Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers

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32(6): 525-538.

This paper examines the effects of demographic change on the foundations of the family. The "first" demographic transition - the massive declines in fertility and mortality - is shown to have undermined the traditional male-female relationship based on parenthood. This has led to the gender revolution in the public sphere. The "second" demographic transition the increases in divorce and cohabitation - is shown to have undermined the father-child relationship, reflecting women's control over children, a control that increased continually during the first demographic transition. This paper argues that the gender revolution needs to be brought into the family, increasing women's ability to compete in employment and men's ability both to choose whether to assume parental responsibility and to maintain active parental roles with their children.

Goody, J. (1982). Cooking, cuisine and class : a study in comparative sociology. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire] ; New York, Cambridge University Press.

Goody, J. (1982). Cooking, Cuisine and Class: A Comparative Studies Reader. Cambridge, CUP.

Goody, J. (1989). "Cooking and the polarization of social theory. SYMPOSIUM REVIEW ON "Cooking, cuisine and class"." Food and Foodways 3(3): 203-221.

Googins, B. K. a. R., S. A. (2000). "Creating the Partnership Society: Understanding the Rhetoric and the Reality of Cross-sectorial Partnerships',." Business and Society Review 105(1): 127-44.

Gorsuch, A. E. (1996). "A Woman Is Not a Man : the Culture of Gender and Generation in Soviet Russia, 1921-1928." Slavic Review 55(3): 636-660.

Discusses the ways young women in Russia after 1921 operated on the periphery of the Komosomol, which was supposed to liberate women from the oppressed capitalist system of childcare, cooking, and cleaning to equality in economic, marital, civil, and sexual rights. Although relationships between men and women changed after the 1918 Bolshevik code on Marriage, the Family, and Guardianship, conditions of economic deprivation reinforced traditional gender roles. Household needs were primarily entrusted to women, whereas men escaped responsibility. As a result, men had an easier time joining political and cultural organizations. Parents often did not see the need for daughters to be politically active instead of completing household responsibilities. In reality, an attempt to achieve a policy of "different but equal" gave way to stereotypical relations.

Gosselink, C. A., E. E. Ekwo, et al. (1992). "Dietary Habits, Prepregnancy Weight, and Weight-Gain During Pregnancy - Risk of Preterm Rupture of Amniotic Sac Membranes." 71(6): 425-438.

Background: Premature rupture of amniotic sac membranes (PROM) is associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. A matched case-control study was undertaken to determine whether dietary habits, prepregnancy weight, and weight gain during pregnancy were associated with increased risks for PROM. Methods: Three study groups were defined, consisting of women delivering pre term with PROM (PP), full term with PROM (FP), and pre term without PROM (PWP). Cases were singly matched by race, age, and parity with women having full term deliveries without PROM. Data were collected by face-to-face structured interviews with eligible subjects and by medical records abstraction. Results: Conditional multiple logistic regression indicated that during pregnancy, PP cases were significantly more likely to have gained < 21 pounds (9.5 kg) (OR = 2.7, CI = 1.14-6.36) and were only half as likely as controls to have improved their diet (OR = 0.43, CI = 0.18-0.99) while controlling for cigarette smoking, urinary tract infection, chorioamnionitis, chlamydia, and a history of previous PROM. FP cases were significantly less likely than controls to have gained 31-40 pounds (14-18 kg) while pregnant (OR = 0.56, CI = 0.33-0.94) and were significantly more likely than controls to have a somewhat inadequate pregnancy diet (OR = 2.05, CI = 1.11-3.77) while controlling for a history of previous PROM. PWP cases were significantly less likely to have gained 31-40 pounds (14-18 kg) (OR = 0.42, CI = 0.21-0.84) or > 40 pounds (18 kg) (OR = 0.37, CI = 0.17-0.80) while pregnant or to have had adequate dairy products intake (OR = 0.60, CI = 0.36-0.99) while controlling for cigarette usage. Conclusion: Maternal dietary habits, weight gain during pregnancy, and supplement intake are associated with the occurrence of both pre term and full term PROM and pre term delivery without PROM.

