A such minimal training was necessary for orderly political behavior

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1. Politicians supported state-financed education because

a. such minimal training was necessary for orderly political behavior

b. they hoped that education would create a better, more productive labor force

c. they believed that right knowledge would lead to right action

d. all of the above
2. Which of the following was a result of the expansion of literacy in the late 19th century?

a. the substitution of reason for passion in political life

b. a strengthened love of democracy among most literary activists

c. the proliferation of cheap newspapers catering to the new reading public

d. a decline in nationalism
3. The mass audience and the new literary world created what major problem for the literary artist?

a. authors were asked to produce material quickly and thus quality was sacrificed

b. in order not to offend the reading public, publishers demanded harmless and uncontroversial prose

c. people were only marginally literate and therefore good authors had to write on a lower lever

d. none of the above
4. At mid-century, the physical world was regarded as

a. mechanical and dependable

b. objectively known through experimentation

c. rational

d. all of the above
5. Which of the following was written by Charles Darwin?

a. The Origin of Species

b. The Ascent of Man

c. The Descent of Man

d. both a and c
6. Darwin became famous for

a. originating the concept of evolution

b. formulating the principle of natural selection which no one else advocated

c. denying the existence of God

d. none of the above
7. The principle of natural selection implied that

a. only the fittest creatures will survive

b. there was no guiding mind behind the development and change in organic nature

c. the Aryan race was superior

d. both a and b
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8. Although Darwin's evolutionary theory was generally accepted among scientists, his mechanism of natural selection

a. never really received support within the scientific community

b. was accepted only later with the corroborating evidence of modern genetics

c. was seriously flawed

d. both a and c
9. The philosophy that human intellectual development culminates in science is called

a. rationalism

b. empiricism

c. positivism

d. narcissism
10. Auguste Comte is generally regarded as being the father of

a. psychology

b. modern philosophy

c. sociology

d. socialism
11. Auguste Comte believed that

a. positive laws of social behavior could be discovered in the same fashion as laws of physical nature

b. the theological state of man was the most advanced stage

c. physical science could explain nothing without a base of belief in God

d. both b and c
12. The idea that society should let strong men dominate and not protect the weak is most closely associated with

a. Thomas Henry Huxley

b. Herbert Spencer

c. Jules Ferry

d. Otto von Bismarck
13. "Social Darwinism" is a concept

a. which emphasizes the progress of human society through competition

b. which comes close to saying that might makes right

c. which could be used to justify avoidance of aiding the poor and imperialism

d. all of the above
14. The major opponent of the tenets of social Darwinism who himself was a friend of Darwin was

a. Gustave Flaubert

b. Herbert Spencer

c. Thomas Henry Huxley

d. Emile Zola
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15. The scientists of the last half of the 19th century

a. believed that they had discovered all that might be discovered

b. were faced with problems of adapting technology to society

c. were unsure of the veracity of the established laws of science

d. both b and c
16. Regarding religion and the church, the 19th century was

a. a period of great security and acceptance

b. a difficult period of turmoil and attack by secular forces and science

c. a period of cooperation between religious and secular forces, but of decline on a popular level

d. both a and c
17. Protestant and Catholic Churches in the late 19th century

a. made considerable headway on an intellectual level

b. gained membership among the nobility

c. had difficulty making the organizational adjustments necessitated by the influx of people into the cities

d. divided into several more sects, thus weakening the church
18. In the Life of Jesus (1835) by David Friedrich Strauss, he

a. gave scientific evidence to support the existence of Christ

b. advocated the existence of Christ, but without any solid evidence beyond faith

c. denied the existence of Christ and contended that the story was a myth

d. wrote an impressive commentary on the Gospels
19. The main criticism that intellectuals had of Christianity was that

a. its missionary demands were obnoxious

b. it advocated violence and militancy

c. it was an illogical religion which depended too much on faith

d. the moral character of the Old and New Testament God was lacking
20. Nietzsche's main complaint against Christianity was that

a. it glorified sheeplike weakness rather than the strength which life required

b. it had been disproved by modern science

c. it underrated the role of the unconscious in human psychology

d. it stood in the way of a liberal, secular school system
21. The primary conflict between church and state in the late 19th century was over

a. the moral decline of society

b. state control of religious institutions

c. the expanding systems of education

d. religious intolerance of competing faiths which posed legal problems for the state
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22. The Ferry Laws in France

a. eliminated Jews from state-sponsored schools

b. replaced religious instruction in schools with civic training

c. dictated that members of religious orders could no longer teach in public schools

d. both b and c
23. In the Education Act of 1902, the English government decided to solve the problems of school rivalries by

a. granting state support only to public schools

b. granting state support to both religious and nonreligious schools

c. certifying only those schools that were nonreligious or were affiliated with the Anglican church

d. none of the above
24. The most extreme example of Church-State conflict occurred in

a. Britain

b. France

c. Germany

d. Italy
25. Kulturkampf was the term used to signify

a. the struggle between Church and State led by Kaiser William I

b. the suppression of art and music in Germany under Bismarck

c. the opposition to secular education by the Catholic Church

d. none of the above
26. The policy of Kulturkampf was

a. a success for Kaiser William I

b. the greatest blunder of Bismarck's career

c. a victory for the German state over organized Protestant churches

d. a disaster as a plan for patronizing artists
27. Which of the following were indicators that Christianity was still a vital force in the late 19th century?

a. considerable growth of membership in the Anglican Church

b. The successful resistance to Kulturkampf

c. the massive church building program which sought to accommodate the new influx of people into the city

d. both a and b
28. Why did the final great effort to Christianize Europe in the late 19th century fail?

