A select bibliography: women and gender in the medieval and early modern europe

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*Bonnie Anderson and Judith Zinsser, A History of Their Own: Women in Europe from Prehistory to the Present,Vol. 1, revised edition (Oxford 2000).

*A Select Chronological, Geographical, and Topical Bibliography from Antiquity to the French Revolution, eds. Linda Frey, Marsha Frey, Joanne Schneider (Greenwood, Supplement published in 1986).

*Renate Bridenthal and Claudia Koontz, Becoming Visible: Women in European History (Boston 1977).

*Olwen Hufton, "Women in History: Early Modern Europe," Past and Present 101 (November 1983)

Medieval Feminist Newsletter (also sponsors a listserv, medfem-l@u.washington.edu)

Rubin, Miri. “A Decade of Studying Medieval Women, 1987-1997,” History Workshop Journal 46 (1998): 213-239.

*Schaus, Margaret and Susan Mosher Stuard, "Citizens of No Mean City: Medieval Women's History," in Journal of Women's History 6 (3) Fall 1994, pp. 170-198.

Women in Medieval Times: An Annotated Bibliography (Wiener Publishers 1988).

Yenal, Edith. Christine de Pizan: A Bibliography


*Mary Field Belenky et al, Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind (New York 1986).

Judith Bennett, “Medievalism and Feminism,” Speculum 68 (1993): 309-331.

-----. Medieval Women in Modern Perspective (Women’s and Gender History in Global Perspective, American Historical Association, 2000).

*R. Bridenthal and C. Koontz, Becoming Visible

*Nancy Chodorow, The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender (Berkeley 1978).

----------------. Psychoanalysis and Modern Feminism (1989).

*Natalie Davis and Joan Scott, Women's History as Women's Education (Smith College 1985).

Natalie Davis. "Women's History in Transition: The European Case," Feminist Studies 111, nos. 3-4 (1976).

*Carol Gilligan, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development (Cambridge 1982).

*Joan Kelly, Women, History and Theory: The Essays of Joan Kelly (Chicago 1984).

------------. "The Social Relations of the Sexes: Methodological Implications of Women's History," Signs 1 (1976).

*Gerda Lerner, The Creation of Patriarchy (New York 1986).

Nancy Partner, ed., Studying Medieval Women: Sex, Gender, Feminism (Cambridge: Medieval Academy, 1993).

*Joan Scott, "Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis," American Historical Review 91:5 (December 1986).

Susan Mosher Stuard, Women in Medieval History and Historiography (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987).

Gender and the Politics of History (New York 1988).


Online resources on the World Wide Web containing primary texts: Internet Medieval Sourcebook, Internet Women's History Sourcebook, Internet Early Modern Sourcebook, Labyrinth, Orb

Joseph Baird and R. Ehrman, eds. and trans. The letters of hildegard of bingen. vol. 1. oxford: 1994.

Emilie Zum Brunn and Georgette Epiney-Burgard, eds. Women Mystics in Medieval Europe (New York: Paragon House, 1989).

*Catharine of Siena, The Dialogue of the Seraphic Virgin (trans. A. Thorold) (Westminster 1943).

*Christine de Pisan, Medieval woman's mirror of honor: the treasury of the city of ladies, trans. Charity Cannon Willard

-----. The Book of the City of Ladies, trans. Earl Jeffrey Richards (New York: Persea Books, 1982).

*------------------- Treasure of the City of ladies, or, the book of the three virtues, trans. Sarah Lawson (Penguin 1985).

Christine de Pizan: The book of the body politic ed. and trans. kate langdon forhan (cambridge)

*Peter Dronke, Women Writers of the Middle Ages: A Critical Study of Texts from Perpetua (d203) to Marguerite Porete (d. 1310) (Cambridge: Cambridge, 1984).

Anne Haight, ed. Hrothwitha of Gandersheim: Her Life, Times, and Works, and a Comprehensive Bibliography (New York 1965).

*Hildegard of Bingen, Scivias (trans. Bruce Hozeski)

Hrotsvithae opera, ed. H. Homeyer (Munich 1970).

