Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers

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77(1): 215-217.

Marlier, L. and B. Schaal (2005). "Human newborns prefer human milk: Conspecific milk odor is attractive without postnatal exposure." Child Development 76(1): 155-168.

Marmot, M. a. W., R.G. ( (2001)). "Psychosocial and material pathways in the relation between income and health. A response to Lynch et. al.,." British Medical Journal 322: 1233-1236.

Marquis, M. and B. Shatenstein (2005). "Food choice motives and the importance of family meals among immigrant mothers." 66(2): 77-82.

To determine the health and social benefits of the family mealtime, we examined the contribution of immigrant mothers' food motives to the importance placed on family meals, and cultural differences in mothers' food motives and the importance ascribed to family meals. Data were taken from a study on food choice factors among ten- to 12-year-old children from three cultural communities in Montreal. A 24-item, self-administered questionnaire was used to explore food choice motives. Each mother was also asked how important it was for her family to take the time to eat together, and if the child enjoyed sharing meals with his or her family. In all, 209 of the 653 questionnaires distributed were valid; 68 were from Haitian, 75 from Portuguese, and 66 from Vietnamese mothers. Five factors emerging from factor analyses explained 61.67% of the variance. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences between mothers' countries of origin for the importance placed on health, Pleasure, familiarity, and ingredient properties (p < 0.005). Among Haitian and Portuguese mothers, health motivations emerged as the only significant predictor of the importance given to family meals, whereas for Vietnamese mothers, both health and eating familiar foods were predictors (p < 0.05).
Marriott, L. D. and K. D. Foote (2003). "Advances in the nutrition of preterm infants." Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health 123(3): 159-164.

Marshall, D. (1995). Food choice and the consumer. London, Blackie Academic & Professional.

Marshall, D. W. (1995). "The Decline of the Family Meal." 24(3): 270-270.

Marsiglio, W., P. Amato, et al. (2000). "Scholarship on fatherhood in the 1990s and beyond." Journal of Marriage and the Family 62(4): 1173-1191.

Marsiglio, W. and A. Men's Studies (1995). Fatherhood : contemporary theory, research, and social policy. Thousand Oaks, Calif. ; London, Sage Publications.

Marsiglio, W. and F. L. Mott "Does wanting to become pregnant with a first child affect subsequent maternal behaviors and infant birth weight?" Journal of Marriage and the Family 50: 1023-6.

Found that while wantedness was related to most of the maternal behaviors in a bivariate context, age at childbearing and race tended to be responsible for these relationships. In a multivariate context, women who wanted their pregnancy were more likely to initiate prenatal care early in their pregnancy and more likely to gain an excessive amount of weight. (Abstract amended)
Mason, J. ((1998)). Qualitative researching. London, Sage Publications.

Masschelein, J. a. M., S. (2002). "An Adequate Education in a Globalised World? A Note on Immunisation: Against Being-Together." Journal of Philosophy of Education 36(4): 589-608.

Matheny, A. C. and T. S. Zimmerman (2001). "The application of family systems theory to organizational consultation: A content analysis." American Journal of Family Therapy 29(5): 421-433.

A content analysis was performed on 43 articles published between 1970 and 1998 discerned as relating family systems theory (FST) frameworks and constructs to organizational consultation. Frameworks and constructs were coded and then investigated in relation to four independent variables., type of organization, decade of article publication, gender, and educational training of author. Results indicate that the use of FST frameworks and constructs vary depending upon the characteristics of the organization, time period, and consultant. Results highlight specific FST frameworks and constructs most common in organizational consultation

May, L., R. A. Strikwerda, et al. (1996). Rethinking masculinity : philosophical explorations in light of feminism. Lanham, Md. ; London, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Mayall, B. (1998). "Towards a sociology of child health." Sociology of Health and Illness 20(3): 269-288.

Mayall, B. (2001). Children's Health at School. Children in Society - Contemporary Theory, Policy and Practice. P. Foley, J. Roche and S. Tucker. Basingstoke, Palgrave: 195-201.

