d. all of the above
44. Count Arthur de Gobineau argued that
a. dreams have reasonable scientific explanations
b. Western civilization's troubles were the result of the long degeneration of the original white Aryan race
c. the animal nature of humankind was the centerpiece of all racial theory
d. Darwin's theory of natural selection was unethical
45. Virginia Woolf in A Room of One's Own argued that women
a. had to retreat from an aggressive stance toward political and social equality into their own rooms
b. should cherish what made them unique and not compete with men in society
c. have a right to participate in intellectual life and should not merely imitate men
d. refused to open the question of gender definition
46. Describe the theory of natural selection of Darwin and Wallace and its origins. What were its effects on humanity's view of the universe and its place in it? on theories of ethics? on Christianity? How did Darwin's ideas on natural selection become associated with racial arguments and social Darwinism?
47. How and why did Christianity come under attack in the late 19th century? How well did the churches respond? Discuss the policies of Pius IX, Leo XIII and Pius X. During a period of attack upon the church, how do you account for the resilience of the papacy?
48. How had the social conditions of literature changed in the late 19th century? What was the significance of the explosion of literary matter?
49. How do you account for the rise of literary realism? How was it influenced by science? How did the realists determine middle-class morality? How does realism differ from modernism?
50. "I have simply done on living bodies the work of analysis which surgeons perform on corpses." What did Zola mean by this statement? What does it indicate about the methods and assumptions of literary realism? about the influences which had formed the movement?
51. What were the major changes in science's view of the nature of the universe and humanity's place in it between 1850 and 1914?
52. What are the basic teachings of Freudian psychoanalysis? on sexuality? on the unconscious? on aggression? Why was Freud so controversial in his day? What was his view of repression?
53. How do you account for the fear and hostility many late 19th century intellectuals displayed toward women? How did Freud view the position of women? What were some of the social and political issues affecting women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and how did reformers confront them? What new directions did feminism take?