*Julian of Norwich, Revelations of Divine Love (Viking Penguin)

*Margery Kempe, The Book of Margery Kempe, trans. B. A Windeatt (Penguin 1985)

*Marguerite of Navarre, The Heptameron (trans. P. Chilton) (1984)

Marie de France, Fables (Medieval Academy)

Marie de France, The Lais of Marie de France, trans. Glyn Burgess (Penguin 1999).

*Roswitha of Gandersheim, Plays of Roswitha (1923)

*Medieval Women's Visionary Literature, ed. Elizabeth Petroff (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986). Primary sources on over twenty female religious writers, including Hrothswitha, Margery Kempe, St. Perpetua, St. Clare, and Hildegard of Bingen

Betty Radice, ed., The Letters of Abelard and Heloise (Penguin 1974).

Songs of the Women Troubadors, ed. Matilda T. Bruckner et al (Garland, 1995).

*Gaspara Stampa, Selected poems (Italica Press)

Katharina Wilson, ed. Medieval Women Writers (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1984).

*Women poets of the italian renaissance. ed. Laura Anna Stortoni. (Italica Press)


See the list of online resources listed in the previous section

Leon Battista Alberti, the family in renaissance florence. Waveland.

*Emilie Amt, Women's Lives in Medieval Europe: A Sourcebook (London: Routledge, 1993)

Augherson, Kate. Renaissance Woman: A Sourcebook (The Construction of Feminities in England 1520-1680 (Routledge)

*Roy Cave and H. Coulson, A Source Book for Medieval Economic History (New York: Biblo and Tannen, 1965).

The Danse Macabre of Women, ed. ann tukey harrison (Kent State Press).

*Georges Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life in the Medieval West (Columbia, S. C., 1962, but has appeared in later edition).

*English Historical Documents, various editors, vols. 1-5 (1953-1979)

The danse macabre of women, ed. Ann Tukey Harrison. Kent State Press.

Millet, Bella and Jocelyn Wogan-Browne, editors. Medieval English Prose for Women. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

Thiébaux, Marcelle, ed. The Writings of Medieval Women (New York: Garland, 1994).


*Carol Adams et al, From Workshop to warfare: the lives of medieval women

Prudence Allen, The Concept of Woman (Montreal: Eden Press, 1985).

*Philippe Aries, Centuries of Childhood (New York 1965).

*Clarissa Atkinson, The oldest vocation: Christian Motherhood in the Middle Ages (Ithaca: Cornell, 1991).

-----. “’Precious Balsam in a Fragile Glass’: The Ideology of Virginity in the Later Middle Ages,” Journal of Family History 8 (1983): 131-143.

Derek Baker, ed. Medieval Women (Oxford 1978).

*John Baldwin, The language of sex (Chicago).

*Anne Barstow. Joan of Arc: Heretic, Mystic, Shaman (1986)

*Bayard, Tania, ed. and trans. A Medieval Home Companion: Housekeeping in the Fourteenth Century (HarperCollins).

Beer, Frances. Women and Mystical Experience in the Middle Ages.

Rudolf Bell, Holy anorexia. (Chicago, 1985)

*Bennett, Judith. Ale, Beer, and Brewsters in England: Women's Work in a Changing World, 1300-1600 (Oxford 1996).

*-----. Singlewomen in the European Past, 1250-1800 (Pennsylvania, 1999).

-----. Women in the Medieval English Countryside: Gender and Household in Brigstock Before the Plague (New York: Oxford, 1987).

*Bitel, Lisa. Land of Women: Tales of Sex and Gender from Early Ireland (Cornell, 1996)

*R. Howard Bloch, Medieval Misogyny and the Invention of Western Romantic Love (Chicago 1991)

*Brenda Bolton, “Mulieres Sanctae,” in Women in Medieval Society, ed. Susan Stuard, 141-158.

*Bornstein, Daniel, and Rusconi, Robert. Women and Religion in Medieval and Renaissance Italy (Chicago)

*Diane Bornstein, “Courtly Love,” in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed. Joseph Strayer, volume 3 (New York: Scribner, 1983): 667-674.

Constance Brittain Bouchard, Strong of Body, Brave and Noble: Chivalry and Society in Medieval France (Ithaca: Cornell, 1998).