Maynard, L. M., D. A. Galuska, et al. (2003). "Maternal perceptions of weight status of children." 111(5): 1226-1231.

Objective. We quantified maternal misclassification of child weight status and examined determinants associated with maternal perceptions of child weight status. Methods. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ( 1988 - 1994) were used. The sample included 5500 children ( aged 2 - 11 years) with maternal interview data. Maternal perceptions of children's weight status were compared with measured weights and statures from which body mass index (BMI; weight/stature(2); kg/m(2)) percentiles and z scores were determined. Frequency analyses determined the percentages of mothers considering their child to be "overweight," " underweight," or " about the right weight." Multivariable logistic regression analyses determined predictors of maternal misclassification of overweight children (greater than or equal to 95th BMI-for-age percentile) and those at risk for overweight (greater than or equal to 85th to < 95th BMI-for-age percentile). Results. Nearly one third (32.1%) of mothers reported their overweight child as " about the right weight." Younger children and those with lower BMI-for-age z scores had significantly greater odds of maternal underclassification of child overweight status. For children at risk for overweight, 14.0% of mothers reported sons to be " overweight," whereas 29.0% considered daughters to be "overweight." Odds of maternal misclassification of at-risk children as " overweight" were significantly greater for daughters, older children, children with higher BMI-for-age z scores, and children whose mothers had a lower BMI. Race/ethnicity was not a significant predictor in either model. Conclusions. Nearly one third of mothers misclassify overweight children as being lower than their measured weight status. Mothers are more likely to identify daughters who are at risk of overweight as being " overweight" than they are sons.
McCaffree, J. (2003). "Childhood eating patterns: the roles parents play." Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 103(12): 1587.

McCann, T. V. and E. Clark. (2005). "Adopting Care Provider-Facilitator Roles: Community Mental Health Nurses and Young Adults with an Early Episode of Schizophrenia."

The study focused on how community mental health nurses promoted wellness when caring for young adults with schizophrenia. Grounded theory methodology informed data collection & analysis. Interviews & observations were held with nurses, mental health clients & significant others. The findings showed that the basic social psychological problem was conceptualized as uncertainty of direction, which reflected nurses' uncertainty when contemplating how to assimilate the promotion of wellness into their discourse of care. Nurses dealt with this problem through a basic social psychological process conceptualized as adopting care provider-facilitator roles. There were two inter-related domains or foci of care, which related to the way nurses promoted wellness, & within each domain there were one or more phases. Contextual determinants moderated the way nurses adopted care provider-facilitator roles. The findings have implications for clinical practice, nursing administration, nursing education, & nursing research, & these are discussed. 1 Figure, 56 References. Adapted from the source document.
McCarthy, B. and J. Hagan. "Surviving on the Street: The Experiences of Homeless Youth."

Questionnaire data are drawn on to describe the living conditions of 390 adolescents who had left home & were living on the streets in Toronto, Ontario, in 1987. The majority of respondents (Rs) had spent a considerable amount of time without adequate shelter, food, or income; many were involved in illegal activities & had been incarcerated or suicidal. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the most consistent predictors of hunger, criminal activity, & incarceration were conditions of street life itself: the lack of secure shelter & the length of time on the street. Overall, the living conditions of these Rs closely parallel those of homeless adults, suggesting that it may be inappropriate to label the former runaways & to consistently separate adults & adolescents into distinct homeless populations. 4 Tables, 44 References. Adapted from the source document.

McConnell-Ginet, S. (2004). "Men talk: Stories in the making of masculinity." LANGUAGE 80(2): 318-320.

McCormack, K. (2005). "Stratified Reproduction and Poor Women's Resistance."

