Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers

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40(1): 102-105.

Beetham, M. and K. Boardman (2001). Victorian women's magazines : an anthology. Manchester, Manchester University Press.

Begum, N. (2004). "Employment by occupation and industry:

An analysis of the distribution of employment and characteristics of people in the main industry and occupation groups." Labour Market Trends 112(6): 227-234.

Bell, D. and G. Valentine (1997). Consuming geographies: we are where we eat. London, Routledge.

Benn, M. (1998). Madonna and child: towards a new politics of motherhood. London, Jonathon Cape.

Benson, J. (1994). The Rise of Consumer Society in Britain, 1880-1980. Harlow, Essex, Longman.

Benton, D. (X2004). "Role of parents in the determination of the food preferences of children and the development of obesity." International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 28(7): 858-69.

The role of parental behaviour in the development of food preferences is considered. Food preferences develop from genetically determined predispositions to like sweet and salty flavours and to dislike bitter and sour tastes. Particularly towards the second year of life, there is a tendency to avoid novel foods (neophobia). Food aversions can be learnt in one trial if consumption is followed by discomfort. There is a predisposition to learn to like foods with high-energy density. However, from birth genetic predispositions are modified by experience and in this context during the early years parents play a particularly important role. Parental style is a critical factor in the development of food preferences. Children are more likely to eat in emotionally positive atmospheres. Siblings, peers and parents can act as role models to encourage the tasting of novel foods. Repeated exposure to initially disliked foods can breakdown resistance. The offering of low-energy-dense foods allows the child to balance energy intake. Restricting access to particular foods increases rather than decreases preference. Forcing a child to eat a food will decrease the liking for that food. Traditionally, educational strategies have typically involved attempts to impart basic nutritional information. Given the limited ability of information to induce changes in behaviour, an alternative strategy would be to teach parents about child development in the hope that an understanding of the characteristic innate tendencies and developmental stages can be used to teach healthy food preferences. [References: 112]
Berendsen, M. a. O. A. v. (2002). "Het Gezinslaboratorium : De Betwiste Keuken En De Wording Van De Moderne Huisvrouw." Tijdschrift voor Sociale Geschiedenis 28(3): 301-322.

Analyzes the development and background of the so-called modern efficient kitchen by focusing on two distinct phases during its genesis. In the first half of the 20th century housewives, architects, housing corporations, and governments negotiated the organization of household labor and the interior design of kitchens. Between 1900 and 1925, the debate concentrated on two aspects: the place and function of kitchens and the way household labor had to be organized. Around 1925, the kitchen-living room combination had lost ground in favor of the concept of the small, closed kitchen as a household workplace. Cooking and washing outside the home in collective or cooperative laundries and kitchens (as an alternative to individual arrangements) was no longer promoted by the parties involved. As a result, the rationalization and mechanization of household labor inside the home by housewives had become the dominant issue. The period between 1925 and 1940 saw architects and spokeswomen for housewives elaborating on the outcome of the previous phase. Based on different interpretations of household efficiency, architects and the Dutch Association of Housewives (NVvH) developed several small closed workplace-kitchen prototypes. In the second half of the 1930's, the Bruynzeel Company took the step to standardization and mass production of built-in kitchen elements, the famous Bruynzeel kitchen. By focusing on actors who mediated between the production and use of kitchens, the authors argue that not only an artifact was constructed but also a specific user, the modern efficient housewife.

Berg, M. C., I. Jonsson, et al. (2002). "Relation between breakfast food choices and knowledge of dietary fat and fiber among Swedish schoolchildren." Journal of Adolescent Health 31: 199-207.

Berger, M., B. Wallis, et al. (1995). Constructing masculinity. London, Routledge.

Bergman, V., S. Larsson, et al. (1994). "Involvement of Maternity and Health-Care Staff in Breast-Feeding." 8(2): 75-80.

The prerequisites of the staff for their interest and concern in working with questions related to breast-feeding have been studied by questionnaires which were answered by 133 nurses at pregnancy care centres, child health centres and maternity wards. The intention was to identify possible obstacles for the staff in supporting the mother's breast-feeding. In spite of extensive experience and positive attitudes to breast-feeding, about half of the staff found it difficult to work with these questions and to give enough support. The most common reasons for this fact were insufficient knowledge about breast-feeding, few possibilities for further training and a heavy workload. It was also evident that some routines need to be corrected. For instance, information about breast-feeding was provided late during pregnancy, the fathers were infrequently engaged and the communication between the departments was limited. A reorganization of the staff's working routines and their continuous further training in issues related to breast-feeding are recommended.