Gough-Yates, A. (2003). Understanding women's magazines : publishing, markets and readerships. London, Routledge.

Graffy, J. and J. Taylor (2005). "What information, advice, and support do women want with breastfeeding?" Birth: Issues in Perinatal Care 32(3): 179-186.

Background: Breastfeeding conveys many benefits, but women often encounter difficulties in the first few weeks. The objective of this study was to examine women's perspectives on the information, advice, and support they receive with breastfeeding. Methods: A qualitative analysis was conducted of women's responses to open questions about their experiences of breastfeeding support. Participants were recruited as part of a randomized controlled trial of additional support from volunteer breastfeeding counselors, and they completed questionnaires when their babies were 6 weeks old. Results: Of the 720 women recruited to the trial, 654 began breastfeeding and completed postnatal questionnaires; 492 (75%) participants were first-time mothers and 200 (31%) were of minority ethnic origin. At 6 weeks, 249 (38%) women were exclusively breastfeeding, 183 (28%) were both breastfeeding and bottle-feeding, whereas 222 (34%) were exclusively bottle-feeding. Although many women commented positively on their experiences, others thought they did not receive the information and support they needed. Thematic analysis of women's responses to open questions identified five components of the support that women wanted: information about breastfeeding and what to expect, practical help with positioning the baby to breastfeed, effective advice and suggestions, acknowledgment of mothers' experiences and feelings, and reassurance and encouragement. Conclusions: Maternity services should address the components identified by the study findings as constituting good breastfeeding support. Guidance and information for family members and training for those involved in peer or professional initiatives should take into account women's views on what support they want, together with when and how they want it provided. (Original abstract)
Graffy, J., J. Taylor, et al. (2004). "Randomised controlled trial of support from volunteer counsellors for mothers considering breast feeding." British Medical Journal 328(7430): 26-29.

Graffy, J. P. (1992). "Mothers Attitudes to and Experience of Breast-Feeding - a Primary Care Study." 42(355): 61-64.

This study investigated the attitudes to breast feeding of women registered with 24 general practitioners in Nottingham. A total of 514 women were interviewed in the antenatal period and then followed up at six weeks and six months after the birth of their child. Seventy per cent of the women planned to breast feed their baby, 23% planned to bottle feed and 7% were undecided. Only 26 women changed their plans. Although 73% of the women interviewed began breast feeding, this had fallen to 49% by six weeks and 26% by six months. Logistic regression analysis showed that multiparae who had bottle fed or stopped breast feeding their previous child during the first six weeks were 5.15 times more likely to stop breast feeding in the first six weeks, than those who had breast fed their previous child for six weeks or more. Primiparae in social classes 3M, 4 or 5 or who were unemployed were 3.68 times more likely to stop than women in higher social classes, while those who said they had considered bottle feeding were 2.40 times more likely to stop. Most women gave an inadequate milk supply as a reason for stopping, but sore nipples were also a problem in the first six weeks. Of all the women who had started breast feeding 46% felt they did not have enough milk at some stage and despite the finding that 49% of those who sought advice from a health professional were advised to feed more often, 42% said they had been advised to give bottle feeds. The primary care team is likely to be more effective in promoting breast feeding if it concentrates on trying to help those women who want to breast feed. This study has shown how those women who are most likely to have difficulties can be targeted during the antenatal period, allowing the primary care team to make a greater contribution to helping women breast feed.
Graham-Jones, S., S. Reilly, et al. "Tackling the Needs of the Homeless: A Controlled Trial of Health Advocacy."