The welfare mother is a powerful symbol of the supposed irresponsible, sexually promiscuous, and immoral behavior of the poor. Resting on dominant ideologies of race, class, and gender, the welfare mother suggests not a poor mother but a bad mother. Based on interviews with 34 mothers receiving public assistance, this article explores how women receiving assistance claim for themselves an identity as good mothers by defining the appropriate responsibilities of mothers to prioritize, protect, discipline, provide for, and spend time with their children. The material realities of poverty combined with work requirements now attached to public assistance exacerbate contradictions between these roles and create difficulties for these mothers. This article explores these contradictions and examines the possibilities for and limits of their use as resistance strategies. 40 References. [Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications Inc., copyright 2005 Sociologists for Women in Society.].
McCracken, E. (1992). Decoding Women's Magazines : From "Mademoiselle" to "Ms", Macmillan P.

McCulloch, A. ((2001)). "Social environments and health: cross-sectional national survey." British Medical Journal, 323: 208-209. 323: 208-209.

McCullough, F. S. W., S. Yoo, et al. (2004). "Food choice, nutrition education and parental influence on British and Korean primary school children." International Journal of Consumer Studies 28(3): 235-244.

McDermott, B. M. and T. Jaffa (2005). "Eating disorders in children and adolescents: an update." 18(4): 407-410.

Purpose of review Children and adolescents with eating disorders frequently present to child mental health and paediatric services and have significant morbidity, psychosocial impairment and mortality. Efforts to treat these individuals have been hampered by a poor evidence base for effective interventions. This article reviews research published during 2004 with a primary focus on this challenging clinical area. Recent findings Research published during 2004 has replicated past epidemiological findings and expanded our understanding of the relationship of family meal structure and disordered eating. Research has provided assistance in the well known clinical conundrums of excessive exercising in anorexia nervosa and predicting when return of menses will occur. There has also been clarification of adolescent bingeing. Potential advances include a new, noninvasive method of measuring body composition and investigations in adolescents on leptin, neuro and gastrointestinal peptides. Importantly, further evidence of the effectiveness of family therapy for anorexia nervosa and short-term benefits from intervention programs have been published. Summary The research base that will influence clinical practice in child and adolescent eating disorders is increasing. More research is required in all areas of intervention.
McDermott, E. and H. Graham. (2005). "Resilient Young Mothering: Social Inequalities, Late Modernity and the 'Problem' of 'Teenage' Motherhood."

This paper draws on a systematic review of qualitative research to explore the resilient mothering practices that young, British, working-class mothers employ to care for their children. The synthesis of studies of UK mothers under the age of 20 demonstrates how young working-class women must mother in impoverished circumstances, at the same time as being discursively positioned outside the boundaries of 'normal' motherhood. Consequently, they utilize the only two resources to which they may have access: their families & their own personal capacities. Engaging with debates regarding the extent of the transformations of the social in late modernity, the paper discusses the most prominent of the young mothers' practices: investment in the 'good' mother identity, maintaining kin relations, & prioritization of the mother/child dyad. The paper argues that, while the young mothers' practices display reflexivity & individualism, they are also deeply embedded in, & structured by, social inequalities. 4 Tables, 70 References. Adapted from the source document.

McDonald, P. K., L. M. Bradley, et al. (2005). "Good Mothers, Bad Mothers: Exploring the Relationship between Attitudes towards Nonmaternal Childcare and Mother's Labour Force Participation."

Normative beliefs of motherhood include a number of culturally prescribed constructs that account for how mothers should think, feel, & behave, which impact on maternal labour force participation (LFP). This study investigates a central element of these normative beliefs, that is, attitudes towards nonmaternal childcare & maternal LFP, using survey (N = 112) & interview (N = 24) data derived from a sample of mothers who were employees & ex-employees of an Australian University. Results show that while at-home women held negative views of all nonmaternal childcare, women working part-time believed nonmaternal care is acceptable if for a limited period of time & where the child is likely to derive developmental benefits. Women working full-time were more positive about nonmaternal care, although a substantial degree of guilt & ambivalence was expressed. The results inform the current understanding of normative beliefs of motherhood in Western societies & may contribute to the development of targeted policies that support families in their employment & care-giving responsibilities. 61 References. Adapted from the source document.

