Objectives: to determine whether a specific 'hands-off' breastfeeding technique, based on the physiology of suckling and clinical experience, if taught to mothers in the immediate postnatal period, improves their chances of breastfeeding successfully and reduces the incidence of problems. To investigate the factors associated with breastfeeding at two and six weeks postpartum using logistic regression analysis. Design: a non-randomised prospective cohort phased intervention study. Setting: subjects recruited from one postnatal ward in St. Michael's Hospital, Bristol from October 1996 to November 1998. Participants: 1400 South Bristol mothers who were breastfeeding on discharge from hospital. Three hundred and ninety-five of these mothers were scored for efficiency of using the breastfeeding technique. Intervention: a 'hands- off' breastfeeding technique was taught to midwives in hospital who subsequently taught mothers in their care. Measurements: frequencies of exclusive and 'any breastfeeding' at two and six weeks from questionnaires sent to mothers at home, and incidence of breastfeeding problems. Findings: significant increases were observed in the proportion of mothers exclusively breastfeeding at two weeks (P < 0.001) and six weeks (P=0.02) and in 'any breastfeeding' rates (P=0.005) at two weeks after the technique intervention. The incidence of mothers feeling that they did 'not have enough milk' (perceived milk insufficiency) decreased significantly after the breastfeeding technique had been taught (P=0.02). Logistic regression analysis produced a model which showed that mothers with high scores for the "hands-off technique were significantly more likely to be breastfeeding at six weeks compared with those who did not use all the elements of the technique (OR 2.4; CI 1.3, 43). Factors associated with continuing to breastfeed at two and six weeks postpartum were also investigated using logistic regression. At two weeks, the significant factors associated with breastfeeding included mothers feeling that they had a 'plentiful milk supply' (OR 3.3; CI 2.1, S.3), not using a dummy (OR 2.6; CI 1.6, 4.0), not giving the baby any other fluid in hospital (OR 2A; CI 1.5, 3.8) and receiving enough support for breastfeeding from hospital staff (OR 2.1; CI 1.3, 3.5). By six weeks, in addition to these factors, the encouragement from a supportive partner, other family members and health professionals in enabling women to continue to breastfeed was found to show the largest associations with the maintenance of breastfeeding [(OR 37.2; CI 17.3, 80.2) for all three encouraging (327/817; 40% of breastfeeders) compared with no encouragement (67/817; 8% of breastfeeders)]. Conclusions: in the immediate postnatal period, if mothers are taught good breastfeeding technique by midwives in a 'hands-off' style, which enables mothers to position and attach their babies for themselves, and which is based on a physiological approach, breastfeeding rates are increased and the incidence of perceived milk insufficiency decreases. Successful breastfeeding in the early weeks was associated both with practices and support in hospital and with factors at home including not using dummies and having a supportive partner, family and health professionals who are encouraging breastfeeding. Implications for practice: teaching mothers how to breastfeed in a 'hands-off' way is important in empowering mothers to 'do it for themselves' and in improving breastfeeding rates. Widespread adoption of consistent good practice is achievable following a brief workshop teaching session. Using the 'breastfeeding score checklist' may help midwives to assess a breastfeed more accurately and determine which aspects need improving. Health professionals should aim to educate all key family members, whenever an opportunity arises both during pregnancy and postnatally, in the benefits of breast milk for babies in the first few months of life and how to encourage and support a mother in the early weeks of breastfeeding. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ingram, J., D. Johnson, et al. (2003). "South Asian grandmothers' influence on breast feeding in Bristol." Midwifery19(4): 318-327.
Ingram, J., M. Woolridge, et al. (2001). "Breastfeeding: it is worth trying with the second baby." 358(9286): 986-987.
Mothers who experience breastfeeding difficulties with their first babies and give up breastfeeding are less likely to breastfeed subsequent babies than mothers who do not experience such difficulties. We carried out a longitudinal study of 22 mothers in which milk output was measured at I week and 4 weeks after giving birth to their first and second babies. Significantly more breast milk was produced at I week for the second lactation (an increase of 31% [95% CI 11-51%]) and the net increase was greatest for those with the lowest milk output on the first occasion (90% [30-149%]). They spent less time feeding their second baby (a decrease of 20% [-34 to -5%]). This increased efficiency of milk transfer was also evident at 4 weeks. Health professionals should encourage women to breastfeed all their children, whatever their experience with their first child.
IOM (2004). Parents can play a role in preventing childhood obesity, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.
