Aarvold, J. E., C. Bailey, et al. (2004). "A "give it a go" breast-feeding culture and early cessation among low-income mothers

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151(7): 724-729.

Objective: To determine whether the duration of breastfeeding is affected by the contents of the hospital discharge package. Design: A randomized clinical trial with 2 experimental interventions (a discharge package containing a manual breast pump only and a discharge package containing a commercially prepared infant formula and a manual breast pump) and a control group who received a commercially prepared infant formula discharge package only. Sociodemographic characteristics and information concerning prior births (including feeding methods) were obtained from each mother within 48 hours of her infant's birth. Sources of influence on the mother's feeding decision, maternal attitudes concerning breastfeeding, and maternal feeding preferences were also assessed. Participants: The sample consisted of 763 women who had given birth who were admitted to the maternal-fetal unit of a midwestern community hospital. Main Outcome Measures: Information concerning current method of infant feeding was obtained from telephone interviews conducted at 2-week intervals until the infant was 16 weeks old. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, logistic regression analysis, and survival analysis. Results: The content of the hospital discharge package did not affect whether the mother engaged in exclusive or partial breast-feeding during the 16-week follow-up interval. However, there was some evidence that providing formula samples at discharge from the hospital increased the duration of exclusive breast-feeding compared with providing a manual breast pump. Conclusion: This study does not support the assumption that inclusion of infant formula in hospital discharge packages decreases the duration of breastfeeding.

Dykes, F. (2005). "A critical ethnographic study of encounters between midwives and breast-feeding women in postnatal wards in England." Midwifery 21(3): 241-252.

Dykes, F. and C. Williams (1999). "Falling by the wayside: a phenomenological exploration of perceived breast-milk inadequacy in lactating women." 15(4): 232-246.

Objective: to provide insight into the lived experience of breast feeding, in primiparous women. The main focus was upon women's perceptions related to the adequacy of their breast milk, for the purpose of exclusively nourishing their babies. Design: a longitudinal, phenomenological study involving in-depth, interactive interviews, conducted at 6, 12 and 18 weeks following the birth of the women's babies. Participants and setting: a convenience sample of ten primiparous women were recruited prior to discharge from a maternity unit, in the north of England, in 1998. Findings: two groups of participants emerged, three who became increasingly confident and empowered by breast feeding and the remaining seven whose confidence progressively diminished, with six of them expressing concern that their breast milk was inadequate. Four major themes related to the participants' perceptions emerged from the analysis: the quest to quantify and visualise breast milk; anxiety regarding the adequacy of their diet; breast feeding as a challenging journey, with most feeling that they had 'fallen by the wayside' (this related partly to inadequate and conflicting advice given by health professionals); and finally, unmet needs for support, nurturing and replenishment in return for 'giving out'. Conclusion: perceived breast-milk inadequacy is underpinned by a complex and synergistic interaction between socio-cultural influences, feeding management, the baby's behaviour, lactation physiology and the woman's psychological state. Implications: education of midwives and health visitors is required in relation to the needs of breast-feeding mothers within a Western industrialised society. Strong social policy is vital in the UK, to initiate socio-cultural changes, which would enable women who commence breast feeding to perceive it as an empowering and fulfilling experience and not one of 'falling by the wayside'. (C) 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Earland, J., S. O. Ibrahim, et al. (1997). "Maternal employment: does it influence feeding practices during infancy?" 10(5): 305-311.

Background: Although at least 30% of women with young children participate in the labour force, there has been very little research into the effect of maternal employment on the diets of young children. Increasingly it is being recognized that early feeding practices affect future health and may have a part to play in the development of eating disorders. Therefore it was decided to conduct a study in Sheffield to determine whether maternal employment influences infant feeding practices. Methods: Mothers from social classes I and II (employed n=27; unemployed n=28) with infants aged 10-12 months were interviewed in their homes. Information was collected on past and present food and drink consumption, weaning practices, and progression to independent feeding. Results: Employed mothers stopped breast-feeding earlier. This difference became evident after 2 months of age and reached significance at 4 months (P<0.05). Employed mothers introduced foods earlier and relied more on commercial baby foods, with significantly more spending over pound 7-12 per week at the time of the survey (P<0.05). Conclusions: Maternal employment does influence infant feeding practices and consequently may have repercussions on future health. Further studies are needed to investigate the long-term effects of maternal employment on infant feeding practices, particularly amongst lower socio-economic class families.