McDonald, R. ((2004)). "Individual identity and organisational control: Empowerment and Modernisation in a Primary Care Trust, ." Sociology of Health and Illness, 26(7): 925-950.

McInnes, R. J., J. G. Love, et al. (2001). "Independent predictors of breastfeeding intention in a disadvantaged population of pregnant women." 1.

Background: Breastfeeding rates in Scotland are very low, particularly in the more disadvantaged areas. Despite a number of interventions to promote breastfeeding very few women actually intend to breastfeed their baby. The aim of this study was to identify personal and social factors independently associated with intention to breastfeed. Methods: Nine hundred and ninety seven women from two socio-economically disadvantaged housing estates located on the outskirts of Glasgow participated in a study that aimed to increase the prevalence of breastfeeding. Self-administered questionnaires completed by each participant collected information in early pregnancy, prior to exposure to the study intervention, on feeding intention, previous feeding experience and socio-demographic data. Results: Five factors were independently predictive of breastfeeding intention. These were previous breastfeeding experience, living with a partner, smoking, parity and maternal age. After adjusting for these five factors, neither deprivation nor receipt of milk tokens provided useful additional predictive information. Conclusion: In this population of socially disadvantaged pregnant women we identified five variables that were independently predictive of breastfeeding intention. These variables could be useful in identifying women at greatest risk of choosing not to breastfeed. Appropriate promotional efforts could then be designed to give due consideration to individual circumstances.
McInnes, R. J. and D. H. Stone (2001). "The process of implementing a community-based peer breast-feeding support programme: the Glasgow experience." 17(1): 65-73.

Aim: to document the process of implementing and maintaining a community-based peer- support programme. Design and setting: a community-based study located in a socio-economically disadvantaged housing estate on the outskirts of Glasgow. Participants: pregnant women residing in a target postcode area, Intervention: a programme of peer counselling and support for breast feeding, comprising antenatal and postnatal home visits over a period of three years. Implications for practice: peer support may provide an acceptable and appropriate role model for breast-feeding mothers. However, further research is required on other influential factors such as the social network and the impact of this programme on the peer supporter Conclusions: despite a low prevalence of breast feeding, initiating and maintaining peer breast-feeding support was possible. Peer support appeared to be acceptable to mothers and health professionals, Study mothers spoke enthusiastically of the intervention and mentioned increased confidence and self-esteem, (C) 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

McIntosh, W. A. and M. Zey (1989). "Women as gatekeepers of food consumption. A sociological critique." Food and Foodways . 3(4): 317.

McIntyre, E., D. Pisaniello, et al. (2002). "Balancing breastfeeding and paid employment: a project targeting employers, women and workplaces." 17(3): 215-222.

Since breastfeeding is acknowledged as the best nutrition for young babies, it needs to be protected, supported and promoted, This includes enabling mothers to continue breastfeeding even when they return to work. This paper describes a project that promotes balancing breastfeeding and paid work through the development, distribution, promotion and evaluation of suitable materials to workplaces, employers and women in Australia. Information provided in a workplace kit was based on previous successful strategies from published works in refereed journals and in consultation with employers, employees and other key people, Information for employees was further summarized and translated into Arabic, Chinese, Turkish, Spanish and Vietnamese. Over 50 000 information kits were distributed Australia-wide using a database that comprised contact details of medium to large workplaces plus employee and employer organizations, with preference given to workplaces that employed women of childbearing age and women from diverse cultural backgrounds, The translated material was also distributed to migrant resource centres and working women's centres around Australia. Promotion of the project was extensive, resulting in 20 newspaper articles, 17 radio interviews or news items, and articles in 18 newsletters and professional journals and three magazines. The project was also promoted at three conferences and one seminar Evaluation (directed at employers) focused primarily on the distribution and content of the information kit, since the evaluation was conducted soon after distribution. The evaluation survey was sent to 1571 valid contacts (808 e-mail addresses, 1360 fax numbers). The response rate was 12.8% (n=202). Seventy per cent of responding businesses rated the information kit as excellent. Over half anticipated the kit would be useful in their organization, while over two-thirds agreed that the kit provided sufficient information and suitable solutions to support balancing breastfeeding and work in their organization. While this project has achieved its objectives, further work is required to assist organizations to develop and implement policies and procedures for balancing breastfeeding and work, so that breastfeeding mothers who are returning to work can continue to breastfeed as long as they and their baby require it.
McIntyre, L., N. T. Glanville, et al. (2003). "Do low-income lone mothers compromise their nutrition to feed their children?" 168(6): 686-691.

