A series of lessons incorporating literacy strategies for Mt Diablo Unified School District



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Teaching

American History

For All

A series of lessons incorporating literacy strategies for



Mt Diablo Unified School District

5th, 8th, and 11th grade teachers,

in partnership with

University Of California- Berkeley

History-Social Science Project

11th Grade Lesson:

Harlem Renaissance: Marcus Garvey”

Elizabeth Haugen, UCBH-SSP 11th Grade Teacher Leader

Aline Lee, MDUSD 11th Grade Teacher Leader

Donna Leary, UCBHSSP Director

Lauren Weaver, UCBHSSP-MDUSD Grant Coordinator



Teaching American History for All

MDUSD/UCB H-SSP

11th Grade Lesson: “The Harlem Renaissance,” Marcus Garvey
Developed by: Elizabeth Haugen, Aline Lee, Donna Leary, and Lauren Weaver
Grant Focus Question:

How did definitions of citizenship change from the 17th century to the 20th century?


11th Grade Yearlong Focus Question:

How have the powers of the United States federal government expanded or been limited since the Civil War?


Unit Focus Question:

Were the "roaring twenties" prosperous for all?



Unit Working Thesis:

Despite the image of the 1920s as a prosperous era for the United States, it was also a time of

economic deprivation, cultural exclusion, and political repression.
Lesson Focus Question

Why were African Americans attracted to Garvey’s message?


Lesson Writing Prompt:

What was the primary reason many African Americans were attracted to Marcus Garvey and his message?


Lesson Writing Prompt Working Thesis:

While there were many reasons African Americans were attracted to Marcus Garvey’s message,

the most compelling reason was…
Reading Strategy:

Parts 1 & 2: Sentence-Level Deconstruction, pp6-8 (teacher key, pp 9-10)

Part 3: Paragraph Analysis, p11
Writing Strategy:

Part 4: Evidence and Analysis Practice in Writing, p12
Suggested Amount of Time:

1-2 days
Textbook:

Danzer, Gerald et al. The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century. Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell Inc., 2006, pp.452-457


Other Resources:

Visuals of Marcus Garvey, p13

Context of the lesson in the unit:

Marcus Garvey contrasts sharply with other figures from the Harlem Renaissance. By

taking the time to flesh out the reasons for Garvey’s rise in popularity and by showing how

his goal was different from other African Americans aspirations in the era, a better

understanding of the bigger picture will be presented to students.
Teacher Procedure:

  • Students should read CH 13.4 on the Harlem Renaissance prior to the lesson.

Introduction

  • Pass out the CH 13.4 Harlem Renaissance worksheet to elicit student responses to the reading. Conduct a class discussion on the time, writing down student answers on an overhead, board, etc. Marcus Garvey’s name will most likely not arise as students focus on the Harlem Renaissance and bring up names like of Zora Neale Hurston, Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith.

  • Place the picture of Marcus Garvey on the overhead/LCD PowerPoint and ask students what they know about this man. (Color as well as Black and White photo on p.11 of lesson)

  • Introduce today’s topic by detailing the difference between the Harlem Renaissance figures mentioned in the text section and this man, who moved to NYC’s Harlem area to capitalize on the large number of African Americans in the city. {Harlem Renaissance= explosion of culture and art whereas Garvey looked to separate culture and go back to Africa.}


Reading Strategy: Sentence-Level Deconstruction

  • 1)the teacher or students read aloud the 2 paragraph text excerpt, 2)the second time through the reading the students circle verbs and underline the subject. Teacher can model for the first sentence, have shared/ guided practice as a whole class for the rest of the first paragraph and have students work independently or in pairs on the second paragraph before the whole class discusses the work.

  • Teacher gives explicit description of why this reading strategy is important. By slowing the reading down, students can gain more information and make more connections.

  • Explicitly explain the different columns on the Sentence Deconstruction Chart- “time markers/connectors,” “Participants,” “Verb/Verb phrases,” “Message-Who, What Where,” and “Questions/Conclusions.”

  • Teacher models how to complete the chart and explains that any column of information could be missing but that the “Participants” column will tell us information we should pay attention to, so that is the one that will be filled in on the corresponding chart.

  • Part 2: Second text paragraph excerpt can be completed in partners.

  • Teacher then discusses both paragraphs and has students consider the “Questions/Conclusions” column.

  • Part 3: Students work with partners to complete. Class discussion of answers afterwards.


Writing Strategy:

  • Part 4: Brainstorm with students to develop answers for the question for the first question: What reasons for Garvey’s appeal to African Americans were stated or implied in the paragraphs from the text? Could bucket their responses into political, economic, and social categories.

  • Part 4: Teacher introduces last question, discussing how to write a persuasive paragraph, reminding students they must judge from the list of answers they brainstormed and choose one primary reason African Americans were attracted to the message.

    • Teacher may ask students to brainstorm a list of cue words for a persuasive paragraph.


History-Social Science Content Standards:
11.5 Students analyze the major political, social, economic, technological, and cultural developments of the 1920s.

  1. Analyze the international and domestic events, interests, and philosophies that prompted attacks on civil liberties, including the Palmer Raids, Marcus Garvey's "back-to-Africa" movement, the Ku Klux Klan, and immigration quotas and the responses of organizations such as the American Civil Liberties Union, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and the Anti-Defamation League to those attacks.

  1. Describe the Harlem Renaissance and new trends in literature, music, and art, with special attention to the work of writers (e.g., Zora Neale Hurston, Langston Hughes).


Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills:

Chronological and Spatial Thinking


  1. Students analyze how change happens at different rates at different times; understand that some aspects can change while others remain the same; and understand that change is complicated and affects not only technology and politics but also values and beliefs.