Earle, S. (2000). "Why some women do not breast feed: bottle feeding and fathers' role." 16(4): 323-330.

Objective: to explore women's experiences and perceptions of baby feeding and to explore the explanations offered by women who choose to either breast or bottle feed. Design: a qualitative study, which was prospective in design. Participants were interviewed three times: the first stage was between six and 14 weeks of pregnancy; the second stage was between 34 and 39 weeks; and the third stage was between six and 14 weeks after childbirth. Participants: 19 participants were recruited to the study group via 12 antenatal clinics in Coventry, UK, Findings and discussion: the data indicate that participants make baby-feeding decisions either prior to conception or early in the pregnancy. Findings also indicate that both breast and bottle feeders possessed knowledge of the benefits of breast feeding, but this did not seem to influence decision making. One of the most significant factors influencing the decision to bottle feed appears to be a desire for paternal involvement. Conclusions and implications for practice: to increase the incidence of breast feeding, health-care professionals should consider the need for preconceptual health promotion. The role of paternal involvement in baby-feeding decisions also needs to be acknowledged and men need to be included in breast-feeding promotion campaigns. (C) 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

Earle, S. (2002). "Factors affecting the initiation of breastfeeding: implications for breastfeeding promotion." Health Promotion International 17(3): 205-214.

Earle, S. (2003). ""Bumps and Boobs": Fatness and Women's Experiences of Pregnancy." Women's Studies International Forum 26(3): 245-252.

Earnshaw, S. C. (1982). Women's magazines : Culture, ideology and the oppression of women, University of Liverpool.

Easthope, A. (1992). What a man's gotta do : the masculine myth in popular culture. New York ; London, Routledge, 1992.

Eckert, G. (2004). "If I Tell Them Then I Can." Childhood 11(1): 9-26.

This article explores how Swedish children relate to adult discussions and rules concerning children’s play and television habits. It is argued that the children interviewed are well aware of adult ideas concerning children, TV and play. In accounting for these rules, the children present themselves as regulated by adults, but also as valuable to their parents. A closer look at the accounts reveals that the children sometimes oppose the descriptions imposed on them and are able to argue against the perceived adult opinion. It is important to point out, however, that the children broadly express a trust in adults and their judgements.

Eckstein, K. C., L. M. Mikhail, et al. (2006). "Parents' perceptions of their child's weight and health." Pediatrics 117(3): 681-690.

OBJECTIVE. This study explored parents' perceptions about their child's appearance and health and evaluated a tool to determine parents' visual perception of their child's weight. METHODS. Parents of children aged 2 to 17 years were surveyed concerning their child's appearance and health and opinions about childhood overweight. They also selected the sketch (from 7 choices) that most closely matched the body image of their child using 1 of 8 gender - and age- range - specific panels of sketches. Children's height and weight were measured. Respondents were grouped by child body mass index (BMI) percentile (< 5th, 5-84th, 85-94th [at risk for overweight (AROW)], and >= 95th [overweight]). Those with BMI >= 5th percentile were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine factors influencing parental perceptions and levels of worry about their overweight or AROW child. RESULTS. Of the 223 children, 60% were < 6 years old, 42% were male, 17% were black, 35% were Hispanic, 42% were white, and 7% were other; 19% were AROW, and 20% were overweight. Few parents (36%) identified their overweight or AROW child as '' overweight '' or '' a little overweight '' using words, but more (70%) selected a middle or heavier sketch. Among parents of overweight and AROW children, 18% recalled a doctor's concern and 26% were worried about their child's weight. If the overweight or AROW child was age >= 6 years, parents were more likely to identify their child as '' overweight '' or '' a little overweight '' using words, select a middle or heavier sketch, and to be worried. Parents of older children were more likely to be worried if they perceived their child as less active/slower than other children or recalled a doctor's concern. CONCLUSIONS. Few parents of overweight and AROW children recognized their child as overweight or were worried. Recognition of physical activity limitations and physicians' concerns may heighten the parent's level of concern. Sketches may be a useful tool to identify overweight children when measurements are not available.

