A. P. World History Unit 1 Review

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Key concepts:

  1. Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange

  2. New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production

  3. State Consolidation and Imperial expansion

Important items

  • Maritime equipment- astrolabe, maps, caravels

  • New foods, Potatoes, maize, manioc, sugar, tobacco, okra, rice

  • New animals, horses, pigs, cattle

  • New religion with blends, vodun in Caribbean, cults of the saints in latin America, Sikhism in south asia

  • Changes in the arts, renaissance in Europe, miniature painting in Middle east and south Asia, wood block prints in Japan, post-conquest codices in Mesoamerica

  • Authors, Shakespeare, Cervantes, sundiata, journey to the west, kabuki

  • Peasant labor, frontier settlement in Russia, cotton textile production in India and China

  • Forced labor, chattel slavery, indentured servitude, encomienda and hacienda, Spanish adaptiaon of the inca mit’a

  • New rich and powerful, Manchus in china, Creole in Spanish America, European gentry, urban enterpreneurs

  • Existing rich and powerful, zamindars in Mughal empire, nobility in Europe and Daimyo in Japan

  • Family dynamics, changes in family in Africa due to slave trade, on European men on southeast Asian women and smaller families in general

  • New terms for racial blends, mestizo, mulatto, creole

  • Political and religious ideals, divine right, Shiism, human sacrifice, public performance of Confucian rituals

  • Religious non tolerence, ottoman treatment of non muslim, Manchu policies toward chinese, Spanish separate republica de Indios

  • Political and military elites, devshirme, chinese examination system, salaried samurai

  • Competition for trade routes, omani vs. european over indian ocean area, piracy in Caribbean

  • State rivalry, thirty years war, ottoman/safavid

  • Local resistance/rebellion, food riots, samurai revolts, peasant uprisings

Chapter 23 exploration and enounters

Explore for what?

  • Motives for exploration

  • Portugal- resource poor, looked for resources in atlantic, sugar plantations,

  • Wanted direct trade without muslim with India

  • Technology enabled travel, magnetic compass, astrolabe, knowledge of trade winds and monsoon

  • Two types of sails, triangular and square

  • Explorers-Prince henry-started, dias got to cape of Africa, gama got to india

  • Columbus took western approach to india

  • Magellan- went around world

  • Cook-south pacific


  • European trading post- 50 trading post between west Africa and east asia

  • Alboquerque-portugese commander in Indian ocean, seized hormuz for merchants to buy passes to sail through area, control grew weak due to small size and lack of $ and resources

  • English and dutch set up trading post, England, in india, sailed faster and cheaper and more powerful ships

  • Form joint stock companies, private enterprises

  • Europe tries to conquer asia- spain takes phillipines, dutch take java,

  • Seven years war, England and Prussia vs. fance , Austria and Russia

  • Britian won

Culture Exchange

  • Columbian exchange

  • Biological-plants, foods, animals, humans, disease

  • Small pox, measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, influenza

  • Wheat, horses, sheep, goats, chickens came to America

  • Maize, potatoes, beans, tomatoes, peppers, peanuts went to the world

  • Africans to America,

Ch 24 Europe changes

Religious change

Protestant reformation

  • Martin luther-attacked the sale of indulgences( buy forgiveness)

  • 99 thesis all things that church is doing wrong

  • printing press got his message out

  • spread to Germany, princes

  • John Calvin, set up community

  • Catholic reforms in response, council of trent

  • Society of Jesus, Jesuits by Ignatius Loyola, high standards in education

  • Witch hunts- isolated women, worshipped the devil

  • Wars between protestants and catholics, 30 year war


  • Consolidation of states into modern countries Charles V wanted to reestablish the holy roman empire, unable to unify

  • England, france, spain, set up states and tax to build wealth and establish political standings

  • Absolute monarchy, divine right no rights for middle class

  • constitutional monarchy, limited power for king, middle class has more say or power

  • example- Sun king Louis XIV, economic development-roads, canals, industry

  • peace of Westphalia-established sovereign states, no religion unity, not too much power in the hands in one gov’t

  • military development, arms race


  • population growth-food, immunity to disease

  • urbanization, cities development

  • supply and demand, individuals seek wealth more than gov’t

  • joint stock companies

  • putting out system- rural labor

  • change in class, more poor become wealthy

  • profits and ethics- religion says bad, adam smith says good

  • creates or enables stealing, mugging, and need for police

  • family changed, becomes smaller, nuclear,


  • view of the universe

  • Ptloemaic- earth centered

  • Copernican-sun centered

  • Galileo, sun spots, moons on Jupiter

  • Kepler-planets on elliptical

  • Newton- gravity

  • Enlightenment- locke, smith- capitalism, Montesquieu-political liberty, Voltaire individual freedom