Alain Boureau, The Lord’s First Night: The Myth of the Droit de Cuissage, trans. Lydia Cochrane (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998).

Bridenthal, Renate and Susan Stuard, Becoming Visible: Women in European History, 3rd edition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1998)

Jean Brink and Alison Coudert, M. Horowitz, eds, The Politics of Gender in Early Modern Europe (Kirksville, Mo. 1989).

Christopher Brooke, The medieval idea of marriage (Oxford 1989)

*Matilda Tomaryn Bruckner, “Fictions of the Female Voice: The Women Troubadors,” Speculum 67 (1992): 865-891.

*James Brundage, Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987)

*Bullough, Vern and James Brundage, eds. Handbook of Medieval Sexuality (New York: Garland, 1996).

John Butler, "Witchcraft, Healing, and Historians' Crazes," review essay, Journal of Social History 18 (1) (Fall 1984)

*Carolyn Bynum, *Jesus as Mother: Studies in the Spirituality of the High Middle Ages (Berkeley 1982).

*------------ *Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women (Berkeley 1987)

*------------ Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion (New York: Zone Books, 1991).

------------- The resurrection of the body in western christianity (New York: Columbia: 1994)

*Joan Cadden. Meanings of sex differences in the middle ages: medicine, science, and culture (Cambridge 1993).

Stanley Chojnacki, Women and Men in Renaissance Venice (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 2000).

*Jeffrey Cohen and Bonnie Wheeler, eds., Becoming Male in the Middle Ages (New York: Garland, 1997).

Alice Clark, Working Life of Women in the Seventeenth Century (New York 1968)

*Clark, Ann. Elisabeth of Schonau (Penn).

Elizabeth Clark, “Devil’s Gateway and Brides of Christ: Women in the Early Christian World,” in Ascetic Piety and Women’s Faith (Lewiston, New York: E. Mellen, 1986): 23-60.

*Gillian Clark, Women in Late Antiquity (Oxford 1993)

*Stuart Clark, "Inversion, Misrule, and the Meaning of Witchcraft, Past and Present 87 (May 1980).

*Cohn, Samuel K. Women of the Streets (Johns Hopkins 1996)

*Louise Collis, Memoirs of a Medieval Woman: The Life and Times of Margery Kempe (New York 1964).

Allison Coudert, "The Myth of the Improved Status of Protestant Women: The Case of the Witchcraze," in The Politics of Gender (see above).

Davidson, Audrey-Ekdahl, ed. The Ordo virtutum of Hildegard of Bingen: Critical Studies (Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Pubs, Western Michigan University, 1992).

*Natalie Zemon Davis, The Return of Martin Guerre (Cambridge 1983)

*--------------------. "Women on Top," Society and Culture in Early Modern France (Stanford, 1975).

*Davis, Natalie Zemon and Arlette Farge, ed, A history of women in the West, vol III: Renaissance and Enlightenment Paradoxes (Cambridge: Harvard)

*Arlyn Diamond and Lee Edwards, eds. The Authority of Experience: Essays in Feminist Criticism (Boston 1988). Includes essay on Chaucer.

*Heath Dillard, Daughters of the Reconquest: Women in Castilian Town Society, 1100-1300 (Cambridge: Cambridge, 1984).

*Peter Dronke. Women Writers of the Middle Ages (Cambridge 1984).

*Georges Duby, Medieval Marriage. Two Models from Twelfth Century France (trans.E. Foster) (Baltimore 1981).

*Sharon Elkins, Holy women of twelfth century England (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1988).

*Dyan Elliott, Fallen Bodies: Pollution, Sexuality, and Demonology in the Middle Ages (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998).

*-----. Spiritual marriage: sexual abstinence in medieval wedlock (Princeton 1993).

*Edith Ennen, The Medieval Woman, trans. E. Jephcott (Oxford: Blackwell, 1989).

*Mary Erler and Maryanne Kowaleski, eds., Women and Power in the Middle Ages (Athens: University of Georgia, 1988).

*Sharon Farmer, “Persuasive Voices: Clerical Images of Medieval Wives,” Speculum 61 (1986): 517-543.