Edmunds, L. D. (2005). "Parents' perceptions of health professionals' responses when seeking help for their overweight children." 22(3): 287-292.

Background. Childhood obesity continues to worsen and so more parents of overweight children are likely to seek help from health professionals. Attitudes and practices of primary care personnel have been sought about adult obesity, but rarely about overweight children. Parents' views in this respect have not been explored. This paper addresses that omission. Objectives. The aim was to explore parents' perceptions of help-seeking experiences with health professionals. Methods. This study was a qualitative investigation with parents, conducted in central and south-west England using semi-structured interviews and body shapes used as prompts. Sampling was purposive to ensure an age range of children (4-15 years). Parents of 40 children with concerns about their child's weight were interviewed in their homes. Analysis was thematic and iterative. Results. Parents went through a complex process of monitoring and self-help approaches before seeking professional help. The responses they received from GPs included: being sympathetic, offering tests and further referrals, general advice which parents were already following, mothers were blamed, or dismissed as "making a fuss", and many showed a lack of interest. Health visitors offered practical advice and paediatric dietitians were very supportive. Experiences with community dietitians were less constructive. Conclusion. Professional responses ranged from positive, but not very helpful, to negative and dismissive. Health professionals may benefit from a better understanding of parents' plight and childhood obesity in general. This in turn may improve their attitudes and practices and encourage parents to seek help at an earlier stage of their child's overweight.

Edwards, L. J., J. R. McFarlane, et al. (2005). "Impact of periconceptional nutrition on maternal and fetal leptin and fetal adiposity in singleton and twin pregnancies." 288(1): R39-R45.

It has been proposed that maternal nutrient restriction may alter the functional development of the adipocyte and the synthesis and secretion of the adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, before birth. We have investigated the effects of restricted periconceptional undernutrition and/or restricted gestational nutrition on fetal plasma leptin concentrations and fetal adiposity in late gestation. There was no effect of either restricted periconceptional or gestational nutrition on maternal or fetal plasma leptin concentrations in singleton or twin pregnancies during late gestation. In ewes carrying twins, but not singletons, maternal plasma leptin concentrations in late gestation were directly related to the change in ewe weight that occurred during the 60 days before mating [ maternal leptin = 0.9 ( change in ewe weight) + 7.8; r = 0.6, P < 0.05]. In twin, but not singleton, pregnancies, there was also a significant relationship between maternal and fetal leptin concentrations ( maternal leptin = 0.5 fetal leptin + 4.2, r = 0.63, P < 0.005). The relative mass of perirenal fat was also significantly increased in twin fetal sheep in the control-restricted group (6.0 +/- 0.5) compared with the other nutritional groups (control-control: 4.1 +/- 0.4; restricted-restricted: 4.4 +/- 0.4; restricted- control: 4.3 +/- 0.3). In conclusion, the impact of maternal undernutrition on maternal plasma leptin concentrations during late gestation is dependent on fetal number. Furthermore, we have found that there is an increased fetal adiposity in the twins of ewes that experienced restricted nutrition throughout gestation, and this may be important in the programming of postnatal adiposity.

Edwards, N. J. (1997). "Patriotism a Table: Cookbooks, Textbooks and National Identity in Fin-De-Siecle France." Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Western Society for French History 24: 245-254.

