Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers

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187: 268-273.

Background There is some evidence that early sexual abuse is an aetiological factor for eating disorder. However, there is sparse information from large-scale, non-clinical studies. Aims This study was designed to explore which early experiences, recalled during pregnancy, were associated with both lifetime and antenatal eating disorder symptoms in a community sample. Method Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted of data. from questionnaires administered during pregnancy to a community sample of pregnant women. Results Recall of parental mental health problems and of early unwanted sexual experiences were independently associated with both lifetime eating problems, laxative use and vomiting during pregnancy, and marked concern during pregnancy over shape and weight. Conclusions There are public health implications for these results. Eating disorders in mothers represent a risk for child development. It may be important to enquire during pregnancy about a history of eating problems and to provide the opportunity for early experiences to be discussed. Declaration of interest None.

Sertorio, S. C. M. and I. A. Silva (2005). "The symbolic and utilitarian facets of pacifiers according to mothers." Revista De Saude Publica 39(2): 156-162.

Shaker, I., J. A. Scott, et al. (2004). "Infant feeding attitudes of expectant parents: breastfeeding and formula feeding." Journal of Advanced Nursing 45(3): 260-268.

Shakespeare, J., F. Blake, et al. (2004). "Breast-feeding difficulties experienced by women taking part in a qualitative interview study of postnatal depression." Midwifery 20(3): 251-260.

Shan, C. W. (1996). Construction of women's image in the women's magazines in Hong Kong (1988-1992), University of York.

Shariff, Z. M. and G. L. Khor (2005). "Obesity and household food insecurity: evidence from a sample of rural households in Malaysia." 59(9): 1049-1058.

Objective: The study examined nutritional outcomes related to body fat accumulation of food insecurity among women from selected rural communities in Malaysia. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Rural communities ( seven villages and two palm plantations) in a district with high percentage of welfare recipients. Subjects and Measurements: Malay ( n = 140) and Indian ( n = 60) women were interviewed and measured for demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietary and physical activity information. The women were measured for their body mass index and waist circumference ( WC). Energy and nutrient intakes, food group intake and food variety score were analyzed from 24 h dietary recalls and food-frequency questionnaire. Daily physical activity of the women was examined as the number of hours spent in economic, domestic, leisure and sport activities. Results: Using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument, 58% of the women reported some degree of food insecurity ( household insecure 14%, adult insecure 9.5% and child hunger 34.5%). In general, food-insecure women had lower years of education, household income and income per capita, more children and mothers as housewives. More than 50% of food-insecure women were overweight and obese than women from food-secure households (38%). Similarly, more food-insecure women ( 32 - 47%) had at-risk WC (>= 88 cm) than food-secure women (29%). Food-insecure women spent significantly more time in domestic and leisure activities than food- secure women. Overweight and abdominal adiposity among the women were associated with a number of independent variables, such as women as housewives, women with more children, larger household size, food insecurity, shorter time spent in economic activities, longer time spent in leisure activities and lower food variety score. After adjusting for factors that are related to both adiposity and food insecurity, women from food- insecure households were significantly more likely to have at-risk WC, but not obese. Conclusion: Among this sample of rural women, the relationship between food insecurity and obesity is a complex one, which involves the interaction with other factors. Nevertheless, given that obesity and food insecurity are of public health concerns in the developing nations, the association between the two should be further investigated.

Shaw, D. (2005). Modelling Consumer Decision Making in Fair Trade. The Ethical Consumer. R. Harrison, T. Newholm and D. Shaw. London, Sage: 137-154.

Shaw, G. M., E. M. Velie, et al. (1996). "Risk of neural tube defect-affected pregnancies among obese women." 275(14): 1093-1096.