Background: Women who live in disadvantaged circumstances in Canada exhibit dietary intakes below recommended levels, but their children often do not. One reason for this difference may be that mothers modify their own food intake to spare their children nutritional deprivation. The objective of our study was to document whether or not low-income lone mothers compromise their own diets to feed their children. Methods: We studied 141 low-income lone mothers with at least 2 children under the age of 14 years who lived in Atlantic Canada. Women were identified through community organizations using a variety of recruitment strategies. The women were asked weekly for 1 month to recall their food intake over the previous 24 hours; they also reported their children's (n = 333) food intake. Mothers also completed a questionnaire about "food insecurity," that is, a lack of access to adequate, nutritious food through socially acceptable means, during each interview. Results: Household food insecurity was reported by 78% of mothers during the study month. Mothers' dietary intakes and the adequacy of intake were consistently poorer than their children's intake overall and over the course of a month. The difference in adequacy of intake between mothers and children widened from Time 1, when the family had the most money to purchase food, to Time 4, when the family had the least money. The children experienced some improvement in nutritional intake at Time 3, which was possibly related to food purchases for them associated with receipt of the Child Tax Benefit Credit or the Goods and Services Tax Credit. Interpretation: Our study demonstrates that low-income lone mothers compromise their own nutritional intake in order to preserve the adequacy of their children's diets.

McKinley, N. M. (1999). "Women and objectified body consciousness: Mothers' and daughters' body experience in cultural developmental, and familial context." 35(3): 760-769.

Hypotheses about age-related differences in objectified body consciousness (OBC; McKinley & Hyde, 1996) based on the cultural, developmental, and familial contexts of women's body experience were tested on 151 undergraduate women and their middle-aged mothers. Mothers had lower levels of surveillance (watching the body as an outside observer) and body shame (feeling one is a bad person when appearance does not meet cultural standards) than daughters. No differences were found in appearance control beliefs, body esteem, or restricted eating, even though mothers weighed more and were less satisfied with their weight than daughters. OBC was related to measures of psychological well-being in both age groups; body esteem was more strongly related to some measures of daughters' psychological well-being than mothers'. Relationships of partner and family approval and OBC and body esteem were also examined.

McKinley, N. M. and J. S. Hyde (2004). "Personal attitudes or structural factors? A contextual analysis of breastfeeding duration." 28(4): 388-399.

A personal attitudes model (i.e., infant feeding choices are based on personal attitudes primarily) and a structural factors model (i.e., feeding choices are shaped by the structural contexts of women's lives, as much as personal attitudes) of women's breastfeeding behavior were tested by surveying a longitudinal sample of 548 mostly European American women recruited for the Wisconsin Maternity Leave and Health Project. Personal attitudes (enjoyment of breastfeeding, gender-role attitudes, and work and family salience) accounted for half as much variance in breastfeeding duration for women who were employed outside the home compared to those who were not. For women employed outside the home, both structural variables (length of maternity leave and workplace flexibility) and personal attitudes predicted duration. These results have implications for how we construct the issue of women's breastfeeding decisions.

Mechling, J. (2005). "Boy Scouts and the Manly Art of Cooking." Food and Foodways

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