*Marjorie Ferguson, M. Quilligan, N. Vickers, eds., Rewriting the Renaissance: The Discourses of Sexual Difference in Early Modern Europe (Chicago 1984)

*Moira Ferguson, ed. First Feminists: British Women Writers 1578-1799 (Bloomington 1985).

*Joan Ferrante, To the Glory of Her Sex: Women’s Roles in the Composition of Medieval Texts (Bloomington 1997).

*Laurie Finke and Martin Schichtman, eds. Medieval Texts and Contemporary Readers (Ithaca 1987).

Special section on women and gender in French History in French Historical Studies 16 (1) (Spring 1989)

*Frances and Joseph Gies, A Medieval Family: The Pastons of Fifteenth Century England (New York: HarperCollins 1998).

*-----. Women in the Middle Ages (New York: Harper and Row, 1978).

E. Gilson. Heloise and Abelard. Michigan.

*Carlo Ginzburg, The Night Battles: Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults (Baltimore 1983).

*Penny Gold, The Lady and the Virgin: Image, Attitude, and Experience in Twelfth Century France (Chicago 1985).

*P. J. P. Goldberg. Women, work, and life cycle in a medieval economy (Oxford 1992)

*Jack Goody, The Development of the Family and Marriage in Europe (Cambridge 1983).

Jack Goody, Joan Thirsk, E. P. Thompson, Family and Inheritance: Rural Society in Western Europe, 1200-1800 (Cambridge)

Monica Green, “Women’s Medical Practice and Health Care in Medieval Europe,” in Sister and Workers, ed. Bennet et al, 39-78.

Jeffrey Hamburger, Nuns as Artists: The Visual Culture of a Medieval Convent (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

*Barbara Hanawalt, ed. Women and Work in Preindustrial Europe (Bloomington 1986).

*Harvey, Barbara. Living and Dying in England, 1100-1540 (Oxford 1993).

*David Herlihy, *Medieval Households (Cambridge 1986).

*-------------- Opera Muliebria: Women and Work in Medieval Europe (Houghton Mifflin 1989)

*-------------- *Tuscans and Their Families (New Haven 1985)--co-authored with Christiane Klapisch-Zuber.

------------ *"Land, Family, and Women in Continental Europe, 701-1200," Traditio 18 (1962): 89-120.

------------ Women, Family, and Society in Medieval Europe: Historical Essays, 1978-1991 (Providence and Oxford: Berghahn, 1995).

Stephanie Hollis. Anglosaxon women and the church. Boydell.

Julia Bolton Holloway and Constance Wright, eds. Equally in God's Image: Women in the Middle Ages (NY: Peter Lang, 1990).

Amy Hollywood, The Soul as Virgin wife: Mechtild of Magdeburg, Marguerite Porete, and Meister Eckhardt (Notre Dame 1995).

Margaret Howell, Eleanor of Provence: Queenship in Thirteenth Century England (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998).

*Martha Howell. The Marriage Exchange: Property, Social Place, and Gender in Cities of the Low Countries, 1300-1550 (Chicago 1998).

*-----. Women, Production, and Patriarchy in Late Medieval Cities (Chicago 1986).

C. Stephen Jaeger, Ennobling Love (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999).

Jewell, Helen. Women in Medieval England (Manchester 1996).

Jenny Jochens, Women in Old Norse Society (Cornell 1995)

*Penelope Johnson. Equal in the Monastic Profession: Religious Women in Medieval France (Chicago 1991).

William Chester Jordan. Women and credit in pre-industrial and developing societies

Marion Kaplan, ed. The Marriage Bargain: Women and Dowries in European History (Binghamton 1985)

*Karras, Ruth Mazo. Common Women: Prostitution and Sexuality in Medieval England (Oxford 1996).

*Ruth Kelso, The Doctrine of the Lady

Margaret King and A. Rabil, Her Immaculate Hand: Selected Works by and about the Women Humanists of Quattrocento Italy (Binghamton 1983)

*Julius Kirshner and Susanne Wemple, Women of the Medieval World (Basil Blackwell 1988).