Ishii, K. a. J. N. (2002). "The Housewife Is Born: the Establishment of the Notion and Identity of the Shufu in Modern Japan." Japanese Studies22(1): 35-47.
The Japanese housewife, or shufu, a concept borrowed from the West during the Meiji Restoration, exemplified women's self-sacrifice in the form of thrifty household management as part of strictly defined gender roles; but the concept broadened during the Taisho era through such women's magazines as Shufu no Tomo [Housewives' companion] to include self-improvement.
Ito, S. and A. Lee (2003). "Drug excretion into breast milk - Overview." Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews55(5): 617-627.
Jachimiak, P. (2006). "Masculinity and men's lifestyle magazines." MEDIA CULTURE & SOCIETY28(1): 151-152.
Jackson, D. (1990). Unmasking masculinity : a critical autobiography. London ; Boston, Unwin Hyman.
Jackson, D., J. Mannix, et al. (2005). "Overweight and obese children: mothers' strategies." Journal of Advanced Nursing52(1): 6-13.
Jackson, D., J. Mannix, et al. (2005). "Overweight and obese children: mothers' strategies." 52(1): 6-13.
Aim. This paper reports a study exploring the strategies a group of mothers of overweight and obese children were using and planned to use in the future to assist their children to achieve a healthy weight. Background. Over the past two decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has grown exponentially to become a major public health concern. Extant literature suggests that childhood obesity is associated with a range of physical, social and psychological effects, including poor self-esteem, depression, social isolation, and cardio-vascular and other morbidity. Parents are known to be important in determining early eating and exercise habits, and their involvement is crucial to achieving positive child health outcomes. Methods. An exploratory-descriptive design informed by feminist research principles shaped the study, which was carried out in 2003-2004. Eleven mothers meeting the inclusion criteria took part in in-depth interviews. These were transcribed, and qualitatively analysed. Findings. Participants revealed sound understandings of the concept and ramifications of obesity. They had initiated a range of strategies including role modelling, developing opportunities for increased physical activity, reducing the use of junk food, and heightened awareness of how they used food. Participants viewed the problem as a family rather than an individual problem, and aimed many of the interventions at the entire family to avoid targeting the focus child. Conclusions. Further research into how childhood obesity is managed within the context of family life is needed. Specifically, additional perspectives on how mothers from various socio-cultural groups address childhood obesity within family life, and longitudinal studies to explore the efficacy and sustainability of family-based lifestyle changes that are made in response to concerns about child weight issues. Additional research to explore the type and nature of family support that can best assist families to achieve sustainable lifestyle improvements is needed.
Jackson, P. (1991). "The Cultural Politics of Masculinity - Towards a Social Geography." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers16(2): 199-213.
Jackson, P. (1991). "Cultural politics of masculinity: towards a social geography." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers16: 199-213.
Jackson, P. (1995). "Changing geographics of consumption." Environment and Planning A27(12): 1875-1876.
Jackson, P. (1999). "Commodity cultures: the traffic in things." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers24(1): 95-108.
Focusing on the commodification of various forms of cultural difference, this payer reviews recent work within the 'globalization' and 'creolization' paradigms, outlining an agenda for future research. Rather than condemning commodification as an unwarranted threat to the 'authenticity' of local cultures, the paper argues for a more complex understanding of people's relationship with the world of goods. Using a variety of examples, it is argued that the 'traffic in things' is associated with a wide range of meanings and a diversity of responses. Informed by recent debates in anthropology and material culture studies, it is suggested that geographical metaphors (such as distance and displacement) provide a more productive way of engaging with contemporary commodity cultures than do visual metaphors (such as unveiling or unmasking). Other means of transcending the distinction between cultural and economic geographies are also discussed.
Jackson, P. (2002). "Commercial cultures: transcending the cultural and the economic." Progress in Human Geography26(1): 3-18.
In recent years there have been repeated calls for a convergence between 'the cultural' and 'the economic'. This paper provides a specific take on these issues through an exploration of the contested geographies of contemporary commercial culture. Traditionally, 'culture' has been associated with meaning and creativity, with works of the imagination and aesthetic practices that are far removed from the pursuit of economic profit. By contrast, 'commerce' has conventionally been regarded with disdain by critically minded social scientists, signalling a vulgar and materialistic world, devoid of morality, where human agency is subordinated to the logic of capital. This paper aims to challenge such dualistic thinking by exploring the commodification of cultural difference and by demonstrating that the rational calculus of the market is inescapably embedded in a range of cultural practices. The argument moves from an analysis of linear commodity chains to an exploration of more complex circuits and networks, illustrated with examples from contemporary commodity culture, looking specifically at the food and fashion sectors. Rather than demonstrating complexity for its own sake, the objective is to identify new forms of understanding and new possibilities for intervention in what can sometimes seem like an all-encompassing 'consumer culture' where every act of resistance is immediately recuperated in successive rounds of commodification.