  • Deism-god but jesus not super human

  • Reason over religion

Chapter 25 new worlds

Curiosity and conquest

  • Indigenous people, taino

  • Columbus took advantage of their ignorance

  • Encomienda-land grants for Spanish with control of taino

  • Conquistators: cortes-aztec with only 450 men, help from smaller tribes that did not like Aztec rulers, disease

  • Pizarro-inca,

  • Conlony

  • Mexico and peru centers for spain

  • Brazil for Portugal

  • European, treated the natives like they had no say

  • Took land and controlled them in terms of labor to advance their economic situation

Colonial society

  • Multicultural society

  • Mestizo European and native children

  • Mulattoes, zambo

  • Mining was main source of $-silver >gold

  • Led to silver spreading all over the world

  • Hacienda- large estate- came from encomienda, which came from repartimiento, free labor

  • Brazil, sugar plantation or ehgenho need slaves to work

  • Fur in north America

  • Settlers to north America

  • Crops made $- tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton

  • Indentured labor first, slaves replace

  • Missionaries convert natives and slaves, virgin of Guadalupe

Europe in pacific

  • Dutch in Australia, no spice, farmland

  • England, captain cook set up as prision

Chapter 26 africa

Political and social

  • Songhai-sunni ali, emperor, army and navy, Islamic, fall to morracan army

  • Kongo- convert to christianity to be cool with Portugal, wanted slaves kongo said no king lost head

  • Swahili- de gama Portugal take over

  • Ndongo (angola)- queen nzinga resisted slave traders

  • South Africa, portugese then dutch, conflict with natives

  • Islam and Christianity – Islam west Africa and Swahili city states, Timbuktu, Fulani strict observation of islamic law

  • Christianity reached sub sahara Africa through portugese

  • Food: manioc, maize, peanuts,

Slave trade

  • Slave trade already existed, wars, criminals, worked on farms or soldiers, could earn freedom

  • Islamic slave trade: women and children shipped to middle east

  • Start with portugese 1441

  • Triangular trade, euro goods for African slaves, sugar, American goods in Europe

African diaspora

  • Slaves for cash crops: sugar, tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton,coffee

  • Plantations: lots of slave few whites, lots of resistance, revolts

  • Language: lots of African languages, blends, creole

Chapter 27 china


Ming dynasty

  • Drove mongols out of china

  • Rebuilt great wall

  • Restored cultural traditions and civil service exams

  • Decline-trade disrupted by pirates

  • Gov’t corruption

  • Famine, led to peasant rebellion

  • Manchu invaders

Qing dynasty

  • From Manchuria

  • Pastoral nomads

  • Kangxi-confucian scholar

  • Qianlong-peaceful, sophisticated

  • Emperor considered son of heaven, priviledged life

  • Gov’t was controlled by civil servants

  • Civil service exam

Economic/ social changes

  • Male dominated-patriarchal

  • Garden style farm led to population growth

  • Made lots of silk, got silver in return

  • Limit contact with foreigners

  • Technologies were viewed as dangerous

Confucian values

  • Used to support dynasties

  • Hanlin academy top school for students who wanted to be ready for civil service exam

  • Ricci brought Christianity back, learned man, learned oral and written chinese, science and math

  • Won few converts


  • Tokugawa-set up military gov’t bakufu

  • Controlled daimyo- lord of region, had to live with tokugawa for alternate years

  • Isolation with outsiders

  • Economic-farming led to pop growth, slow infanticide

  • Accepted neo Confucianism, floating worlds

Chapter 28 Islamic empires

Different empires

  • Ottoman-founded by Osman bey, took byzantine empire with ghazi, Mehmed-change Constantinople to Istanbul, absolute monarch, suleyman, took Syria and Egypt, and into asia

  • Safavid- Turkish from Persia and Mesopotamia, shah ismail-proclaimed to be 12ver shiism, followers ( qizibash- red hats), traced origins to Shiite imams, thought to be 12th or hidden imam or Allah incarnate