*Christiane Klapisch-Zuber, Women, Family, and Ritual in Renaissance Italy (trans. L. Cochrane) (Chicago 1985)

*-----. A History of Women in the West, 2: Silences of the Middle Ages. (Cambridge: Harvard, 1992).

Maryanne Kowaleski, “Singlewomen in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: The Demographic Perspective,” in Singlewomen in the European Past, 1250-1800, ed. Judith Bennett and Any Froide (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998): 38-81.

Margaret Wade Labarge, A Small Sound of the Trumpet: Women in Medieval Life (Boston: Beacon Press, 1986).

*Lees, Clare, ed. Medieval Masculinities (Minnesota 1994).

Brian Levack, The Witch-Hunt in Early Modern Europe (Longman 1987).

*Carol Levin and J. Watson, Ambiguous Realities: Women in the Middle Ages and Renaissance (Wayne State 1987)

*Laiou, Angeliki, ed. Consent and Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies (Harvard 1994).

*Leyser, Henrietta. Medieval Women: A Society History of Women in England 450-1500 (St. Martin's, 1998).

*Carolyn Lougee, Le Paradis des Femmes: Women, Salons, and Social Stratification in Seventeenth Century France (Princeton 1976).

*Mavis Mate, Daughters, Wives, and Widows after the Black Death: Women in Sussex, 1350-1535 (Boydell 1998).

-----Women in English Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

June Hall McCash, “The Cultural Patronage of Medieval Women: An Overview,” in The Cultural Patronage of Medieval Women, ed. J. McCash (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996): 1-49.

*McNamara, Jo Ann. Sisters in Arms: Catholic Nuns Through Two Millenia (Harvard 1996).

*-----. “The Herrenfrage: The Restructuring of the Gender System, 1050-1150,” in Medieval Masculinities, ed. Clare Lees (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994): 3-29.

Marion Meade, Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Biography (New York: Penguin, 1977).

Meale, Carol. Women and Literature in Britain, 1150-1500 (Cambridge).

*Linda Mitchell, ed., Women in Medieval Western European Culture (New York: Garland, 1999).

*A. Molho. Marriage alliance in late medieval florence. (Cambridge: Harvard, 1994).

*E. W. Monter, Witchcraft in France and Switzerland (Ithaca 1976).

Rosemary T. Morewedge, ed., The Role of Women in the Middle Ages (Albany 1975).

Kathleen Morris, Sorceress or Witch? The Image of Gender in Medieval Iceland and Northern Europe (University Press 1991). 29.50

*Muir, Ruggiero and Edward Muir, Sex and Gender in Historical Perspective (Johns Hopkins 1990).

*John Hine Mundy, Men and Women at Toulouse in the Age of the Cathars (Toronto 1990).

Jacqueline Murray, ed., Conflicted Identities and Multiple Masculinities: Men in the Medieval West (New York: Garland, 1999).

*Newman, Barbara. From Virile Woman to WomanChrist: Studies in Medieval Religion and Literature (Philadelphia: University of Penn. Press, 1995).

*-----. “Authority, Authenticity, and the Repression of Heloise,” Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 22 (1992): 121-157. Reprinted in From Virile Woman.

*-----. “Possessed by the Spirit: Devout Women, Demoniacs, and the Apostolic Life in the Thirteenth Century,” Speculum 73 (1998): 733-770.

*O'Faolain, Julia and Lauro Martines, eds., Not in God's Image: Women in History from the Greeks to the Victorians (New York 1973).

*Susan Moeller Okin, Women in Western Political Thought (Princeton 1979).

Lydia Otis, Prostitution in Medieval Society: The History of An Urban Institution in Languedoc (Chicago 1985).

*Ozment, Steven. The Burgermeister's Daughter (Harper 1996)

*Partner, Nancy F., ed. "Studying Medieval Women: Sex, Gender, Feminism," Speculum 68 (2) April 1993 (later published as a separate volume by the Medieval Academy).

Paterson, Linda. World of the Troubadors (Cambridge 1993).

Payer. Pierre. The bridling of desire: views of sex in the later middle ages Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1993.

*Pitkin, Hanna Fenichel. Fortune is a Woman: Gender and Politics in the Thought of Niccolo Machiavelli (Berkeley 1984)

*Eileen Power, Medieval Women (New York 1985).

