A. The Allies invaded France from across the Rhine, from Belgium and from Switzerland


IV. Evaluation of the Vienna settlement and the Concert of Europe



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IV. Evaluation of the Vienna settlement and the Concert of Europe

A.   The Concert of Europe followed in the tradition of the Peace of Westphalia, 1648:  it re-established the balance of power through a conference following a major war

B.   The Concert was the first serious attempt to solve international problems through conferences rather than warfare

C.   The Concert was controlled by the conservative and reactionary forces that were opposed to the changes of liberalism and revolutionary nationalism

D.   The Concert ignored and attempted to suppress the growing liberal and nationalist movements of Europe

E.    The Concert deteriorated when national interests outweighed the benefits of peace by Concert (Napoleon's maxim:  "There are no principles in international politics, only self interests.")

F.    The dissatisfaction among the subject nationalists and liberals showed throughout the early nineteenth century in the many revolutionary movements

G.   The Concert contributed to the radicalization of European revolutionary movements

H.   The actual balance of power established by the Concert of Europe lasted until the unification of Germany and Italy, 1870:  Two new significant powers had been added

I.      No major, large‑scale wars were fought from 1815‑1914 (The Crimean War was fought totally in Russia and on the Black Sea.  The Franco-Prussian War and Balkan Wars were short.)

J.     The Concert of Europe became one of the best early models for twentieth century diplomacy based on "collective security":  The peace (security) is kept by nations acting together (collectively) against aggression or other forces that threaten the peace.

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