Berns, N. (2004). Framing the victim : domestic violence, media, and social problems. Hawthorne, N.Y., Aldine de Gruyter.

Berovic, N. (2003). "Impact of sociodemographic features of mothers on breastfeeding in Croatia: Questionnaire study." Croatian Medical Journal 44(5): 596-600.

Berra, S., N. K. Galvan, et al. (2002). "Newborn feeding in the immediate pospartum period." 36(6): 661-669.

Objectives To describe the type of newborn feeding in public and private institutions and to investigate its relationship with health practices during delivery and in the puerperium and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Three hundred and forty-seven representative binomials mother-child of births that occurred in public and private maternity wards in the city of Cordoba, Argentina, were studied. Mothers were interviewed between 24 to 48 hours after delivery. By means of logistic regression analysis the association between health care practices and the type of newborn feeding in public and private institutions was studied, controlling for the effect of sociodemographic and perinatal factors. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression, odds ratio, and 95%CI. Results Of the total, 60.4% newborns in public institutions and 2.9% in private institutions were exclusively breastfed. In the public institutions, the risk of partial breastfeeding in the immediate postpartum was significantly higher in children who were not initially fed with mother milk [odds ratio (OR)=149; confidence interval (CI): 95%: 16 7-1332], the first mother-child contact was delayed for more than 45 minutes (OR:4.43; IC 95%: 1.02-19.20) and mother intention was to breastfeed her child for less than 6 months (OR: 5.80; IC: 95% 1.32-25.52); and in private institutions when children were not initially fed with mother milk (OR: 9.88; IC 95%: 1.07-91.15). Conclusions Labor and postpartum care does not comply with the current recommendations and it affects the type of feeding regardless of other factors studied.

Berra, S., L. Rajmil, et al. (2001). "Premature cessation of breastfeeding in infants: development and evaluation of a predictive model in two Argentinian cohorts: the CLACYD study*, 1993-1999." 90(5): 544-551.

The objective of this study was to develop a model to predict premature cessation of breastfeeding of newborns, in order to detect at-risk groups that would benefit from special assistance programmes. The model was constructed using 700 children with a birthweight of 2000 g or more, in 2 representative cohorts in 1993 and 1995 (CLACYD I sample) in Cordoba, Argentina. Data were analysed from 632 of the cases. Mothers were selected during hospital admittance for childbirth and interviewed in their homes at 1 mo and 6 mo. To evaluate: the model, an additional sample with similar characteristics was drawn during 1998 (CLACYD II sample). A questionnaire was administered to 347 mothers during the first 24-48 h after birth and a follow-up was completed at 6 mo, with weaning information on 291 cases. premature cessation of bnastfeeding was considered when it occurred prior to 6 mo. A logistic regression model was fitted to predict premature end of breastfeeding, and was applied to the CLACYD II sample. The calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow C statistic) and the discrimination [area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve] of the model were evaluated. The predictive factors of premature end of breastfeeding were: mother breastfed for less than 6 mo [odds ratio (OR) = 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-2.70], breastfeeding of previous child fur less than 6 mo (OR = 4.01, 95% CI 2.58-6.20), the condition of the firstborn child (OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.79-4.21), the first mother-child contact occurring after 90 min of life (OR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.23-2.91) and having an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.05-2.15). The calibration of the model was acceptable in the CLACYD I sample (p = 0.54), as well as in the CLACYD II sample (p = 0.18). The areas under the ROC curve were 0.72 and 0.68, respectively. Conclusion: A model has been suggested that provides some insight unto background factors for the premature end of breast-feeding. Although some limitations prevent its general use at a population level, it may be a useful tool in the identification of women with a high probability of early weaning.

Berridge, K., A. F. Hackett, et al. (2004). "The cost of infant feeding in Liverpool, England." 7(8): 1039-1046.

Objective: To investigate feeding practices in infants under the age of 4 months in Liverpool, England with particular reference to the cost of infant feeding. Design: A cross-sectional survey consisting of self-completion questionnaires and interviews. Setting: Subjects' homes within Central and South Liverpool Primary Care Trust areas. Subjects: One hundred and forty-nine women (aged 18 to 43 years) and their infants (mean age 13 weeks). Results: The average weekly cost of breast-feeding was pound11.58 compared with pound9.60 for formula-feeding. Many breast- and formula-feeding women spent money however on items that were not needed or used only once or twice. This was especially true of first-time mothers. Characteristics significantly associated with higher spending were: feeding method - mothers that had or were partially breast-feeding (P=0.001), education - those educated to degree level (P=0.028), socio-economic status - those in social classes I and II (P=0.002) and age - those aged 30 years and over (P=0.003). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that while breast-feeding is often promoted as being free, this is not the case. Better information needs to be given to parents to avoid wasting money on items that are unnecessary, or where cheaper alternatives are available.