Objective.-To investigate the risk for neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies among obese women (ie, women with a body mass index [BMI] >29 kg/m(2)) compared with women of average prepregnancy weight. Design.-Population-based case-control study. Setting.-All hospitals in 55 of 58 counties in California. Participants.-In-person interviews were conducted with mothers of 538 (88% of eligible) NTD cases (including fetuses and infants electively terminated, stillborn, or born alive) and with mothers of 539 nonmalformed controls (88%) within an average of 5 months from the term delivery date. Main Outcome Measures.-The risk of an NTD-affected pregnancy among obese women. Results.-Compared with women whose BMI was less than or equal to 29 kg/m(2), an increased risk for NTD-affected pregnancy was observed among obese women (odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 2.9). The increased risk was not attributable to maternal nonuse of a vitamin containing folic acid, diabetes, use of diet pills, lower dietary folate intake, or an NTD-pregnancy history. Adjustment for maternal age, education, gravidity, use of vitamins, and use of alcohol did not change the odds ratio. The risk associated with maternal obesity was greater for spina bifida and for other less prevalent NTDs than for anencephaly. Conclusion.-Because as many as 10% of women maybe obese periconceptionally, the observed twofold increased risk is relevant to the population burden of NTDs.
Shaw, P. (1997). "Demystifying Women's Magazines in Taiwan." DAI 58(5): 1490-A.

Shaw, P. (2000). "Changes in Female Roles in Taiwanese Women's Magazines, 1970-1994." Media History 6(2): 151-160.

Taiwanese women's magazines became more readily available following a resurgence in feminist issues and a rise in general educational, economic, and social opportunities and mobility in the late 1960's. Changes in social positioning can be seen in extended analyses of magazine content in recent decades. An analysis of gender roles in over six hundred articles published between 1971 and 1994 in the middle-class magazine Woman and its working-class counterpart New Woman demonstrates that such shifts have been more pronounced in middle-class texts than in working-class publications. In the case of Woman, there is a notable decline in the portrayal of women as wives, mothers, and homemakers, with a corresponding increase in politically, socially, and economically themed discussions. In contrast, New Woman has remained more passive and traditional in its content and discussion of women's roles in Taiwanese society. While awareness of the women's movement increased in general in Taiwan over the twenty years covered in the survey, this did not translate into a similar awareness in all mass market Taiwanese publications aimed at women.
Shaw, R. (2004). "Performing breastfeeding:embodiment, ethics and the maternal subject." Feminist Review 78: 99-116.

Sheehan, A., V. Schmied, et al. (2003). "Australian women's stories of their baby-feeding decisions in pregnancy." Midwifery 19(4): 259-266.

Shepherd, M. (1997). Re-thinking masculinity : discourses of gender and power in two workplaces.

Shepherd, R. (1999). "Social determinants of food choice." Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58: 807-812.

Sherry, B., J. McDivitt, et al. (2004). "Attitudes, practices, and concerns about child feeding and child weight status among socioeconomically diverse white, Hispanic, and African-American mothers." Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 104(2): 215-21.

Parents play an important role in the development of their children's eating behaviors. We conducted 12 focus groups (three white, three African-American, and three Hispanic-American low-income groups; three white middle-income groups) of mothers (N=101) of 2- to less than 5-year-old children to explore maternal attitudes, concerns, and practices related to child feeding and perceptions about child weight. We identified the following major themes from responses to our standardized focus group guide: 12 groups wanted to provide good nutrition, and most wanted children to avoid eating too many sweets and processed foods; 12 groups prepared foods their children liked, accommodated specific requests, and used bribes and rewards to accomplish their feeding goals (sweets were commonly used as bribes, rewards, or pacifiers); and 11 of 12 groups believed their children were prevaricating when they said they were full and mothers encouraged them to eat more. The common use of strategies that may not promote healthful weight suggests work is needed to develop culturally and socioeconomically effective overweight prevention programs. Further study is needed to verify racial/ethnic or income differences in attitudes, practices, and concerns about child feeding and perceptions of child weight.

Shih, C. K. and M. R. Jenike (2002). "A cultural-historical perspective on the depressed fertility among the matrilineal Moso in Southwest China." Human Ecology 30(1): 21-47.