Historical Interpretation


  1. Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments.

  1. Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than solely in terms of present-day norms and values.

  2. Students understand the meaning, implication, and impact of historical events and recognize that events could have taken other directions.


Reading/Language Arts Content Standards:

2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials)



Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text
2.4 Make warranted and reasonable assertions about the author's arguments by using elements of the text to defend and clarify interpretations.
1.0 Writing Strategies

Organization and Focus

1.3 Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained, persuasive, and sophisticated way and support them with precise and relevant examples.
2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

2.4 Write historical investigation reports:
a. Use exposition, narration, description, argumentation, or some combination of rhetorical strategies to support the main proposition

Name____________________________




The Harlem Renaissance (chapter 13 sec. 4)
Directions: Answer the following question:
1. What surprised you most in what you read?___________________________

______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
2. What was “the Harlem Renaissance”?______________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

3. What people are associated with the Harlem Renaissance?______________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
4. What caused the Harlem Renaissance?______________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Sentence-Level Deconstruction
Part 1 Directions: Read the following paragraphs and circle the verbs/verb phrases. Read the comprehension question, and write your answer in the space provided, in complete sentences.
Although many African Americans found their voice in the NAACP, they still faced daily threats and discrimination. Marcus Garvey, as immigrant from Jamaica, believed that African Americans should build a separate society. His different, more radical message of black pride aroused the hopes of many.

In 1914, Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association

(UNIA). In 1918, he moved the UNIA to New York City and opened offices in

urban ghettos in order to recruit followers. By the mid-1920s, Garvey claimed he had a million followers. He appealed to African Americans with a combination of spellbinding oratory, mass meetings, parades, and a message of pride.



— The Americans, McDougal Littell (2003) 453.

Comprehension Question: Why were African Americans attracted to Garvey’s message?

Directions: Using the passage above, fill out the participant column. As a class, complete the conclusions/questions column. After class discussion, answer the comprehension question.

Time markers/ connectors

Participant(s)

Verb/verb phrases

Who, What, Where

What conclusion can you draw?

Although



found

their voice in the NAACP,







still


faced

daily threats and discrimination.










believed

that African Americans should build a separate society.








aroused


the hopes of many.








The Americans, McDougal Littell (2003) 453.

Comprehension Question: Why were African Americans attracted to Marcus Garvey’s message?

Part 2 Directions: Using the second paragraph from page 1, fill out the participant column with a partner. Then, complete the conclusions column. Finally, individually answer the comprehension question.

Time markers/ connectors

Participant(s)

Verb/verb phrases

Who, What, Where

What conclusion can you draw?

In 1914



founded


the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA).






In 1918




moved

the UNIA to New York City




and


opened

offices in urban ghettos in order to recruit followers.




By the mid-1920s,




claimed

[that] he had a million followers.








appealed to


African Americans with a combination of spellbinding oratory, mass meetings, parades, and a message of pride.







The Americans, McDougal Littell (2003) 453.

Comprehension Question: How did Garvey attract followers?


TEACHER KEY

Time markers/ connectors

Participant(s)

Verb/verb phrases

Who, What, Where

What conclusion can you draw?

Although

many

African Americans



found

their voice in the NAACP,






they

still

faced


daily threats and discrimination.








Marcus Garvey, an

immigrant from

Jamaica,


believed

that African Americans should build a separate society.






His different, more radical message of black pride



aroused


the hopes of many.








The Americans, McDougal Littell (2003) 453.

Comprehension Question: Why were African Americans attracted to Marcus Garvey’s message?

TEACHER KEY

Time markers/ connectors

Participant(s)

Verb/verb phrases

Who, What, Where

What conclusion can you draw?

In 1914

Garvey

founded


the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA).






In 1918


he

moved

the UNIA to New York City






and


opened

offices in urban ghettos in order to recruit followers.




By the mid-1920s,


Garvey

claimed

[that] he had a million followers.








He

appealed to

African Americans with a combination of spellbinding oratory, mass meetings, parades, and a message of pride.







The Americans, McDougal Littell (2003) 453.

Comprehension Question: How did Garvey attract followers?
Part 3 Directions: The third and final paragraph from Chapter 13 on Marcus Garvey is printed as separate sentences below. With your partner read each sentence and answer the corresponding question. Choose your answer to one of these and

be prepared to explain your answer to the rest of the class.

Garvey also lured followers with practical plans, Why would this attract followers?_______________

especially his programs to promote African-American businesses.

___________________________________________

Further, Garvey encouraged his followers to return to Africa, What was Garvey’s ultimate goal?_______________

help native people throw off white colonial oppressors,

and build a mighty nation. ___________________________________________

His idea struck a chord in many Africa Americans, as well Why was this idea appealing?___________________

as in blacks in the Caribbean and Africa.

___________________________________________

Despite the appeal of Garvey’s movement, support for it Why did support for Garvey decline?_____________

declined in the mid-1920s, when he was convicted of

mail fraud and jailed. ___________________________________________

Although the movement dwindled, Garvey left behind a powerful What was Garvey’s legacy?_____________________

legacy of newly awakened black pride, economic independence,

and reverence for Africa. ____________________________________________


— The Americans, McDougal Littell (2003) 454.

Part 4 Directions: On the lines below, take notes on our class brainstorming to the following question:
What reasons for Garvey’s appeal to African Americans were stated or implied in the paragraphs from the textbook?
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
Finally, write a grammatically correct, persuasive paragraph answering the following question:
What was the primary reason many African Americans were attracted to

Marcus Garvey and his message?
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________




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