Jackson, P. (2004). "Local consumption cultures in a globalizing world." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers29(2): 165-178.
Focusing on the resilience of distinctive local consumption cultures, this paper challenges some of the more sweeping claims that have been advanced in the name of 'globalization'. Thinking about a 'globalizing' rather than a fully 'globalized' world encourages us to examine the deeply contested nature of the concept and to explore the geographically uneven nature of recent economic, political and cultural transformations. This paper approaches globalization as a site of struggle rather than as an established fact, emphasizing the need for empirically grounded studies of the impact of 'globalization' on consumer cultures in different geographical contexts. The paper examines the way that producers have 'customized' their products for different markets (drawing on evidence from China and South Africa). It then reviews case study evidence from three contrasting consumption cultures: consumption and 'public culture' in India, 'consumer nationalism' in China, and 'artful consumption' in Russia. The paper concludes by identifying some current debates and outlining some directions for future research, including a re-emphasis on consumption and material culture; an exploration of consumption as social practice; the delineation of commodity-specific consumption cultures; and some reflections on the political, ethical and methodological issues that are being raised in contemporary consumption research.
Jackson, P. and K. Brooks (1999). "Making sense of men's lifestyle magazines." Environment and Planning D-Society & Space17(3): 353-368.
In this paper we document the rapid growth of the British men's 'lifestyle' magazine market and explore its significance in terms of men's changing identities and gender relations. By drawing on focus-group discussions with men of different class, age, and regional and ethnic backgrounds, we contrast two ways of thinking about these magazines. The first employs a distinction between 'surface' and 'depth', and suggests that the magazines signal only superficial changes in contemporary masculinities. The second approach identifies a series of discursive repertoires on which men draw in 'making sense' of the magazines. Four such repertoires are highlighted, which involve notions of 'honesty: 'naturalness: 'openness: and 'harmless fun'. The analysis suggests that although some respondents saw the magazines' commercial success in terms of a backlash against 'feminist extremism' and 'political correctness', most denied their wider political significance. We conclude that the magazines provide their readers with a form of 'constructed certitude' that represents a commodified response to men's current gender anxieties.
Jackson, P., R. P. del Aguila, et al. (2006). "Retail restructuring and consumer choice 2. Understanding consumer choice at the household level." Environment and Planning A38(1): 47-67.
This paper complements the preceding one by Clarke et al, which looked at the long-term impact of retail restructuring on consumer choice at the local level. Whereas the previous paper was based on quantitative evidence from survey research, this paper draws on the qualitative phases of the same three-year study, and in it we aim to understand how the changing forms of retail provision are experienced at the neighbourhood and household level. The empirical material is drawn from focus groups, accompanied shopping trips, diaries, interviews, and kitchen visits with eight households in two contrasting neighbourhoods in the Portsmouth area. The data demonstrate that consumer choice involves judgments of taste, quality, and value as well as more 'objective' questions of convenience, price, and accessibility. These judgments are related to households' differential levels of cultural capital and involve ethical and moral considerations as well as more mundane considerations of practical utility. Our evidence suggests that many of the terms that are conventionally advanced as explanations of consumer choice (such as 'convenience', 'value', and 'habit') have very different meanings according to different household circumstances. To understand these meanings requires us to relate consumers' at-store behaviour to the domestic context in which their consumption choices are embedded. Bringing theories of practice to bear on the nature of consumer choice, our research demonstrates that consumer choice between stores can be understood in terms of accessibility and convenience, whereas choice within stores involves notions of value, price, and quality. We also demonstrate that choice between and within stores is strongly mediated by consumers' household contexts, reflecting the extent to which shopping practices are embedded within consumers' domestic routines and complex everyday lives. The paper concludes with a summary of the overall findings of the project, and with a discussion of the practical and theoretical implications of the study.
Jackson, P. and B. Holbrook (1995). "Multiple meanings: Shopping and the cultural politics of identity." Environment and Planning A27(12): 1913-1930.