Family systems exert substantial influence on the demographic processes of populations. The Moso in Southwest China feature an institutionalized visiting sexual system, which differs from marriage, and a grand household system without conjugal units. Moso women enjoy virtually unlimited reproductive autonomy. On the basis of surveys of 12 Moso households conducted in 1988 and 1989, this paper analyzes the fertility experience of Moso women during the twentieth century and the mortality rates of the Moso population in the PRC era. Moso fertility patterns are characterized by a late age at first birth (median 23 years), long interbirth intervals (median 3 years), and a high rate of childlessness (16%). We conclude that this pattern of low fertility is an outcome of the unique Moso cultural practices. For the cohorts of Moso women born between 1905 and 1929, pathological sterility caused by STD is likely to have depressed fertility as well

Shiva, F. and M. Nasiri (2003). "A study of feeding patterns in young infants." Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 49(2): 89-92.

Shortt, S. E. D. (2004). "Making sense of social capital, health and policy." Health Policy 60(11-22).

Siefert, K., C. M. Heflin, et al. "Food Insufficiency and Physical and Mental Health in a Longitudinal Survey of Welfare Recipients."

Food insufficiency is a significant problem in the US, & poor African American women with children are at especially high risk. An inadequate household food supply can potentially affect the well-being of household members, but it is difficult to distinguish the effects of food insufficiency from risk factors for poor health that are also common among the food insufficient, such as poverty. We examined food insufficiency & physical & mental health among African American & white women (n = 676) who were welfare recipients in 1997. Controlling for common risk factors, women who reported food insufficiency in both 1997 & 1998 were more likely to report fair or poor health at the later date. Food insufficiency in 1998 was significantly associated with meeting the diagnostic screening criteria for recent major depression. Food insufficiency at both times & in 1998 only was related to women's sense of mastery. These findings add to growing evidence that household food insufficiency is associated with poor physical & mental health. 6 Tables, 55 References. Adapted from the source document.

Siefert, K., C. M. Heflin, et al. "Food Insufficiency and the Physical and Mental Health of Low-Income Women."

Poor women with children are disproportionately represented among the food insufficient. Recent research has linked food insufficiency with dietary deficiencies, but further research linking this problem to health & mental health problems is needed to inform health & social policy. We analyzed the relationship between food insufficiency & physical & mental health in a random sample of 724 single women who were welfare recipients in Feb 1997. Food insufficiency was significantly associated with poor or fair self-rated health & physical limitations, & with respondents' meeting DSM-III-R criteria for recent major depression. Although the cross-sectional design of this study precludes causal inference, these findings add to a growing body of evidence that food insufficiency is associated with serious adverse physical & mental health consequences. 2 Tables, 74 References. Adapted from the source document.

Silverstein, L. A., CF; Levant, RF (2002). "Contemporary fathers reconstructing masculinity: Clinical implications of gender role strain." PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY-RESEARCH AND PRACTICE 33(4): 361-369.

How can research data about gender role strain improve clinical work with men? The authors present qualitative data from 3 groups of fathers in the Yeshiva University Fatherhood Project: Haitian American, Promise Keeper, and gay fathers. The data illustrate the specific types of gender role strain associated with contemporary fathering and show how men are spontaneously reconstructing fathering and masculinity in general. The authors use clinical examples to show how psychologists can make use of this research knowledge in the diagnosis and treatment of men.

Simpson, I. H. (2003). "The Disappearance of the Family Meal and the Epidemic of Obesity." Southern Sociological Society (SSS).

Societal & family changes have largely destroyed the family meal, with the consequence of high caloric intake far beyond what the family meal offered. A family meal is ritualized through the gathering of family members sitting & talking together while eating food prepared by an adult, usually the mother/wife, to provide the family with a nourishing & hearty meal. The family as a whole - its resources & even diet restrictions of family members - are kept in mind in meal preparation. During the last half of the 20th century, family members & their roles have been privatized, & family functions have been outsourced & commercialized to make the family meal an increasing rarity. Sales of prepackaged prepared foods, fast foods, take-out & eat-in meals at restaurants, & snack foods (potato chips, colas, candy, & other goodies), all of which are highly adaptable to privatized lifestyles, have sharply increased, alongside women's working outside the home for pay. Correlated with these changes has been an increase in obesity, most alarmingly among children. This paper will bring together aggregate statistical & interview data to identify societal & family changes that have combined to erode the family meal, & the effect of the loss of the social control of a collective ritual on caloric intake, especially among children.