The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of a health advocate's casework with homeless people in a primary care setting in terms of improvements in health-related quality of life (QoL). The impact of the health advocacy intervention was assessed in a quasi-experimental, three-armed controlled trial. Homeless people moving into hostels or other temporary accommodation in the Liverpool 8 area of the UK & patients registering at an inner-city health center as temporary residents were allocated in alternating periods to health advocacy (with or without outreach registration) or 'usual care' over a total intake period of 3 years. Health-related QoL outcomes were assessed using three independent self-report measures: the Life Fulfilment Scale; the Delighted-Terrible Faces Scale; & the Nottingham Health Profile. Out of the 326 homeless people who were given baseline questionnaires at registration, 222 (68%) returned usable questionnaires. Out of these individuals, 171 (77.0%) were traceable at follow up, & 117 (68.4%) follow-up questionnaires were returned. The majority of respondents (n = 117) were women (72%) who were under 30 years of age (74%), white British (91%), & single (63%) or separated (23%), many of whom were living with their children (41%) in either women's refuges (30%) or family hostels (25%). Improvements in health-related QoL were greatest in people recruited & supported by a health advocate early in their stay in temporary housing, in comparison with those in the control group given 'usual care' at the health centre. The model of streamlined care for patients with complex psychosocial needs is shown to be a worthwhile & effective option for primary health care providers. 4 Tables, 1 Figure, 1 Box, 55 References. Adapted from the source document.

Granner, M. L., R. G. Sargent, et al. (2004). "Factors of fruit and vegetable intake by race, gender, and age among young adolescents." Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 36(4): 173-180.

Objective: To explore demographic differences in individual, social, and environmental factors potentially related to fruit and vegetable intake.

Design: Self-report questionnaires administered to a convenience sample of middle school students during regular classes.
Participants: Black and white adolescents, 11 to 15 years of age (N = 736).
Variables Measured: Measures included self-efficacy, family dinner frequency, normative beliefs, outcome expectations, modeling, availability, preferences, snack choice, and demographics.
Analysis: Chi-square, general linear models, and Poisson and linear regressions as appropriate.
Results: Black participants reported greater social influences than did white participants, whereas white adolescents reported greater family environmental influences on fruit and vegetable intake. The oldest adolescents reported lower self-efficacy, peer modeling, family dinner frequency, and fruit and vegetable preferences compared with younger adolescents. White participants and females reported a higher preference for vegetables than did black participants and males. Regression models for self-efficacy and snack choice explained 41% and 34% of the variance, respectively. Preferences for vegetables and parental modeling were the strongest correlates of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was the strongest correlate of snack choice.
Conclusions and Implications: Decreases in several factors with age highlight the importance of intervention for this age group. Future research is needed for a better understanding of the formation and modification of self-efficacy and snack choice.
Graván, M. L. (2005). Readers, storyworlds and the popular public sphere : a comparative analysis of women's magazines in Spain and the UK. Glasgow, Glasgow Caledonian University

Glasgow Caledonian University: 1 v.

Green, J., E. Waters, et al. (2003). "Social, cultural and environmental influences on child activity and eating in Australian migrant communities." Child: Care, Health & Development. 29(6): 441-8.

AIM: This study set out to examine the socio-cultural, familial and environmental factors influencing health, eating habits and patterns of physical activity contributing to child and adolescent overweight and obesity. METHODS: Semi-structured, community-based interviews were conducted with contrasting key informant three-generation families; and generation by generation focus groups of grandparents, parents and children from four cultural communities in the state of Victoria, Australia. Purposive sampling occurred from Turkish, Greek, Indian and Chinese communities that have migrated to Australia within the last three generations (n = 160, eight families, 47 children aged 5-15 years, 29 parents, 42 grandparents). RESULTS: Evidence of two-way influences on eating and physical activity across three generations was evident, with children reporting the greatest cross-cultural diversity. A range of dietary restrictions was reported across all cultural groups. Efforts to foster healthy eating and lifestyle patterns within communities were evident. Parents, as a generation in particular, felt the need for more access to education and support regarding healthy limits for pre-puberty and puberty stages. CONCLUSION: There is a dynamic influence of culture on many aspects of family lifestyle across three generations. To achieve successful intervention design, childhood obesity researchers need to collaborate with diverse groups and communities. Considering the role and influence of extended family, a multigenerational, whole-of-community approach beyond that of parent and child populations ought to be considered.

Greener, I. (2002). "Agency, social theory and social policy,." Critical Social Policy Vol. 22(4): 688-705.

Greenfield, G. and C. Reid (1996). Women's magazines and the commercial orchestration of femininity in the 1930s : evidence from Woman's Own, University of Portsmouth, Department of Economics.

