A. The Allies invaded France from across the Rhine, from Belgium and from Switzerland



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3.     France:  the defeated nation

a.     France was originally to be excluded from all negotiations

b.    France was included when Russia and Prussia combined against Austria over Saxony and Poland:

c.     It was realized by the great powers that the participation of France was necessary to re‑establish a true balance of power on the continent

B.   The Congress’ Goal:  to re‑establish the European balance of power after the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars (1789‑1815)

1.    There was a need to redraw the map of Europe after 25 years of warfare

2.    There was a need to control the forces of liberalism and nationalism set in motion by the French Revolution that threatened to overturn the old order

C.   The Congress was dedicated to maintaining the political status quo favoring conservatism and opposing liberalism and nationalistic independence movements

D.    The Balance of power was seen as important to maintaining the peace

1.     Metternich’s “principle of legitimacy” opposed revolution for change: "legitimate" governments were those established by tradition, not revolution

2.     The principle of compensation required that each nation that lost territory be compensated in order to maintain the balance of power



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