The ________ won the Civil War. The North had immense long-term advantages: a larger population, more money, more railroad lines, greater manufacturing facilities, and superior naval power. Yet despite these advantages, it took the North four years to defeat the South.
One of the most important events of the Civil War was the issuance of the ___________ (1862). Lincoln announced that all slaves in states still in rebellion on January 1, 1863 would be freed. The Proclamation gave a moral purpose to the war. However, it soon became unclear whether Lincoln had the constitutional power to free the slaves. Congress proposed the Thirteenth Amendment. When it was ratified in 1865, it abolished slavery throughout the United States.
____________, the name given to the process of reestablishing the Union to again include the seceded states, began during the war and lasted until 1877. Abraham Lincoln believed secession was unconstitutional, and so legally, the Southern states were still in the Union. He believed the executive branch, particularly the president, should establish the process of reconstruction and the terms should be generous. Members of Congress in 1864 presented their own much less generous plan, but Lincoln did not sign the bill, angering the radical or extreme Republicans in Congress. The Radical Republicans, led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens, had been a force in Congress since before the war. They were intolerant of slavery, strong abolitionist, and prepared to make the South “pay” for the war.
President Lincoln believed the Southern states should be treated leniently. But only a few days after the South surrendered, Lincoln was assassinated. The new President, Andrew Johnson, sought to follow Lincoln’s plan. Congress established the Freedmen’s Bureau to help freed slaves (known as freedmen). However, Southern states passed _________ to preserve traditional Southern life-styles despite the ban on slavery. For example, it was made illegal for freedmen to hold public office, travel freely or serve on juries.