  • Mughal- babur founder in India, akbar, Aurangzeb

Imperial society

  • All military created

  • Succession problems, could kill realitives

  • Women had great influence on politics

  • Food base of empires

  • Wheat and rice main crops, import coffee and tobacco

  • Populaton growth in all three less than others

  • Trade important to all

  • Decline: bad leaders, not attentive

  • Ottoman reisten innovation like telescope and printing press

  • Safavid had religions bias

  • Mughal was against hindu and they rebelled

  • Wars cost $

  • Did not develop trades

  • Imported western weapons

Unit 5 1750-1900






Key Concepts:

  1. Industrialization and Global Capitalism

  2. Imperialism and Nation-State Formation

  3. Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform

  4. Global Migration

Important topics:

  • Specialized production of, cotton, rubber, palm oil, sugar, wheat, meat, guano, metals and minerals

  • As industrial societies grew, agricultural decline, India, textile production

  • Production caused producing countries to find new customer countries to purchase goods, Britian and France want to open China up for trade

  • Mining demand grew, centers for popped up, copper in mexico, gold and diamond in South Africa

  • To fund capitalism financial institutions were formed, stock markets, Insurance, gold standard, Limited Liability corporations

  • Multinational business form which operate in multiple companies, United Fruit Company, HSBC( Hong Kong and Shanghai banking Corporation)

  • Opposition to capitalism, Utopian socialism, Marxism, Anarchism

  • State sponsored Industrialization: Meiji Japan, Russia, China, Egypt

  • Gov’t try to pacify workers by giving state pensions, sufferage and public education to maintain system

  • Imperialism: Control was exerted by Imperialist on lesser nation, Britian over India, Dutch over Indonesia

  • European nations that had colonies/empires: Britian, Dutch, French, German, Russian

  • Colonies in Africa, britian in west Africa, Belgium in congo

  • Set up settlers to be on the ground in colonies, Britian-Africa, Australia and New Zealand, French-Algeria

  • Economic Imperialism-where the use of $ manipulation is used to control lesser countries: Britian and France over China, Britian and U.S. over Latin America

  • Anti imperialism movement caused the ottoman empire to shrink, semi independence in Egypt

  • New states emerge: Cherokee nation, Siam, Hawai’i , Zulu

  • Nationalism: German, Filipino, Liberian

  • Philosophers challenge how we think: Voltaire, Rousseau

  • Enlightenment thinkers, locke, Montesquieu

  • Challenges to power in Imperialist states: Marathas and the Mughal sultans

  • Slave resistance, Maroon societies

  • Anti colonial movements: Indian revolt 1857, boxer rebellion, Taiping, Ghost dance, Xhosa cattle killing movement

  • Reforms due to revolts: Tanzimat movement, Self strengthening movement

  • Women’s rights: Wollstonecraft- “Vindication of the rights of women”, Gouges- “Declaration of the rights of women and the female citizen”, Seneca falls conference 1848

  • Individuals moved seeking more $, manual laborers, specialized professionals

  • Seasonal workers who came and left: Japanese in pacific, Lebanese in America, Italians in argentina

  • Immigrants form groups to support each other when coming into new countries

  • Laws set up to protect existing citizens from immigrants in terms of jobs

Chapter 29 Revolutions and the world

Absolute monarchy vs rights of man

  • Divine right made by kings

  • Enlightenment challenged that thought, locke-authority comes from the consent of the people

  • Demands for freedom: worship, expression, political

  • Rousseau:social contract

American revolution:

  • Britian and American colony, over $ pay for seven yr war, brit raise tax, America protest, boston tea party

  • Declare independence, war, help from European countries, france

  • Constitution, gave free press, speech, religion, legal rights for property owning men

French revolution

  • Had no $, ½ going to debt

  • Called Estates general to ask for taxes

  • First and second did not want to pay wanted third to

  • National assembly formed, demand new constitution, took bastille, declaration of the rights of man and citizen,

  • Abolished feudal system, took land from church

  • Becomes constitutional monarchy

  • Prussia and Austrian tries to reinstate king

  • Jacobins take over, Robespierre kills a lot of people

  • Napoleon-military leader, brought stability to france, peace with church, equality for all men, attacked spain, Italy, netherland, failed Russia

  • Ganged up on beat by british

The spread of revolution

  • Haitian revolution

  • French colony

  • Sugar $ crop

  • French revolution spread to Haiti, led by Toussaint Louverture, French come back with napoleon tried to recapture failed, yellow fever

  • Mexico independence based on france invasion of spain

  • Hidalgo led rebellion

  • Bolivar led rebellion in South American

  • Prince Pedro takes over brazil

  • Ideologies: conservative-no change, liberal- lots of change

Creation of nation states

  • Ethinic groups want nation of their own

  • Greek over came ottoman

  • Rebellions in france, spain, Portugal, german state

  • Unification of Italy and Germany-van bismark

Chapter 30 Industrial revolution

Foundation of Industry

  • Coal, burns hotter

  • Raw material needed

  • Demand for cotton, grain, timber, beef from U.S.