Greenfield, J., S. O'Connell, et al. (1999). "Fashioning Masculinity: Men Only, Consumption and the Development of Marketing in the 1930s." Twentieth Century British History 10(4): 457-476.

Men Only, a British men's lifestyle magazine published between 1935 and 1964, attempted to manipulate consumption habits of male readers, as women's magazines had done successfully since the end of World War I. Issues of the magazine between 1935 and 1939 illustrate many attitudes and concerns of British middle-class men during the interwar years. Reacting to an assumed "crisis in masculinity," Men Only attacked in its articles the domestication of British society which women's magazines of the era promoted, adopting a distinctly antifeminist tone in focusing upon male values, pleasures, and fantasies. The articles - mostly about sports, adventure, and the male body - emphasized rugged masculinity. In contrast, Men Only's advertisements often featured consumer goods catering to male anxieties and fears. Both articles and advertisements were pointedly heterosexual in tone.

Greenfield, J. a. R. C. (1998). "Women's Magazines and the Commercial Orchestration of Femininity in the 1930s: Evidence from Woman's Own." Media History 4(2): 161-174.

The British woman's magazine Woman's Own, started in 1932, fixed on a successful publishing formula that was subsequently copied by other such journals. The magazine's endorsement of domestic ideals and lifestyles is confirmed through a content analysis of magazine issues between 1932 and 1939. The synthesis of these messages within both ads and articles published during this period illustrated the magazine's successful blurring of distinctions between editorial and commercial content. The result was a commercial vision of domesticity that sold extremely well and established a pattern emulated by subsequent periodical imitations.

Grele, R. J. (1998). Movement without aim: methodological and theoretical problems in oral history. The Oral History Reader. R. Perks and A. Thomson. London, Routledge: 38-52.

Grieshaber, S. (1997). "Mealtime rituals: power and resistance in the construction of mealtime rules." British Journal of Sociology 48(4): 649-666.

This paper discusses how child resistance is lived on a daily basis through the construction and operation of mealtime rules in four Australian families with young children. It focuses on the sociologically neglected situation of everyday parent-child conflict and resistance and posits young children as actively engaged in contestation and negotiation of power relationships within the family. Analysis of domestic dialogue and conflict episodes demonstrates how mealtime rituals function as techniques of discipline through which young children are normalized. Although resistance and contestation occurred in all families, the construction and operation of mealtime rules were also a regulatory mechanism for constituting boys and girls in different ways. Girls were constructed as helping to prepare, serve and clean after meals, while boys were the recipients of this service from their mothers and sisters.
Griffiths, D. M. (2004). "Do tongue ties affect breastfeeding?" 20(4): 409-414.

This study assessed indications for and safety and outcome of simple division of tongue tie without an anesthetic. There were 215 infants younger than 3 months (mean 0-19 days) who had major problems breastfeeding, despite professional support. Symptoms, tongue tie details, safety of division, and complications were recorded. Feeding was assessed by the mothers immediately, at 24 hours, and 3 months after division. Prior to division, 88% had difficulty latching, 77% of mothers experienced nipple trauma, and 72% had a continuous feeding cycle. During division, 18% slept throughout; 60% cried more after division (mean 0-15 seconds). There were no significant complications. Within 24 hours, 80% were feeding better. Overall, 64% breastfed for at least 3 months (UK national average is 30%). Initial assessment, diagnosis, and help, followed by division and subsequent support by a qualified lactation consultant, might ensure that even more mothers and infants benefit from breastfeeding.

Griffiths, L. J., A. R. Tate, et al. (2005). "The contribution of parental and community ethnicity to breastfeeding practices: evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study." International Journal of Epidemiology 34(6): 1378-1386.

Grignon, C. (1986). "Sociology of taste and the Realist novel: Representations of Popular Eating in E. Zola." Food and Foodways 1(2): 117.

Groer, M. W. (2005). "Differences between exclusive breastfeeders, formula-feeders, and controls: A study of stress, mood, and endocrine variables." Biological Research for Nursing 7(2): 106-117.