Regine Pernoud and Marie-Veronique Clin, Joan of Arc: Her Story (New York: St. Martin’s, 1998).

*Elizabeth Petroff. Medieval Women's Visionary Literature (New York 1986).

*Mary Prior, ed, Women in English Society, 1500-1800 (New York 1985).

*Ranft, Patricia. Women and Religious Life in Premodern Europe (St. Martin's 1996)

*Riddle, John M. Contraception and abortion from the ancient world to the renaissance (Harvard).

*Rocke, Michael. Forbidden Friendships: Homosexuality and Male Culture in Renaissance Florence (Oxford 1996).

*Mary Beth Rose, ed., Women in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance: Literary and Historical Perspectives (Syracuse 1986).

*Joel Rosenthal, Medieval Women and the sources of medieval history (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1990).

*Rosemary Ruether and Eleanor McLaughlin, eds, Women of the Spirit: Female Leadership in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (New York 1979)

Jane Tibbetts Schulenburg, Forgetful of Their Sex: Female Sanctity, ca. 500-1100 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998).

Shulamith Shahar, The Fourth Estate: A History of Women in the Middle Ages (London: Methuen, 1983).

Sheehan, Michael. Marriage, Family, and Law in Medieval Europe: Collected Studies, ed. James Farge (Toronto 1996).

Walter Simons, Cities of Ladies: Beguine Communities in the Medieval Low Countries, 1200-1565 (Philadelphia: University of Penn., 2001).

Pauline Stafford, Queen Emma and Queen Edith: Queenship and Women’s Power in Eleventh Century England (Oxford: Blackwell, 1997).

Doris Mary Stenton, The English Woman in History (New York 1977).

*Lawrence Stone, The Family, Sex, and Marriage, 1500-1800 (New York 1979).

*Susan Mosher Stuard, “The Dominion of Gender or How Women Fared in the High Middle Ages,” in Becoming Visible, 3rd edition: 129-150.

*-----. Women in Medieval Society (Phil: Univ. of Pa. Press, 1976).

Thompson, Sally. Women Religious: The Founding of English Nunneries after the Norman Conquest.

*Hugh Trevor-Roper, The European Witch-craze of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries and Other Essays.

Elisabeth van Houts, Memory and Gender in Medieval Europe, 900-1200 (London: Macmillan, 1999).

*Venarde, Bruce. Women's Monasteries and Medieval Society: Nunneries in France and England, 890-1215 (Ithaca: Cornell, 1997).

*D. P. Walker, Unclean Spirits: Possession and Exorcism in France and England in the Late 16th and Early 17th Centuries (Philadelphia 1981).

Sue Sheridan Walker,ed. Wife and Widow in Medieval England (Michigan).

Jennifer Ward, English noblewomen in the later middle ages. Longman. 1992.

*Warner, Marina. Joan of Arc: The Image of Female Heroism (1981)

*Retha Warnicke, Women in the English Renaissance and Reformation (Westport, Ct. 1983)

Wiethaus, Ulrike, ed. Maps of flesh and light: religious experience of medieval women mystics syracuse 1993.

*Suzanne Wemple, Women in Frankish Society. Marriage and the Cloister, 500-900 (Philadelphia 1981).

* Wiesner, Merry. Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: 1994).


Dobson, Barrie. “The Role of Jewish Women in Medieval England,” in Christianity and Judaism, ed. Diana Wood (Oxford: Blackwell, 1992): 145-168.

Garland, Lynda. Byzantine Empresses: Women and Power in Byzantium, AD 527-1204 (New York: Routledge, 1999).

Hambly, Gavin, ed. Women in the Medieval Islamic World (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998).

Laiou, Angeliki. “Women in Byzantine Society,” in Women in Medieval Western Euorpean Culture, ed. Linda Mitchell (New York: Garland, 1999): 81-94.

Mirrer, Louise. Women, Jews, and Muslims in the Texts of Reconquest Castile (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996).

Stow, Kenneth, “The Jewish Family in the Rhineland in the High Middle Ages: Form and Function,” American Historical Review 92 (1987): 1085-1110.

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