In late 19th-century France reformist educators tried to enhance the prestige and appeal of homemaking by backing basic practices with scientific theory. In this process food became associated with nationalism. Cookbooks and schools connected cooking with hygiene, and both were linked to intelligence, civilized living, and national greatness. Educators and cookbooks encouraged women to see cooking as an expression of national pride.

Ego, A., J. P. Dubos, et al. (2003). "Premature weaning of breastfeeding." 10(1): 11-18.

This study was performed to describe the factors associated with a premature cessation of breastfeeding. Background and methods - Three hundred and forty nine women with a plan for prolonged breastfeeding over two months were interviewed during their hospital stay to define sociological and medical variables. One month after discharge, mothers were contacted by a physician for making out evolution of the breastfeeding. Results - Eighty-eight (28%) women were no more breastfeeding their infant and were compared to the other 224 (64%) mothers. The main sociological factors influencing the cessation of breastfeeding were low education level (odds ratio 4.2 [95% CI 2.2-8.3]), and primiparity (odds ratio 2.1 [95% CI 1.1-3.9]). Pacifier use was associated with a lower duration of breastfeeding (odds ratio 2.5 [95% CI 1.4-4.5]). Medical predictive factors were infant weight loss (odds ratio 4.3 [95% CI 1.7-10.6]), respect of intervals between feeding times (odds ratio 2.1 [95% CI 1.1-4.4]), delay before the first feeding (odds ratio 1.9 [95% CI 1.0-3.6]). On the other hand formula supplementation was not related with cessation of breastfeeding. Discussion and conclusion - As the success of breastfeeding depends on maternal motivation, it seems essential to take into account mothers' plan to study breastfeeding duration. The knowledge of predictive factors of the cessation of breastfeeding should allow to identify mothers who need particularly the attention of healthcare professionals. (C) 2003 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

Ehrensaft, D. (1990). Parenting together : men and women sharing the care of their children. Urbana, University of Illinois Press.

Elias, N., E. Dunning, et al. (2000). The civilizing process : sociogenetic and psychogenetic investigations. Oxford [England] ; Cambridge, Mass., Blackwell Publishers.

Elliot, R. (2001). "Growing up and Giving up: Smoking in Paul Thompson's 100 Families." Oral History 29.1(Spring): 73-84.

Else-Quest, N. M., J. S. Hyde, et al. (2003). "Breastfeeding, bonding, and the mother-infant relationship." 49(4): 495-517.

Mothers often report that breastfeeding is an enjoyable and emotionally beneficial experience they share with their infants. However, little research has investigated the role of feeding method in the development of the maternal bond and the mother-infant relationship. This study tested two hypotheses-the bonding hypothesis and the good-enough caregiver hypothesis-regarding the association of breastfeeding with maternal bonding and the mother-infant relationship. Using data from a longitudinal study of 570 mother-infant pairs, bonding and the quality of the mother-infant relationship were measured at 4 and 12 months. Although breastfeeding dyads tended to show higher quality relationships at 12 months, bottlefeeding dyads did not display poor quality or precarious relationships. Such results are encouraging for nonmaternal caregivers and mothers who bottlefeed their children.
Endres, K. L. and T. L. Lueck (1995). Women's periodicals in the United States : consumer magazines. Westport, Conn. ; London, Greenwood Press.

Engle, P. (1993). "Influences of mothers' and fathers' income on children's nutritional status in Guatemala." Social Science and Medicine 37(11): 1303-1312.

The relative effects of fathers' and mothers' income on children's nutritional status were examined with a sample of 294 peri-urban Guatemalan children aged 8-47 months. Whether or not incomes tended to be pooled, and the relation of income earning to decision-making about purchases were examined. Four measures of income were constructed for both mother and father: total income, contribution to the household food budget, percentage of her/his income contributed to the household food budget, and a percentage of total family income earned by that person. In the majority of households, women did not report pooling their incomes. Women who earned a higher proportion of the family income had significantly more control over decision-making in all areas except food purchases, which were already primarily women's decisions. Relationships of income measures with children's nutritional status were examined with multiple linear regression analyses controlling for potentially confounding variables. For mothers, the percentage of the total family income they earned was most highly associated with children's nutritional status, suggesting that income control by mothers may have benefits for children. For fathers, the percentage of their income they contributed to the household food budget was most highly associated with children's nutritional status, suggesting that father investment or attitude toward children has important benefits for children.
Erickson, R. J. (2005). "Why Emotion Work Matters: Sex, Gender, and the Division Household Labor."