Many studies of contemporary consumption have tended to reduce a complex and contested process to a momentary and isolated act of purchase. A similar kind of reduction is common in many semiotic analyses of shopping malls and in studies of advertising which assume an audience's readings rather than investigating them empirically. Drawing on field research in north London, we provide evidence from focus group discussions of the social use of shopping centres and of the multiple meanings of such apparently mundane activities for the consumers themselves. Five themes are highlighted concerning skill, style, and shopping; shopping as a source of pleasure and anxiety; shopping as a socially situated activity; consumers as knowing, active subjects; and shopping as a highly and complexly gendered activity. These themes illustrate that the consumption process condenses many aspects of our contemporary identities including the dynamics of class and ethnicity, gender and generation, and the cultural politics of space and place.
Jackson, P. e. a. (2001). Making Sense of Men's Magazines. Cambridge, Polity.
Jacobson, B. and A. Amos (1985). When smoke gets in your eyes : cigarette advertising policy and coverage of smoking and health in women's magazines. London, BMA Professional Division.
James, A. (1981). Concoctions, Confections and Conceptions. Popular Culture Past and Present. A. Waites and e. al. London, Croom Helm.
James, A. (1996). "Learning to be friends - Methodological lessons from participant observation among English schoolchildren." Childhood3(3): 313-330.
Although the socially constructed character of childhood is now well established, the methodological challenges this raises remain so far relatively unremarked. Drawing on a recent period of fieldwork, carried out among English schoolchildren aged between 4 and 9 years old, this article explores the contribution of participant observation as a research method to the study of childhood. Two key aspects are discussed. Taking children's friendships as its focus, the article argues, first, that participant observation permits a more comprehensive understanding of the process of friendship making than traditional sociometric techniques. Second, it shows that, for the researcher, the remembered experiences of participation and observation allow for a continued reflexive critique to be made of the data, a learning process which patterns the path through which children's friendships are themselves constructed.
James, A. (2000). "'Childhood' in 'Crisis'." Sociological Research Online5(2): U190-U191.
James, A. (2005). "Doing research with children and young people." SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW53(2): 375 - 377.
James, A. (2005). "The reality of research with children and young people." SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW53(2): 375-377.
James, A. and P. Christensen (2000). Research with Children. London, RoutledgeFalmer.
James, A. and A. James (1999). "Pump up the volume - Listening to children in separation and divorce." Childhood6(2): 189-206.
This article seeks to build on the theoretical advances made by the new sociology of childhood by exploring how recently postulated models of childhood might be applied to an analysis and understanding of an important issue relating to children and childhood which is currently the subject of considerable debate - the welfare of children in separation and divorce and the policy and practice issues surrounding this. It is argued that while these theoretical models offer some valuable insights, their explanatory power and applicability to issues affecting the lives of children can be considerably enhanced by an empirical focus on the role of law as a key influence in the social construction of childhood and by the addition of a temporal dimension to reflect the dynamic nature of such a process.
James, A. and A. James (2001). "Childhood: Toward a theory of continuity and change." Annals of the American Academy of Politicla and Social Science(575): 25-37.
The socially constructed character of childhood is, by now, recognized as an important factor in shaping children's everyday experiences. It is no longer possible to see childhood simply as a common and universal biological phase in the life course. However, at the same time, it is being increasingly recognized that although acknowledgment of the social and cultural diversity of children's lives is important, there remain many things that children do share as occupants of the conceptual space of childhood. Although contemporary sociological theorizing about childhood has highlighted this tension, it has, as yet, offered few solutions. In this article, it is proposed that by examining the role of law and social policy over time from an interdisciplinary perspective, it is possible to account for both change and continuity in childhood as a structural space and, in turn, to see this as being the source of the diversities and commonalties that pattern children's everyday lives.
James, A. and A. James (2001). "Tightening the net: children, community, and control." British Journal of Sociology52(2): 211-228.
The recent move to revitalize social democracy in the UK under the New Labour government, explored by Giddens as ;the Third Way', embraces many of Etzioni's ideas on communitarianism. The principles that emerge from these political philosophies, such as the involvement of local communities in policy consultations and implementation, have largely been welcomed as a reflection of the aim of revitalizing civic society in the context of a range of social policies. It is argued, however, that for children, contrary to this general trend, many of these policies represent attempts to increase the social control of children. Their effect has been to restrict children's agency and their rights, rather than to increase their participation as citizens, and thus, in spite of the requirements of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, children continue to be marginalized.