Bhandari, N., S. Mazumder, et al. (2005). "Use of multiple opportunities for improving feeding practices in under-twos within child health programmes." Health Policy and Planning 20(5): 328-336.

Bhattacharya, J., J. Currie, et al. (2004). "Poverty, food insecurity, and nutritional outcomes in children and adults." JOURNAL OF HEALTH ECONOMICS 23(4): 839-862.

Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examine the relationship between nutritional status, poverty, and food insecurity for household members of various ages. Our most striking result is that, while poverty is predictive of poor nutrition among preschool children, food insecurity does not provide any additional predictive power for this age group. Among school age children, neither poverty nor food insecurity is associated with nutritional outcomes, while among adults and the elderly, both food insecurity and poverty are predictive. These results suggest that researchers should be cautious about assuming connections between food insecurity and nutritional outcomes, particularly among children.
Biggerstaff, M. A., P. M. Morris, et al. "Living on the Edge: Examination of People Attending Food Pantries and Soup Kitchens."

This article presents information from a study of people receiving food assistance services from food pantries & soup kitchens in VA. The data indicate that significant numbers of individuals & families - many of whom are employed - are seeking food assistance. Many of these individuals also have been homeless, victims of domestic violence, unable to pay their utility bills, or have lost their public benefits. A critical issue raised by the findings is the low rate of participation in the food stamp program. Fewer than 40% of the respondents were receiving food stamps. Although the food stamp program is intended to help households buy a nutritionally adequate diet, there is growing concern that a large segment of low-income Americans are slipping through this safety net. The article concludes with suggestions for social work interventions to address issues of food security. 4 Tables, 26 References. Adapted from the source document.

Bingham, P. M., S. Abassi, et al. (2003). "A pilot study of milk odor effect on nonnutritive sucking by premature newborns." Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 157(1): 72-75.

Birch, L. and J. Fisher (1998). "Development of Eating Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents." Pediatrics 101(3): 539-549.

The prevalence of obesity among children is high and is increasing. We know that obesity runs in families, with children of obese parents at greater risk of developing obesity than children of thin parents. Research on genetic factors in obesity has provided us with estimates of the proportion of the variance in a population accounted for by genetic factors. However, this research does not provide information regarding individual development. To design effective preventive interventions, research is needed to delineate how genetics and environmental factors interact in the etiology of childhood obesity. Addressing this question is especially challenging because parents provide both genes and environment for children.

An enormous amount of learning about food and eating occurs during the transition from the exclusive milk diet of infancy to the omnivore’s diet consumed by early childhood. This early learning is constrained by children’s genetic predispositions, which include the unlearned preference for sweet tastes, salty tastes, and the rejection of sour and bitter tastes. Children also are predisposed to reject new foods and to learn associations between foods’ flavors and the postingestive consequences of eating. Evidence suggests that children can respond to the energy density of the diet and that although intake at individual meals is erratic, 24-hour energy intake is relatively well regulated. There are individual differences in the regulation of energy intake as early as the preschool period. These individual differences in self-regulation are associated with differences in child-feeding practices and with children’s adiposity.

This suggests that child-feeding practices have the potential to affect children’s energy balance via altering patterns of intake. Initial evidence indicates that imposition of stringent parental controls can potentiate preferences for high-fat, energy-dense foods, limit children’s acceptance of a variety of foods, and disrupt children’s regulation of energy intake by altering children’s responsiveness to internal cues of hunger and satiety. This can occur when well-intended but concerned parents assume that children need help in determining what, when, and how much to eat and when parents impose child-feeding practices that provide children with few opportunities for self-control. Implications of these findings for preventive interventions are discussed.
Birch, L. L. (1999). "Development of food preferences." Annual Review of Nutrition 19: 41-62.

Using a developmental systems perspective, this review focuses on how genetic predispositions interact with aspects of the eating environment to produce phenotypic food preferences. Predispositions include the unlearned, reflexive reactions to basic tastes: the preference for sweet and salty tastes, and the rejection of sour and bitter tastes. Other predispositions are (a) the neophobic reaction to new foods and (b) the ability to learn food preferences based on associations with the contexts and consequences of eating various foods. Whether genetic predispositions are manifested in food preferences that foster healthy diets depends on the eating environment, including food availability and child-feeding practices of the adults. Unfortunately, in the United States today, the ready availability of energy-dense foods, high in sugar, fat, and salt, provides an eating environment that fosters food preferences inconsistent with dietary guidelines, which can promote excess weight gain and obesity. [References: 137]

Birch, L. L. and K. K. Davison (X2001). "Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight." Pediatric Clinics of North America. 48(4): 893-907.