Simpson, R. (2004). "Masculinity at work: the experiences of men in female dominated occupations." WORK EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIETY 18(2): 349-368.

This article presents the findings of a research project on the implications of men's non-traditional career choices for their experiences within the organization and for gender identity. The research is based on 40 in-depth interviews with male workers from four occupational groups: librarians, cabin crew, nurses, and primary school teachers. Results suggest a typology of male workers in female dominated occupations: seekers (who actively seek the career): finders (who find the occupation in the process of making general career decisions) and settlers (who settle into the career after periods of time in mainly male dominated occupations). Men benefit from their minority status through assumptions of enhanced leadership (the assumed authority effect), by being given differential treatment (the special consideration effect) and being associated with a more careerist attitude to work (the career effect). At the same time, they feel comfortable working with women (the zone of comfort effect). Despite this comfort, men adopt a variety of strategies to re-establish a masculinity that has been undermined by the feminine nature of their work. These include re-labelling, status enhancement and distancing from the feminine. The dynamics of maintaining and reproducing masculinities within the non-traditional work setting are discussed in the light of recent theorizing around gender, masculinity and work.

Singh, M. B. and J. Lakshminarayan (2002). "Study of prevalent maternal beliefs regarding diet during common childhood illness in Thar Desert, Rajasthan." 41(1): 85-88.

A study was conducted in 17 villages of Thar Desert, categorized in three ecological sub-regions, i.e., Marusthali, Shekhawati and Luni basin. Information on maternal beliefs regarding diet during common childhood illness, demography and other socio-economic aspects was collected through interview techniques from 434 rural young mothers who represented the entire caste groups present. Majority of the women (94%) were illiterate, and 48% belonged to lower and upper middle-income groups. The respondents opined on the basis of their traditional beliefs, items preferred and restricted during different, types of illness. Accordingly the food items were divided into cold, hot, light, windy, heavy and other characteristics. Cold food, like curd with rice and turmeric were preferred during diarrhoea and dysentery, but hot food.,like millet and jaggery were avoided. During measles and typhoid only hot food like lebta of millet was preferred to hasten the appearance of rashes. Information on such local maternal beliefs regarding diet during common childhood illness in Thar Desert will help in organizing nutrition and health education programs for desert areas by encouraging the useful practices and discouraging the harmful ones.

Sisk, P. M., C. A. Lovelady, et al. (2006). "Lactation counseling for mothers of very low birth weight infants: Effect on maternal anxiety and infant intake of human milk." Pediatrics 117(1): E67-E75.

Skills, D. f. E. a. (2003). Every Child Matters. London, HMSO.

Skinner, J. D., B. R. Carruth, et al. (1997). "Transitions in infant feeding during the first year of life." 16(3): 209-215.

Objective: To document ages at which transitions in infant feeding occur, to compare these transitions to literature reports from the 1970s and 80s, and to identify maternal characteristics related to the age of the infant when solid food was first introduced. Methods: Ninety-eight mother/infant pairs (middle and upper socioeconomic status) participated in the longitudinal study. Using a randomized, incomplete block design, in-home interviews were conducted by trained personnel when infants were 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age; each mother/infant pair was seen four or five times. Information on food intake, including breast milk/formula, was collected at each interview. Means +/-SD and frequencies were calculated, and least squares analysis of variance was used to develop a predictive model related to the introduction of cereal. Results: Most mothers decided on the initial feeding mode (breastfeeding or formula) prior to pregnancy; 83% breastfed initially although most (76%) totally discontinued breastfeeding by 6 months. Infants' ages varied greatly when each of the seven categories of food was introduced; cereal was added to the infants' diets at a mean age of 3.8+/-1.4 (SD) months, juice 4.7+/-2.2, fruit 4.9+/-1.6, vegetables 5.2+/-1.3, mixed foods 7.8+/-2.1, table foods 8.2+/-2.1, and meat 8.2+/-2.1. The multivariate model explained 59% of the variability in ages of infants when cereal (generally the first solid food) was added. Significant variables (p less than or equal to 0.05) were feeding mode, recommendation by the physician, and the interaction between feeding mode and education of the mother. Mother's employment and sibling rank of the infant contributed to the model (p=0.06 and p=0.09, respectively). Infants' age when cereal was added was not related to the variables of gender or birth weight. Conclusions: The finding that the mothers' decision whether or not to breastfeed was made prior to conception supports the importance of population-based education aimed at women in the child-bearing years as well as patient instruction early in the pregnancy. However, the duration of breastfeeding was shorter than was reported in the 1980s. Infants varied greatly in ages when the seven categories of complementary foods were added to their diets. Although recommendations for delaying introduction of solid foods until the infant is 4 to 6 months of age have been in place for more than a decade, about half the mothers in this study did so earlier. Characteristics of mothers who introduced cereal earliest (i.e., mean age of infants <4 months) were more likely to be formula feeding when cereal was added, to feed cereal via the bottle, to be primiparous, to be employed outside the home, and/or not to cite the physician as a source for guiding the infant's transition to supplemental food.

