Northerners were outraged at the election of rebel leaders in the South and the passage of Black Codes. Congress refused to recognize the new Southern governments. The ___________, a group of Northern Congressmen with a majority in Congress, wanted the freedmen to have political equality. The Radical Republicans passed a Civil Rights Bill guaranteeing freedmen’s rights, and imposed military rule on the South. To ensure that this legislation would not be held unconstitutional, they rewrote the act as the Fourteenth Amendment – granting citizenship to all former slaves.