  • Steam engine-Watt

  • Iron and steel, coke, purified coal replaced charcoal, Bessemer converter made cheaper stronger steel

  • Led to transportation, trains, ships


  • Replaced putting out system

  • No skill, wage earners, fast paced

  • Strikes

  • Britian had monopoly of industrial knowledge

  • Forbade migration out of country

  • Got rid of guilds

  • Cheaper goods, higher quality

  • Mass produce goods, guns, cars

  • Large scale corporations

  • Vertical/horizontal


  • Population growth, raised standard of living, better diet

  • Moved to city

  • Moved to different countries

  • New class of people: captain of industry, middle class, working class

  • Work and family life different

  • Men more important, sole providers

  • Women role went down, home, kids

  • Workers all worked

  • Socialist challenge: utopian, marx, communist manifesto

Global effects

  • Spread to U.S. to Russia, japan

  • Demand and dependency on other countries for goods

Chapter 31 america and independence


  • After revolution, expand west

  • Purchase Louisiana from france

  • Manifest destiny- right to land

  • Conflict with natives, move off land for whites

  • Mexican American war, texas

  • Treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo, bought texas, California, new mexico

  • North vs. South, cotton=slave vs. industrial complex=labor, north did not want slavery in new states

  • Lincoln elected, 11 southern states leave, war, north wins, blacks get freedom

  • Latin America

  • Creole took over no experience running gov’t

  • White minority dominated, peasant poor majority with not power

  • Conflict between ranchers and farmers


  • European immigrants to U.S., Asian too

  • Latin American moved to farms, Asians to cuba and carribean sugar fields

  • British $ help U.S. expand, textile, iron and steel and railroads

  • Rails connected different economies in U.S., set time xones

  • New inventions, electric, telephones

  • Canada, same as U.S. used British $ for investment and built rails

  • Latin American dependence-colonial set up stayed agricultural, spain and Portugal did not encourage industry, creole stayed with farms, limited success with industrialization, mostly owned by outsiders

  • $ crops, silver, beef, bananas, coffee


  • multicultural - dawes act-natives to farm, blacks no rights, women no rights, migrants low pay, do not speak English

  • Canada-large minority, blacks free not =, chinese worked on railroad

  • Northwest rebellion-louis riel, led, lost executed for treason

  • Latin America, organized by color or ethnicity

  • Gaucho-argentine cowboys, treated = mostly mixed race

Chapter 32 society at crossroads

Ottoman empire in decline

  • Military- behind in strategy, weapons and training, janissary corrupt, start having private armies, lost land to Russia, Austria, and Germany

  • Economic-less trade, Europe shifted to atlantic trade, heavily dependent on loans, capitulations (compromises) owed $ to Europe so gave control of taxes to them in exchange for trade, you can tax me but I can not tax you

  • Reform-mahmud 2 tried to change society make it look more European, janissary resist were killed allowed him to change army, school, roads, telegraphs, schools called tanzimat (reorganization era), religious did not like changes, young people wanted more changes and rights


  • Crimean War- with ottoman, seeking warm water port to Mediterranean, lost made the Russian start to industrialize, freed serfs but no political rights, did not increase food production, witte system was to help industrialize Russia fast, railroad construction, banks to protect industry, hard on workers, gov’t outlawed unions, peasants rebell, put down, anti gov’t protest

  • Ruso-japan war over land and access to land in asia and sea, bloody Sunday, people mad they lost war, peasants take over, czar forced to accept concession, duma ( congress)


  • Opium war- china did not want outsiders in china (cohong) had lots to give but wanted little from Europe

  • Opium got china addicted made it easier for Europe to get into china

  • China told britian to stop but did not war broke out britan won, forced unequal trade

  • Food shortage, rebellion started, taiping ( started by hong Xiuquan) wanted mongols out of china

  • Reforms- self strengthing movement- blend of chinese and European traditions, built shipyards, railroads, weapons, steel, school

  • Outside forces limited chinese political power

  • 100 day reforms, two Confucian scholars, did not work

  • boxer rebellion, attacked foreigners and chinese Christians lost to European and japan

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