a. because the movement was not well organized or led

b. because the movement was not well funded

c. because the population had outstripped the resources of the churches

d. all of the above
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29. Pope Pius IX became a controversial figure when he issued the

a. Syllabus of Errors

b. Rerum Novarum

c. Against Heresy

d. Science and God
30. The Syllabus of Errors

a. condemned all the major tenets of political liberalism and modern thought

b. excommunicated Nietzsche

c. declared papal infallibility

d. none of the above
31. Which best characterizes the social philosophy of Leo XIII?

a. a condemnation of any interference with laissez-faire capitalism

b. support for socialism as long as it remained Christian

c. opposition to any labor unions

d. desire to reorganize society according to Christian corporate groups
32. Catholic Modernism was

a. a movement of modern biblical criticism within the church

b. a reaction against the doctrine of papal infallibility

c. supported by both Pius IX and Leo XIII

d. both a and c
33. Which marks the point of departure into the contemporary world in intellectual history?

a. World War I

b. World War II

c. 1875-1914

d. 1850-1875
34. Which of the following works was written by George Bernard Shaw?

a. A Doll's House

b. Madame Bovary

c. Man and Superman

d. Nana
35. Realists tended to see humankind as

a. subject to the forces of determinism

b. unable to control their own lives

c. able to change the moral world around them through tenacity and determination

d. both a and b
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36. The Overman was a creation of

a. Henri Bergson

b. Friedrich Nietzsche

c. Max Weber

d. Auguste Comte
37. Which best characterizes Freud's view of repression?

a. mankind should throw off all repression and attain freedom

b. only repression can prevent mental disorder

c. a certain degree of repression is necessary for civilized living

d. none of the above
38. Theodore Herzl

a. launched the Zionist movement to found a separate Jewish state

b. directed his appeal to economically impoverished Jews

c. was influenced by the Dreyfus case

d. all of the above
39. At the turn of the century, European intellectuals were

a. challenging special place of human beings in the universe

b. advocating aggressive nationalism

c. questioning the rationality of the world

d. both a and c
40. By World War I, scientists generally believed that

a. they could portray the "truth" about physical reality

b. energy was a continuous stream

c. they could record the observations of instruments and set forth useful hypothetical or symbolic models of nations

d. the atom was solid and had no interior
41. Modernism was

a. accepting of middle-class society and received morality

b. deeply concerned with social issues

c. concerned with the aesthetic or the beautiful

d. accepting of traditional forms of art, music, or literature
42. Modernism

a. flourished after World War I, nourished by the turmoil and social dislocation that the war had created

b. rose and ended before World War I

c. decried political structure and was anarchistic in its intent

d. both a and c
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43. In Freud's most important book, The Interpretation of Dreams, he argued that

a. unconscious drives and desires contributed to conscious behavior

b. there was no mediation between the id and the ego

c. the content of dreams have no reasonable scientific explanation

d. all of the above
44. Count Arthur de Gobineau argued that

a. dreams have reasonable scientific explanations

b. Western civilization's troubles were the result of the long degeneration of the original white Aryan race

c. the animal nature of humankind was the centerpiece of all racial theory

d. Darwin's theory of natural selection was unethical
45. Virginia Woolf in A Room of One's Own argued that women

a. had to retreat from an aggressive stance toward political and social equality into their own rooms

b. should cherish what made them unique and not compete with men in society

c. have a right to participate in intellectual life and should not merely imitate men

d. refused to open the question of gender definition
46. Describe the theory of natural selection of Darwin and Wallace and its origins. What were its effects on humanity's view of the universe and its place in it? on theories of ethics? on Christianity? How did Darwin's ideas on natural selection become associated with racial arguments and social Darwinism?
47. How and why did Christianity come under attack in the late 19th century? How well did the churches respond? Discuss the policies of Pius IX, Leo XIII and Pius X. During a period of attack upon the church, how do you account for the resilience of the papacy?
48. How had the social conditions of literature changed in the late 19th century? What was the significance of the explosion of literary matter?
49. How do you account for the rise of literary realism? How was it influenced by science? How did the realists determine middle-class morality? How does realism differ from modernism?
50. "I have simply done on living bodies the work of analysis which surgeons perform on corpses." What did Zola mean by this statement? What does it indicate about the methods and assumptions of literary realism? about the influences which had formed the movement?
51. What were the major changes in science's view of the nature of the universe and humanity's place in it between 1850 and 1914?
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52. What are the basic teachings of Freudian psychoanalysis? on sexuality? on the unconscious? on aggression? Why was Freud so controversial in his day? What was his view of repression?
53. How do you account for the fear and hostility many late 19th century intellectuals displayed toward women? How did Freud view the position of women? What were some of the social and political issues affecting women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and how did reformers confront them? What new directions did feminism take?
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1. d

2. c

3. b

4. d

5. d

6. d

7. d

8. b

9. c

10. c

11. a

12. b

13. d

14. c

15. a

16. b

17. c

18. c

19. d

20. a

21. c

22. d

23. b

24. c

25. d

26. b

27. d

28. c

29. a

30. a

31. d

32. a

33. c

34. c

35. d

36. b

37. c

38. d

39. d

40. c

41. c

42. a

43. a

44. b

45. c

46. No answer in TestBank

47. No answer in TestBank

48. No answer in TestBank

49. No answer in TestBank

50. No answer in TestBank

51. No answer in TestBank

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