Attempting to explain why biological sex remains the primary predictor of household labor allocation, gender theorists have suggested that husbands & wives perform family work in ways that facilitate culturally appropriate constructions of gender. To date, however, researchers have yet to consider the theoretical & empirical significance of emotion work in their studies of the gendered division of household labor. Using survey data from 335 employed, married parents, I examine the relative influence of economic resources, time constraints, gender ideology, sex, & gender on the performance of housework, child care, & emotion work. Results indicate that gender construction, not sex, predicts the performance of emotion work & that this performance reflects a key difference in men's & women's gendered constructions of self. 4 Tables, 55 References. Adapted from the source document.

Ertem, I. O., N. Votto, et al. (2001). "The timing and predictors of the early termination of breastfeeding." 107(3): 543-548.

Objective. To determine the prevalence and correlates of the early discontinuation of breastfeeding by mothers eligible for the Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC). Methodology. A longitudinal observational study in which we enrolled English-speaking mothers who initiated breastfeeding after delivering healthy-term infants at Yale-New Haven Hospital and planned to bring their infants to the hospital's primary care center. Data on mother's baseline knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and problems regarding breastfeeding were collected by semistructured interviews within 48 hours after delivery, at 1 and 2 weeks' postpartum, and by chart reviews at 2 and 4 months. A nonparticipating control group was used to test the Hawthorne effect. Results. Of the 64 participating mothers, the majority were minority (56% black, 34% of Puerto Rican origin), single (75%), and already enrolled in WIC (91%). The rates of discontinuation of breastfeeding were 27%, 37%, 70%, and 89% by 1 week, 2 weeks, 2 months, and 4 months, respectively. The mother's knowledge and problems of lactation were not associated with the early discontinuation of breastfeeding. After using logistic regression to control for potential confounders, mothers who lacked confidence at baseline that they would still be breastfeeding at 2 months (risk ratio: 2.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.82-6.18), and those who believed that the baby prefers formula (risk ratio: 1.68, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.71) were more likely to stop breastfeeding within the first 2 weeks postpartum. Conclusions. The results of this study demonstrate that interventions aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding in this population will need to shift focus from increasing knowledge and managing problems of lactation to enhancing the mother's confidence regarding breastfeeding, while also addressing beliefs regarding an infant's preferences.

Esparo, G., J. Canals, et al. (2004). "Feeding problems in nursery children: prevalence and psychosocial factors." 93(5): 663-668.

Aim: In this study we analyze the prevalence of feeding problems in a sample of nursery children and examine the environmental and psychopathological factors related to such problems. Methods: We used the Early Childhood Inventory--Parents Checklist to assess 851 Spanish children aged between 3 and 6 years from both urban and rural samples. This screens emotional and behavioural problems and is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV. We collected sociodemographic data and information about life events and the psychopathology of the children's parents (General Health Questionnaire-28). Results: Our results showed that the prevalence of feeding problems was 4.8% and that there were no differences between gender. Sample subtype, socioeconomic level and family characteristics were not linked to feeding problems. Children with feeding problems had significantly more symptoms of psychological problems and somatic complaints and had experienced more life events in the previous 12 months. The psychopathology of the mother, especially in terms of anxiety problems, increased the risk of feeding problems in children. Conclusion: When there are complaints of feeding problems in preschools, the psychological problems of children and their mothers should be taken into consideration during paediatric consultation, irrespective of gender or socioeconomic status.

Estes, J. W. (1996). "The Medical Properties of Food in the Eighteenth Century." Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences

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