies were observed. Rate of macrosomia was 9.6%. During this observation period 38 pregnancies of IDDM women were also treated by at least 4 insulin injections daily. No malformations were observed in these cases. Two pregnancies were interrupted due to missed abortion and one because of placenta previa. Macrosomia was observed in 10.5% of cases. The HbA1c values were 6.07+/-0.90%. This screening and treatment method seems to meet international standards and could be adapted nationwide.
Thomas, N. (2001). Listening to Children. Children in Society - Contemporary Theory, Policy and Practice. P. Foley, J. Roche and S. Tucker. Basingstoke, Palgrave: 104-111.

Thomas, P., L. Oni, et al. (2005). "Antenatal screening for haemoglobinopathies in primary care: a whole system participatory action research project." 55(515): 424-428.

Background The usual system for antenatal screening for haemoglobinopathies permits termination only late in the second trimester of pregnancy. Aim To evaluate a system where pregnant women are screened in general practice, and to develop a model of care pathway or whole system research able to bring into view unexpected effects of health service innovation. Design of study A whole system participatory action research approach was used. Six purposefully chosen general practices screened women who attended with a new pregnancy. Data of gestational age of screening were compared with two control groups. Qualitative data were gathered through workshops, interviews and feedback to the project steering group. At facilitated annual workshops participants from all parts of the care pathway produced a consensus about the meaning of the data as a whole. Setting Six general practices in north London. Method A whole system participatory action research approach allowed stakeholders from throughout the care pathway to pilot the innovation and reflect on the meaning and significance of quantitative and qualitative data. Results The gestational age of screening in general practice was 4.1 weeks earlier (95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.41 to 4.68) than in hospital clinics (P<0.001), and 2.9 weeks earlier (95% Cl = 2.07 to 3.65) than in community midwife clinics (P<0.001). However, only 35% of pregnant women in the study were screened in the practices. Changes required throughout the whole care pathway make wider implementation more difficult than at first realised. The cost within general practice is greater than initially appreciated owing to a perceived need to provide counselling about other issues at the same time. Practitioners considered that other ways of early screening should be explored, including preconceptual screening. The research approach was able to bring into view unexpected effects of the innovation, but health workers were unfamiliar with the participatory processes. Conclusion Antenatal screening for haemoglobinopathies in general practice lowers the gestational age at which an at-risk pregnancy can be identified. However, widespread implementation of such screening may be too difficult.
Thompson, L. S. and M. Story (X2003). "Perceptions of overweight and obesity in their community: findings from focus groups with urban, African-American caretakers of preschool children." Journal of National Black Nurses' Association 14(1): 28-37.

Focus groups were conducted with parents, other caretakers, and teachers of urban, African American preschool children attending Head Start. The research goal, congruent with the concept of cultural humility, was to elicit target population members' perspectives on the nature, importance, prevalence, and causes of overweight and obesity in their community, with an emphasis on childhood obesity. Themes that emerged revealed that participants defined obesity as a more extreme state than the medical definition, these same participants had a complex view of the relationships of weight and health, stressed numerous environmental factors contributing to obesity. Moreover, these participants tended to offer suggestions for health professionals and those designing nutrition education interventions.

Thompson, P. (1975). The Edwardians: The Remaking of British Society. London, Routledge.

Thompson, P. (1998). 'Living Together'. The Century Speaks: BBC Millennium Oral History Project Research Guide. London, British Library Board.

Thomson, R., Plumridge, L. & Holland, J. (2003). "Longitudinal qualitative research: a developing methodology." International Journal of Social Research Methodology

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