Gronow, J. (1993). "What is 'good taste'?" Social Science Information 32(2): 279-301.

Groves, D. (2004). "Gob Smacked! Tv Dining in Australia between 1956 and 1966." Journal of Popular Culture 37(3): 409-417.

The introduction of television into Australian homes in the mid-1950's changed dining habits, leading to more informal lifestyles. Families most often chose the lounge as the room for the television, and this brought dining out of the kitchen and dining room. With the change in eating location came changes in food preparation and new cooking and dining equipment. Magazines of the era instructed women on preparing meals to be taken in front of the television. They also advertised new products, such as vinyl furniture, frozen dinners, tray tables, and plastic dishes, to make television dining easier.

Gundersen, C., L. Weinreb, et al. (2003). "Homelessness and food insecurity." Journal of Housing Economics 12(3): 250-272.

Numerous assistance programs are designed to alleviate homelessness and food insecurity in the US, two of the more severe possible consequences of poverty. While we expect families with a higher probability of homelessness to also be at higher risk of food insecurity, after controlling for observed factors the relationship is not immediately apparent. To analyze this relationship, we use a unique data set with food insecurity information on both housed and homeless families. After instrumenting for the probability of homelessness, we find that families more prone to homelessness have higher levels of food insecurity. When we use dichotomous measures of food insecurity, however, the effects of homelessness are smaller.

Gustafsson, U. (2002). "School meals policy: the problem with governing

children." Social Policy and Administration 36(6): 685 - 697.

Guthrie, J. F., B. M. Derby, et al. What people know and do not know about nutrition.

Guthrie Joanne F , B.-H. L., Elizabeth Frazao (2002). "Role of food prepared away from home in the American diet, 1977-78 versus 1994-96: Changes and consequences." Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 34(3): 140.

Objective: To examine changes, between 1977-78 and 1994-96, in the quantity and quality of food Americans consumed that was prepared at home versus away from home. Design: Data were obtained from nationwide surveys of food consumption conducted by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1977-78 and 1994-96. To maximize comparability, we used "day 1" dietary data, which both surveys collected via 24-hour recall. Subjects/Settings: Individuals 2 years of age and over were selected. USDA sampling weights were used to generate nationally representative estimates. Variables Measured: We categorized foods by preparation at home or at restaurants, fast-food establishments, schools/day care, and other non-home locations. We assessed percent calories from total fat and saturated fat, and the cholesterol, sodium, fiber, calcium, and iron densities of foods prepared at home versus those prepared away from home. Statistical Analyses: T tests were calculated using accepted procedures to adjust for survey design effects. Results: Between 1977-78 and 1994-96, consumption of food prepared away from home increased from 18% to 32% of total calories. Meals and snacks based on food prepared away from home contained more calories per eating occasion, and "away" food was higher in total fat and saturated fat on a per-calorie basis than at-home food. "Away" food contained less dietary fiber, calcium, and iron on a per-calorie basis. Among adults but not children, food prepared away from home was more sodium and cholesterol dense.
Guttman, H. A. (2002). "The epigenesis of the family system as a context. for individual development." Family Process 41(3): 533-545.

In this article, the concept introduced by Lyman Wynne, that the individual develops epigenetically within the family system, is discussed and validated with data from a study of the characteristics and relationships of 27 women with borderline personality disorder and their parents. Each stage of the epigenetic process is impaired in one way or another, adversely affecting subsequent stages. Early impairment of attachment-care-giving processes is at least partly attributable to a lack of empathic parenting, effective communication is marred by family members' inability to experience or express feelings (alexithymia); this, in turn, makes it difficult to engage in joint family problem solving. Mutuality between family members does not occur in such a context, and there is an absence of intimacy between family members. These are often abusive family systems, with multiple abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse more specifically directed at the daughter with BPD. The symptoms of the daughter can be understood systemically, as representing both predispositional characteristics and reactions to the family system. It is suggested that the epigenetic paradigm could be used to characterize the specific failure of developmental processes in many different disorders

Guttman, N. and D. R. Zimmerman (2000). "Low-income mothers' views on breastfreeding."

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