Although a large body of research has assessed direct genetic links between parent and child weight status, relatively little research has assessed the extent to which parents (particularly parents who are overweight) select environments that promote overweight among their children. Parents provide food environments for their children's early experiences with food and eating. These family eating environments include parents' own eating behaviors and child-feeding practices. Results of the limited research on behavioral mediators of familial patterns of overweight indicate that parents' own eating behaviors and their parenting practices influence the development of children's eating behaviors, mediating familial patterns of overweight. In particular, parents who are overweight, who have problems controlling their own food intake, or who are concerned about their children's risk for overweight may adopt controlling child-feeding practices in an attempt to prevent overweight in their children. Unfortunately, research reveals that these parental control attempts may interact with genetic predispositions to promote the development of problematic eating styles and childhood overweight. Although the authors have argued that behavioral mediators of family resemblances in weight status, such as parents' disinhibited or binge eating and parenting practices are shaped largely by environmental factors, individual differences in these behaviors also have genetic bases. A primary public health goal should be the development of family-based prevention programs for childhood overweight. The findings reviewed here suggest that effective prevention programs must focus on providing anticipatory guidance on parenting to foster patterns of preference and food selection in children more consistent with healthy diets and promote children's ability to self-regulate intake. Guidance for parents should include information on how children develop patterns of food intake in the family context. Practical advice for parents includes how to foster children's preferences for healthy foods and how to promote acceptance of new foods by children. Parents need to understand the costs of coercive feeding practices and be given alternatives to restricting food and pressuring children to eat. Providing parents with easy-to-use information regarding appropriate portion sizes for children is also essential as are suggestions on the timing and frequency of meals and snacks. Especially during early and middle childhood, family environments are the key contents for the development of food preferences, patterns of food intake, eating styles, and the development of activity preferences and patterns that shape children's developing weight status. Designing effective prevention programs will, however, require more complete knowledge than currently available regarding behavioral intermediaries that foster overweight, including the family factors that shape activity patterns, meals taken away from home, the impact of stress on family members' eating styles, food intake, activity patterns, and weight gain. The research presented here provides an example of how ideas regarding the effects of environmental factors and behavioral mediators on childhood overweight can be investigated. Such research requires the development of reliable and valid measures of environmental variables and behaviors. Because childhood overweight is a multifactorial problem, additional research is needed to develop and test theoretic models describing how a wide range of environmental factors and behavioral intermediaries can work in concert with genetic predispositions to promote the development of childhood overweight. The crucial test of these theoretic models will be in preventive interventions. [References: 71]
Birch, L. L. and J. O. Fisher (1998). "Development of eating behaviours among children and adolescents." Pediatrics 101: 539-549.

Birch, L. L. and J. O. Fisher (2000). "Mothers' child-feeding practices influence daughters' eating and weight." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71(5): 1054-61.

Background: Childhood overweight has increased dramatically, particularly among young girls. Genetic and environmental factors produce the overweight phenotype. Nonshared environments appear to account for a substantial proportion of the population variance in overweight but remain largely unspecified and unmeasured. Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the influence of maternal control in feeding, an aspect of nonshared family environment, on daughters' eating and relative weight. Design: Structural equation modeling was used to test models that describe maternal influences on daughters' eating and relative weight. The participants were 197 white, non-Hispanic families with 5-y-old daughters. The mothers' own dietary restraint and their perceptions of their daughters' risk of overweight were used to predict maternal control in feeding, which was used to predict the daughters' eating and weight outcomes. Results: Maternal body mass index was a modest predictor of daughters' relative weight. The addition of the family-environment pathway provided a good fit and showed additional, independent prediction of daughters' relative weight. Mothers' dietary restraint and perceptions of their daughters' risk of overweight predicted maternal child-feeding practices, which in turn predicted daughters' eating and relative weight. Conclusions: Child-specific aspects of the family environment, including mothers' child-feeding practices and perceptions of their daughters' risk of overweight, may represent important, nonshared, environmental influences on daughters' eating and relative weight. The environmental effects noted were modest but comparable in magnitude to the direct association between maternal and child weight, which indicates that measuring family environmental factors can enhance our understanding of the etiology of childhood overweight. Copyright (C) 2000 American Society for Clinical Nutrition
Birch, L. L., J. O. Fisher, et al. (2001). "Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Feeding Questionnaire: a measure of parental attitudes, beliefs and practices about child feeding and obesity proneness." Appetite.

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