The _________ Amendment prohibited slavery. The Fourteenth Amendment gave former slaves citizenship, and guaranteed all citizens that they would enjoy “equal protection of the laws” and “due process of law” from state governments. The Fifteenth Amendment guaranteed freed slaves the right to vote.
_________ was an abolitionist who believed one should fight the evil of slavery. He organized a raid on the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia, in October 1859, hoping to seize weapons to arm slaves and start an uprising. He was captured, tried, and executed, but his action epitomizes the growing split in the nation. He became a martyr in the North, and verses and songs were written about his attempts to end slavery. Meanwhile, Southerners had expanded their rhetoric in defense of the institution of slavery.
The American Civil War became on April 12, 1861 when the Confederate States of America attacked the federal fort, Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. After two days of shelling, the garrison surrendered and was allowed to leave. War had begun. The four states of the Upper South seceded to join the Confederacy. The capital was then moved to Richmond, Virginia. Robert E. Lee, a graduate of West Point, accepted the command of the army of his home state of Virginia, having turned down command of the Union army. Several states that had been considered Southern did not secede. Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware remained in the Union, and what is now _____________ broke off from the state of Virginia during the war to form a new state.
The Civil War was bloody – one million casualties in a population North and South of approximately 31 million; expensive – the estimated cost of over $20 billion; and long – it lasted four arduous years. The South’s strategy was to hold on and wear the North down. The North’s strategy was to blockade the South in order to isolate it from __________and potential allies; to capture the capital of the Confederate States of America, Richmond; and to split the South into two parts along the Mississippi River and then by a thrust through Georgia to the sea to split it further into three units.