Skinner, J. D., B. R. Carruth, et al. (1998). "Mealtime communication patterns of infants from 2 to 24 months of age." 30(1): 8-16.

The purposes of this study were to document mealtime communication behaviors used by 98 Caucasian infants who vr ere studied longitudinally from 2 to 24 months of age and to describe how these behaviors changed in the group over time. Using both closed- and open-ended questions in personal interviews, these middle and upper socioeconomic status mothers reported how their infants communicated hunger, satiety and food likes and dislikes. Mothers also reported their own response behaviors when they believed that their infants had not eaten enough. Only a few mealtime communication behaviors were common to all infants, suggesting that infants use various behaviors to communicate similar messages. Food likes were most often communicated by mouth/eating behaviors, such as opening the mouth as food approached, eating readily or eating a large amount of food. Food dislikes were communicated by mouth/eating behaviors, by facial expressions, and by body movements, such as turning the head or body away from food or throwing disliked food. When the mother perceived that the child had not eaten enough, most mothers offered alternative choices, either at mealtime or shortly thereafter. The results indicate that most infants are communicating via behaviors in feeding situations throughout the 2- to 24-month period.

Skinner, J. D., B. R. Carruth, et al. (1999). "Longitudinal study of nutrient and food intakes of white preschool children aged 24 to 60 months." 99(12): 1514-1521.

Objective To determine nutrient and food intakes of 72 white preschool children primarily from families of middle and upper socioeconomic status and to compare children's nutrient intakes with current recommendations. Design Six in-home interviews were conducted with mothers when children were 24 to 60 months old; at each time mothers provided 3 days of dietary information on the child. Children and mothers independently provided information on the child's favorite and least favorite foods at 42 and 54 months. Subjects Preschool children (24 to 60 months old) participating in a longitudinal study. Statistical analyses Mean nutrient intakes were compared with the most recent Recommended Dietary Allowances/Adequate Intakes. Differences over time were tested with repeated-measures analysis of variance; gender differences were determined with t tests. Food frequencies (ie, percentage of children consuming specific foods) were determined from dietary recalls and food records. Dietary variety vp-as assessed with the Variety Index for Toddlers or the Variety Index for Children. Results Means were consistently less than the RDA/AI for energy, zinc, folate, and vitamins D and E. Energy, carbohydrate, and fat intakes were highest (P less than or equal to.01) at 60 months. Boys consumed more (P less than or equal to.05) protein (10 g), calcium (197 mg), magnesium (35 mg), and pantothenic acid (0.8 mg) at 60 months than did girls. Foods most commonly eaten were fruit drink, carbonated beverages, 2% milk, and french fries. The Vegetable group consistently had the lowest variety scores; vegetables also dominated least; favorite foods lists. Applications Parents need to be encouraged to include more sources of zinc, folate, Vitamin E, and vitamin D in children's diets. Parents should also encourage their children to eat more vegetables, zinc- and folate-fortified cereals, lean red meats, seafood, vegetable oils, and low-fat milk.

Skinner, J. D., B. R. Carruth, et al. (1997). "Longitudinal study of nutrient and food intakes of infants aged 2 to 24 months."

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